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Full text of "The Survey October 1916-March 1917"

154. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/surveyoctmar1917surv 



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THE SURVEY 



Vol. XXXVII 
October, 19 16 — March, 1917 



WITH INDEX 



New York 
SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 

112 East 19 street 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, I 



NC. 



NATIONAL COUNCIL 

ROBERT W. DE FOREST, Chairman 



JANE ADDAMS Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL.... Washington 

RICHARD C. CABOT Boston 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE New York 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK Boston 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND Boulder 

SAMUEL S. FELS Philadelphia 

LEE K. FRANKEL New York 

JOHN M. GLENN New York 

C. M. GOETHE Sacramento 

WILLIAM E. HARMON New York 

WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego 
FRANK TUCKER, Treas New York 



MORRIS KNOWLES Pittsburgh 

ALBERT D. LASKER Chicago 

JOSEPH LEE Boston 

JULIAN W. MACK Chicago 

V. EVERIT MACY New York 

CHARLES D. NORTON New York 

SIMON N. PATTEN Philadelphia 

JULIUS ROSENWALD Chicago 

NATHAN A. SMYTH New York 

GRAHAM TAYLOR Chicago 

ELIOT WADSWORTH Washington 

LILLIAN D. WALD New York 

ALFRED T. WHITE Brooklyn 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Sec. .New York 



THE STAFF 

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor 
ASSOCIATE EDITORS 






EDWARD T. DEVINE GRAHAM TAYLOR 

JANE ADDAMS 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

BERNARD FLEXNER 
HENRY W. THURSTON 

PHILIP JACOBS 

ALEXANDER JOHNSON 

FLORENCE KELLEY 

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY 

JOHN IHLDER 

PORTER R. LEE 

SHELBY M. HARRISON 

ALICE HAMILTON 

KATE HOLLADAY CLAGHORN 

I. M. RUBINOW 



HEADQUARTERS STAFF 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG 

GRAHAM R. TAYLOR* 

JOHN A. FITCH 

DAVID C. DAVIS 

WINTHROP D. LANE 

MARY CHAMBERLAIN 

GERTRUDE SEYMOUR 

FLORENCE L. LATTIMORE 

BRUNO LASKER 

ELWOOD STREET 

RUTH T. PICKERING 



*On leave of absence attached to the American Kmbassy, Petrograd. 



A JOURNAL of SOCIAL EXPLORATION 



Index 



volume xxxvii 
October, 1916— March, 1917 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a 
few cases under titles, except poems and book reviews, which are listed only 
under those headings. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under 
their subjects. The precise wording of titles has not been retained where ab- 
breviation or paraphrase has seemed more desirable. 



Abbott, Edith, 150, 296, 434. 
Abbott, Grace, 214. 
Abel, Mary H. ( 330. 

Accidents, blindness from. II. See also Indus- 
trial accidents. 
Accounting, 422. 
Adams, Cyrus B., 37. 
Adamson, Wm. C, 201. 
Adamson law, 414. 430, 737. 

Supreme Court upholds, 722. 
Addams, Jane, 73. 

Disturbing conventions, 1. 
Adler, Felix, 762. 
Advertising. 

Anti-alcohol (letter), 587. 

Election, 171. 

For friends, 493. 

Montreal in wartime, 741, 743. 

Survey, 73. 
Advice, 493. 
Alabama. 

School tax amendment, 20G. 

Schools, 318. 
Alaska Eskimo, 494. 
Alberta. See Calgary. 
Alcohol, 150. 

Anti-alcohol advertising, 587. 

College men and (Hunt), 139. 

Drugs, vs., 48. 

Letter on "Turning off the Spigot", 587, 702, 

Saloon at home, 288. 

Silhouettes, 418, 419. 

States prohibiting, 645. 

Turning off the spigot, 417, 482, 541, 599, 651. 
Alden, Percy. 

National stress, 23. 
Alexander, Magnus W., 203, 295, 495 
Aliens. See Immigrants ; Immigration. 
Allen, Clifford 637. 
Allen, Wm. H., Uncle Sam, surveyor (letter), 

616. 
Allinson. May, 733. 
Allison, Van Kleeck, 60, 206. 
Almshouses. 

Illinois children, 147. 

Westchester county, N. Y., 101. 
Almy, Frederic, cover of Jan. 13 issue. 

Buffalo charities, 370. 

Letter on Lackawanna Steel Co., 179. 

Letter on silhouettes, 500. 

Letter on The Survey, 616. 

Wanted — a name (letter on National Con- 
ference), 701. 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 376, 435. 
America. See United States. 
American Association for Labor Legislation, 

422, 632, 634, 635, 761. 
American Association of Small Loan Brokers, 

173. 
American Bankers' Association, 30, 73, 83. 
American Civic Association : twelfth annual 

convention, 444. 
American Economic Association, 422. 
American Federation of Labor, 707. 

Answer to formation of National Industrial 
Conference Board, 2o4. 

Convention at Baltimore (Fitch), 219. 

Japanese trade unionism, 202. 

On settling disputes, 201. 
American Hospital Association, convention, 52. 
American Institute of Social Service : reor- 
ganization into four bureaus, 580. 
American Library Association, 367. 
American Neutral Conference Committee, 453. 
American Peace Society : meeting of Feb. 22- 

23, 612. 
American Prison Association, 71. 
American Public Health Association, 442. 

Convention (Cincinnati) discussion, 135, 149. 
American Red Cross Magazine, 181. 
American School Peace League, 182. 
American Sociological Society, 422. 
American Statistical Association, 422. 
American Union Against Militarism, 171. 492. 

Hensley clause, 308. 
Americanization. 

Milwaukee social centers, 298. 

Schools and, 723. 

See also National Americanization Committee. 
Ames, Sir Herbert, 678. 742-745. 
Ames, Thaddeus H. I low cold water brought 

Christmas, 323. 
Amusements, commission on, Newburgh, 588. 
Amusements for Convalescent Children (pain.), 

443. 
Andalusian sketch, 15-19. 

Anderson, Mary. Woman's itureau (letter), 441. 
Andrews, John B., 137. 
Anthony, Katharine. Tteview of Maternity ; 

Letters from Working Women, 343. 



Appalachians, 627. 
Appeals (letter), 73. 317. 
Arbitration. 

Capital and labor on, 201. 

Compulsion in Australia ana Canada, 254. 

Compulsory (Weinstock), 758. 

Industrial disputes, 754-759. 

Towne, H. R., on, 757. 
Architectural Review, 595. 
Arizona, 317. 

Prison film, 279. 

Welfare exhibit (letter), 345. 
Armed neutrality. See Neutrality. 
Armed Neutrality League, 535. 
Armenian and Syrian relief, 56, 70. 
Armenian poems, 317. 
Armenians, relief work for, 119. 
Army, U. S. 

For peace (letter), 344. 

Reorganization, 444. 

Trade training in, 278-279. 

Y. M. C. A. on the Mexican border, 205. 
Arndt, Charles, 56. 
Arnold, Victor, 204. 
Arnold Toynbee House, 148. 
Asher detective agency^ 145. 
Association of Urban Universities, conference, 

210. 
Atkinson, C. J. Unprivileged boys, 360. 
Atlanta University, 288. 
Axtell, Frances C, 443. 



Babies. See Foundlings. 

Babies' sore eyes. See Blindness. 

Baker, Judge H. H., memorial foundation for, 

374. 
Baker, Newton D. National ideals, 187. 
Balch, Emily Greene. 

Bird's-eye view of war hooks by groups, 91. 

In the balance (war prospect), 5G5. 
Baldwin, Esther E. War relief and the Amer- 
ican contributor, 63. 
Baldwin, Dr. E. R., 172. 
Baldwin, Francis H., 471. 
Baldwin, Roger N. 

Missouri Children's Code, 356. 

Review of Reed's Forms and Functions of 
v American Government, 616. 
Ballighata playground, 113-115. 
Ballot. See Short ballot; Voting. 
Baltimore housing commission, 283. 
Bankers. See American Bankers' Association. 
Banks : immigrants and private banks, 38. 
Banks, Chas. E., 42. 
Banning, Mrs. M. C, 411. 
Barclay, Lome W., 473. 
Barkin, Samuel, [533]. 
Barkley, John W., 35. 
Barr, Wm. H., 204. 
Baseball, 19. 

Basket-ball, Calcutta, 115. 
Bayonne explosion, 61. 
Beavis, H. S., 637. 
Beer, 421, 599. 

Kaiser and (cartoon), 655. 
Beers, Francis. Morning prayer (verse), 29. 

Beet fields. 

November, 203. 

October, Colorado, 39. 
Belgium. 

Deportations (B. Lasker), 486. 

Hoover's return to N. Y., 490. 

Relief handicaps, 549. 

Relief work and deportation, 338. 

War relief, 69. 
Bell, Clive, 637. 
Belloc, Hilaire, 158. 
Bellville, Ohio, 72P. 
Bennett, E. H., 705. 

Berg, Harold O. Staying after school, 298. 
Berger, Mary I., 618. 
Bergson, Henri, 187. 
Berko's Illustrated Netvs, 643. 
Berry, Gordon L., 41. 
Bieknell, Ernest P. 

Battlefield of Poland, 231. 

Begging bread for Poland. :',9S 402. 

Doctors courageous (Serbia), 6-14. 

Portrait in group, 11. 

Portrait with von Hindenburg and others, 
231. 

Red Cross and Red Crescent, 118. 

Red Cross progress, 365. 
Biggs, Hermann M., 164, 436. 
Billboards : United States Supreme Court de- 
cision, 584. 
Billings, Dr. Wm. C, 456. 
Binet test, 123, 427. 
Birks, W. M., 743. 



Birmingham, Ala. : prohibition, 73. 
Blrney, Helen T. Home and school, 368. 
Birth control. 
Allison case, 266. 
Fawcett, J. W., letter on, 501. 
Letters on Knopf's article, and reply, 345. 
Medical and other aspects (address by S. A. 

Knopf), 161-165. 
News of a day (clipping), 555. 
Pittsburgh movement, 347. 
Spreading movement, 60. 

Trials of Mrs. Byrne and Mrs. Sanger, 555. 
Birth Control News, 618. 
Birth Control Review, 60, 618. 
Birthright (verse). 5. 
Blaisdell, Dr. J. H., 176. 
Blake, Dr. J. A., 732-733. 
Blindness. 

Accidents, industrial, 41. 
Children, 41. 

Colorado, poultry-raisers, 59. 
Illinois report, 340. 
Lighthouse for blinded soldiers, 43. 
Meeting of National Committee for Preven- 
tion of, 284. 
Missouri, 443. 

National Committee for the Prevention of, 41. 
Blossom, Frederick A., 60. 
Blount, Anna E. 

Prison or surgery (letter), i>00. 
Board of Protocol Standards, 704. 
Boll weevil, 695. 
"Bone dry", 645. 

Cartoon, 653. 
Book reviews. 

Agricultural Economics (Nourse), 499. 
America and the Orient (Gulick), 614. 
American Civilization and the Negro (Ro- 
man), 282. 
American Labor Year Book, 208. 
American School, The (Hinchman), 281. 
Boycott in American Trade Unions (Wolman), 

72. 
Breathe and Be Well (Howard), 178. 
Care of the Mouth and Teeth (Kaufmann), 

673. 
Charles E. Hughes (Ransom), 54. 
Christian, The, According to Paul (Faris), 

586. 
Chrisiianopolis (Held), 580. 
Church Enchained, The (Goodwin), 439. 
Cities in Evolution (Geddes), 468. 
City Planning (Nolen), 468. 
Comment Reconstruire Nos Cites Detruites, 

152. 
Community Hygiene (Hutchinson), 467. 
Comparative Free Qovernment (Macy and 

Gannaway), 154. 
Contemporary Politics in the Far East (Horn- 
beck), 699. 
Content with Flies (Findlater), 53. 
Cost of Living (Franklin), 685. 
Cost of Living, The (Clark), 585. 
Course in Citizenship, A (Cabot), 615. 
Culture and War (Patten), 439. 
Diet for Children (Hogan), 178. 
Diseases of Occupation and Vocational Hy- 
giene (Kober and Harrison), 467. 
Education and Social Progress (Morgan), 437. 
Elements of Physiology and Sanitation (Rett- 

ger), 53. 
English Public Health Administration (Ban- 

niugton), 53. 
Epidemics Resulting from Wars (Prinzing), 

557. 
Fifty Million Strong (Antrim), 154. 
Fifty Years of Association Work Among 

Young Womer (Wilson), 209. 
Fight for Food, The (Congdon), 53. 
Forks of the Road, The (Gladden), 673. 
Forms and Functions of American Qovern- 
ment (Reed), 616. 
Fundamentals of Sociology (Kirkpatrick), 556. 
Gateway to China, The (Gamewell), 614. 
German Republic, The (Wellman), 342. 
History of the Working Classes in France 

(Wergeland), 34. 
Home Care of Consumptives (French), 178. 
In Slums and Society (Adderley), 615. 
Industrial Conditions in Springfield, III. 

(Odencrantz and Potter). 341. 
Institutional Care of the Insane in the 

United States and Canada (Hurd), 177. 
Institutional Care of the Insane in the 
United States and Canada, Vol. Ill, (Hurd), 
497. 
Japanese Conquest of American Opinion, The 

(Flowers), 699. 
Jeioish Disabilities in the Balkan States 

(Kohler and Wolf), 438. 
Joseph Fels : His Life Work (Mary Fels), 154. 



IV 



Index 



Keep-Well Stories for Little Folks (Jones), 

700. 
Laboratory Manual of Foods and Cookery, A 

(Mattesou and Newlands), 342. 
Leavening the Levant (Greene), 614. 
Life and Times of Cavour, Vols. 1 and II 

(Thayer), 700. 
Manual of Fire Prevention and Fire Protec- 
tion (Eichel), 177. 
Marketing Perishable Farm Products (Adams) 

585. 
Maternity; Letters from Working-Women, 

343. 
Moral Sanitation (Groves), 342. 
Mortality from Cancer Throughout the World 

(Hoffman), 178. 
Mothcrcruft Manual, The (Kead), 072. 
Nationalizing America (Steiner), 343. 
New ldeuls in Business (Tarbell), 498. 
Next Step in Democracy, The (Sellars), 673. 
Nursing Problems and Obligations U'arsons), 

179. 
One Hundred Cartoons (Cesare), 209. 
Operation of the Initiative, Referendum, and 

Recall in Oregon (Barnett), 153. 
Our Eastern Question (Minard), 699. 
Patriotism and the Fellowship of Nations 

(Starwell), 673. 
Point Scale for Measuring Menial Abilili), A . 

(Yerkes), 672. 
Political and Social History, (A), of Modern 

Europe (Hayes), 499. 
Politics (Vols. I and II) (Treitschke), 315. 
Portland Survey, The (Cubberley), 281. 
Poverty and Social Progress (1'armelee), 71. 
Present-day China (Harding), 614. 
Prevention of Disease, The (Winslow), 586. 
Preventive Medicine and Hygiene (Kosenau), 

468. 
Psychology of the Unconscious (Jung), 497. 
Public Health Nursing (Gardner), 557. 
Races and immigrants (11 books), 313. 
Reaching the Children (Krebs), 2U9. 
Religion of Experience, The (Bridges), 314. 
Restoration of Europe, The ttf'ried), 208. 
Russian Sociology (Hecker), 556. 
Scandinavian Immigrants in New York 

(Evjen), 71. 
School and Society, The (Dewey), 282. 
Sex-Education (Bigelow), 437. 
Sex Problems of Man in Health and Disease 

(Scbolts), 53. 
Side-stepping III Health (Bowers), 178. 
Single Tax Movement, The, in the United 

States (Young), 153. 
Slavery in Germanic Society During the Mid- 
dle Ages (Wergeland), 341. 
Slavery of Prostitution, The (Miner), 154. 
Social Principles of Jesus, The (Rauschen- 

busch), 586. 
Social Study, A, of the Russian German 

(Williams), 699. 
"Socialism" of New Zealand, The (Hutchin- 
son), 673. 
Socialists and the War, The (Walling), 673. 
Society and Prisons (Osborne), 280. 
Society, Its Origin and Development (Rowe), 

315. 
Sociology (Gillette), 557. 
Some Problems in City School Administration 

(Strayer). 281. 
Some Problems in Market Distribution 

(Shaw), 585. 
Source, Chemistry and Use of Food Prod- 
ucts (Bailey), 54. 
South American Neighbors (Stuntz), 5)S0. 
South Today, The (Moore), 586. 
Standards of Health Insurance (Ruhinow), 

467. 
State Socialism After the War (Hughes), 344. 
Syrian Christ, The (Rihbany), 586. 
Tales of the Labrador (Grenfell), 701. 
Their True Faith and Allegiance, 439. 
Thrift (Hall), 585. 

Tuberculosis Dispensary Method and Pro- 
cedure (Crowell), 586. 
Tyranny of Shams, The (McCabe), 073. 
Vocational Psychology (Hollinyuorth)' ,280. 
War and the Soul, 'The (Campbell), 673. 
War books (bird's eye view by groups), 91. 
War Bread (Hunt), 469. 
War, Peace and the Future (Key), 4G9. 
Washington, 15. T„ two books on, 438. 
Welfare Work (Proud), 671. 
What is Education? (Moore), 615. 
With the Turks in Palestine (Aaronsohn). 

700. 
Woman, A, and the War (Countess of War- 
wick), 700. 
Worn Doorstep, The (Sherwood), 700. 
Your Boy and His Training (Butler), 343. 
Books for the public, 367. 
Booth, Charles, 260. 

Appreciation (with portrait), 267. 
"Booze", 288. 
Bordeaux, 43. 
Boston. 

Allison case and birth control, 266. 

Birth control, 60. 

Liquor licenses, election, 347. 

Pre-election advertisements, 413. 

Psychopathic services In the courts, 582. 

Rats, 609. 

School Committee and high cost of living, 

731. 
South End House, twenty-five years of, 567. 
Boston Dispensary skin clinic, 176. 
Boutroux. Einile, 470. 
Bowers, Paul M.. 71. 
Boy Scouts, 731. 
China, 175. 
Education Department, 472. 



Professorship in scouting, 703. 
Boycott, 72. 
Boyd, Frederick, 461. 
Boylan law, 169. 
Boys. 

Delinquent, Chicago, 57. 

Mind of 122. 
Boys' Clubs, task for 1917, 360. 
Bracken, II. M„ Review of books on health, 

178. 
Brackett, Jeffrey R. New name wanted (let- 
ter), 316. 
Bradley, Luther D. (cartoon by), 448. 
Brady, Peter, 495. 
Breadline (ill.), 269. 
Breckinridge, S. P. Letter on public health 

nursing, 285. 
Breweries, 599. 
Brickner, Walter M. Ignatius Phelan at the 

hospital, 108. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Munition makers, women, 379-385. 

On the rebound. 49. 

Protecting women munition makers, 665. 
Brockway, Teodor, 637. 
Brooklyn factory fire conviction, [533J. 
Brown, Dorothy K. The shorter work day, 388. 
Brown, E. J. Arizona Welfare Exhibit (letter), 

345. 
Brown, Herbert A. 107. 
Brown, H. Runham, 637. 
Brown, Rowe G., 517. 
Brunner, Edmund deS. Community vision and 

a country hotel, 85. 
Bruno, F. J. Letter on the Kent bill, 702. 
Brunsvvick-Balke-Collender Co., 725. 
Bryan, Wm. J., 550. 

Cartoon, 600, 601. 
Bryce. Viscount, 134. 
Buck, Wm. M., 733. 
Budget, national, 275. 
Buenos Aires : second American Child Welfare 

Congress, 222. 
Buffalo. 

Charities, 370. 

Lackawanna Steel Co., 131. 
Bugbear, the American, 39i. 
Bulgaria, 121. 

Bumstead, Josephine F. Letter on Mrs. Til- 
ton's articles, 587. 
Burleigh, Louise. Letter on Lane's article on 

Osborne. 285. 
Burns, "Dan" M., 40. 
Burton, Bella, 608. 
Buxton, Chas. B., 430. 
Byers, Joseph P., 500. 

Crime and prisons, 362. 
Byrne, Ethel, 555. 



Cabot, Hugh. Review of Bigeiow's Sex-Educa- 

tion, 437. 
Cabot. R. C, 47, 52, 296, 516. 

Letter on Lane's article on Osborne, 280. 
Calcutta, playground. Lee Memorial, 112. 
Caldwell, Otis Yv'., 490. 

Calgary, proportional representation for, 406. 
California. 

Conference on City Planning, 151. 

County jails. 434. 

Health insurance, 375, 631. 

Mexicans and, 625. 

State Capital Planning Commission, 495. 

Tuberculosis Conference, 589. 
California Safety News, 617. 
Camps. 

British interment, 89. 

Municipal, 42. 
Canada. 

"Dry" territory, 416. 

Families of soldiers overseas. 709-715. 

Patriotic Fund and women of Montreal (with 
portraits), G77-OS4, To5, 709 715, 739-745. 

Prohibition (letter), 501. 
Canadian city in war time. See Canada. 
Canadian industrial disputes investigation act, 

746-759, 764-705. 
Cancer. 

Control, 362. 

Crocker Fund, 337 

Diet and, 472. 

Statistics. 178. 
Cannan, Gilbert. 637, 
Canneries bill, 605. 
Cape, Emily P., 471. 
Capital. 

Arbitration and. 201. 

Labor unites with, in protest against health 
insurance, 495. 
Capital punishment, 588. 

Bills in various states, 670. 

Washington, 732. 
Carranza, Gen., 449. 

Cartel', Elizabeth. The Shadow (verset. B57. 
Carter, H. C, 637. 
Carter, James M., 37, 198 
Cartoons, book of, 209. 
Cartridge making, 382. 
Carver, Geo. W., 590. 
Carver, T. U. Review of Nourse's Agricultural 

Economics, 499. 
Carvings, Swedish, 302. 
Casa del Obrero Mundial, 237. 
Case histories, medical (last), 20. 
Catherton, Allison G., 443. 
Caiholic charities, National conference, 52. 

Program. 359. 
Catholic Charities Review, 347, 502. 
Cave, Rhodes E., 42. 



Central Relief Committee, 443. 
Chamber of Commerce, 633. 

National Council meeting, 201. 
Chamberlain, Joseph P. Legislative drafting 

and reference bureaus, 386, 500. 
Chamberlain, Mary. From the four winds 

to Fourteenth St. (war), 514. 
Chambers, Edgar, 703. 
Chandler, Stephen A., 333. 
Chapin, Dr. C. V., 166, 456. 
Charities. 

Bulletin of New York City. 501. 
Catholic, 52, 359. 
Detroit building. 663. 
Illinois conference, 150. 
Jewish federation, 336. 
Maryland conference, 283. 
Charity. 

Advice rather than relief, 493. 
Cleveland Federation, 79. 
Psychology, 45. 
State and (letter), 470. 
Strong's report reviewed (Lane), 194. 
Charity (photo-drama), 34, 38, 179. 
Charity Organization Society advertisement, 

493. 
Charity workers, 138. 
Chicago. 

Central Council of Social Agencies, 40. 

Civic-Religious Bureau. 40. 

Committee of Fifteen and abatement law, 

173. 
Conference oh hours for women workers, 95. 
Delinquent boys' school, 57. 
Dunes for playground, 263. 
Election results, 172. 
Industrial School for Girls, 609. 
Juvenile Court testimonial, 204. 
Police administration, 402. 
School of Civics and Nursing, 285. 
Schools, 340. 
Tag-days, 214. 

Unemployment aftermath, 584. 
Unified government for, 593. 
Venereal diseases, 703. 
Chicago University school of medicine, 175. 
Child care,. 52. 

Child hygiene, New York Bureau, 318. 
Child labor. 

"Beeters" and suffrage (letter), 284. 
Beyond the reach of the federal law, 390- 

397. 
Bibliography, 213. 
Enforcing the federal law, 644. 
I ederal law, 703. 
federal law. error corrected. 55. 
Federal law and schooling, 311. 
National Committee and Baltimore, 762-763. 
New York law, change, 554, 
Pamphlets on, 472. 
Progress in, 364. 
See also Clopper, Edw. N. 
Child welfare. 

Exhibits by mail, 300. 
Iowa conference, 211. 

Second American Congress at Buenos Aires, 
222. 
Children. 

Almshouse, Illinois, 147. 
Diet, book on, 178. 
Florida, 728. 

Juvenile Court classification, Seattle, f04. 
Legislation protecting, 666. 
Missouri code, 356. 

Missouri code legislation and posters. 553. 
Missouri code partly enacted, 760. 
National Tuberculosis Society, c2v 
New York City schools, 425. 
Two poems on, 5. 
See also Infant mortality. 
Children's bureau, 316, (letter). 
Children's Bureau. 

Increased appropriation, 52S. 
Starving, 332. 
Children's gardens: training for teachers, i31. 
Children's Health Crusade Day, cover of Dec. 

9 issue. 
China. 

Books on, 614. 
Boy Scouts, 175. 
Drugs, 87. 

Medical renaissance. 403-40S. 
Public health, quick pace in, 175. 
Cholera : federal examinations, 318. 
Christ Child Society, 336. 
Christmas. 

Close early shops, 317. 
Community tree, 285. 
Community tree, verse, 835. 
How cold water brought, 323. 
Lepers', 411. 
Mailins. 502. 
Seals, 207, 376. 
Shop early card, 57. 
Christmas boxes for soldiers. Red CrOSS, 288 
Church and state and subsidies, 009. 
Church federation, 727. 
Churches. 

Concord among, 439. 
Peace messages to Europe, 491. 
Protestant, cooperative unity. 114. 
Social work, 365. 
Chute, Chas. I-.. 462. 

Probation. 307. 
Cigarettes, Kansas and, 494. 
Cincinnati. 

Housing In 1S.69 (letter), :>:>». 
Kitchen sanitation, 466. 
Prostitutes and tuberculosis, 516. 
Social Unit Organization. 288 
Siu-iui Servioe Rovfao. 501, 
Vocational guidance. 122. 



Index 



Cities. • 

France, 152. 
Land reclamation, 434. 
Municipal week at Springfield, 264. 
Citizen's calendar, 339. 
Citizens' Handbook, 588. 
Citizens' Welfare Association, 205. 
Citizenship. 

Schools and, 270. 
"Voters' daze", 594. 
City clubs, warning to. 527. 
City officials, training, 210. 
City planning, 370. 

California conference, 151. 

Elgin, 111., 705. 

Hopewell, Va„ 226. 

Sacramento, 495. 
Civic preparedness, 359. 
Civic-Religious Bureau, Chicago, 40. 
Civics. 

Community, 270, 272. 

Dynamic, 270. 

Springfield municipal week, 264. 

Texas schools, 174. 

University help in civic awakening (Col- 
orado), 39. 
Civil Liberties Group, 333. 
Civilization, American, 126. 
Claghorn, Kate H. Review of 11 books on 

races and immigrants, 313. 
Clark, Victor S., 752. 
Clarke, E. A. S., 38. 
Clarke, Florence. Review of Grenfell's Tales 

of the Labrador, 701. 
Clarke, Walter. Personalities and controversies 

in The Sdrvey (letter), 285. 
Clayton act, labor testing, 146. 
Cleland, Alex. The time 10 deal with va- 
grancy, 268. 
Cleveland. 

Birth control, 60. 

Burning up disease, 176. 

Commission government, 34i. 

Community centers, 35. 

Federation for Charity and Philanthropy, 79. 

Foundation, 375. 

Motion pictures, 318. 

Public school girls, 213. 

Recreational survey, 375. 

Resolutions of Board of Education, 723. 

School superintendent, 734. 

School survey, final volumes, 561. 

Telephone canvass, 310. 

Welfare Federation, 276. 

Welfare Federation, reports, 618. 

Woman's City Club, 181. 
Cleveland Associated Charities, 212. 
Cliff-dweller, sketch of, 15-19. 
Clinic, life's, 20. 
Clopper, Edward N. 

Child labor, 364. 

For all the children of America, 222. 

November in the beet fields, 203. 

October in the beet fields, 39. 
Clothing, psychology, 45. 
Clothing trades. See Garment workers. 
Coal, price of, 297. 
Coale, James J., 133. 
Cock-fighting, 19. 
Coercion, 422. 
Coffee, Rudolph I. Letter on The Survey's 

war position, 675. 
Coffin, H. E., 691. 
Cohen, Julius H., 256. 

Resignation letter, 345. 
tole, G. D. H., 637. 
Coleman, J. C. Letter on Thi Survey's war 

position, 676. 
College of the City of New York, 424, 528. 
College Settlement Week, 288. 
Colleges. 

Alcohol question In (Hunt), 159. 

Conference of Association of Urban Uni- 
versities, 210. 

Pacifists, 612. 
Collier, John. Review of Jung's Psychology of 

the Unconscious, 497. 
Colorado. 

Beet fields, October, 39. 

Bureau of Common Welfare, 39. 

New laws proposed, 554. 

University and civic spirit, 39. 
Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind. 59. 
Columbus, N. M., 621. 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Associated Charities, 502. 

Poolrooms, 42. 
Colyer, W. T., on fire prevention, 77. 
Commission for Relief In Belgium, 69. 
Commons. John R. 

Canadian disputes act, 754. 

When wise men disagree, 422. 
Community centers. 

Bills in various states, 668. 

Cleveland, 35. 

Spread of, 607. 
Community Chorus, 347. 
Community Christmas tree, 285. 
Community civics, 270, 272. 
Community Efficiency Conference, 589. 
Community health. Flee Public health. 
Community Players, Boston. 472. 
Community surveys. 

Belleville, Ohio, 726. 

Six characteristics, 506 507. 
Community vision : country hotel and barn, 85. 
Compensation. See Workmen's compensation. 
Compulsory arbitration. See Arbitration. 
Compulsorv investigation in Canada. 746. 755. 
Conciliation In Canadian act, 746, 748. 757. 
Condit, Abble. Play and recreation, 369. 
Coney Island health exhlbK, correction, 73. 



Congress, U. S. 

Efficiency plans, 274. 

Labor Issues, 309. 

Power in case of strikes, 737. 

Social legislation for, 249. 
Connecticut. 

Bills for a women's reformatory, 581. 

New Haven jail, 611. 

Protecting munition workers. 665. 
Conscientious objectors to war, 252. 

Hannah, T. C. on, 636. 
Conscription, 492. 
Constitution, U. S. 

On constitutionality, 492. 

Peace and, 491. 
Constitutional amendments proposed, (State), 

128. 
Consumers' League. 

National, annual meeting. 283. 

New York City annual report, 608. 

Rhode Island, 182. 

Shop early card, 57. 

Waitresses, 174. 

Waitress' plea, 608. 
Conventions, disturbing social, 1. 
Convict labor, 611. 
Convicts in Wyoming. 36. 
Cook County. See Chicago. 
Cooperation. 

Chicago delinquent boys, 57. 

Garment trades, 277. 

Protestant churches, 414. 
Cooperative stores. 

Illinois miners, 145. 

Ontario Calif.. 182. 
Corpus Christi, Tex., 86. 
Cost of living. 

Boston School Committee, 731-732. 

Cartoon. 128. 

Cartoons and notes on, 245. 

Charitable relief and. 201. 

Covernment employes. 443. 

Government intervention, 246. 

Investigation. 181. 

New York and federal action on high prices, 
661. 

Salaried men (cartoon), 275. 

War and hicrh prices (3 cartoons), 661. 
Council of National Defense, 691. 
Countrv funeral. 331. 
Conntrv hotel. 85. 
Country life. 154. 
Countv almshouse, 101. 
County hoards in nunllc welfare, 42. 
Courts, nsvehonathic ^orvieos in. 582. 
Conrtshln In Spain, 19. 
Crane. Caroline R. Review of Cabot's A Course 

in Citizenship. 615. 
Creech. Wm.. 629, 629. 
Crocker Fund. 337. 
Crosbv Oscar T. 491. 
CVowell T. F., 606. 633. 
C.illon. 411. 

Cunnlncbnm. H. S. Giving (letter), 317. 
Curtis. Wm. G., 6.-S2. 



D 

Dahnev. Ellen Loiter on The Survey's war 

position. 676. 
"Dallv Bread," 496. 
Dallas Texas. 

Municipal farm. 317. 

School of civics. 174. 
Danbury hatters' case. 146. 
Daniels, Amv L. Review of Ilogan's Dirt for 

Children, 178. 
Dante (cartoon). 643. 
Ti n vies, Dr. L. A.. 181 

Davies, Marv C. The Singer (verse), 489. 
Tlaris. Anne' S.. 340. 
Tlavis, ,T. Lionberpor. 502. 
Davis, Mavor (of Cleveland). 176. 
Davis. M. M., Jr.. 137. 

Review of Crowell's Tuhrrrvlosis Dispensary 
D'rihorl and Procedure, ■ r > (5 6. 
T>av. Justice. 738. 
Day Before Ynv Die. 703. 
Heacon. J. Bvron. 618 
Deaf and blind ponltrvmen. 59. 
T>oan. Arthur D.. 733 
Dnardorff. Neva R. Dntanaling Pennsylvania's 

hospitals. 597. 
Tteath Penalty. See Capital punishment. 
Defense. See Council of National Defense ; Pre- 
paredness. 
r>egnon Terminal Co.. 213. 
De Leon, Solon. Letter on The Survey's war 

position, 674. 
nelinqnencv in Detroit, 703 704. 
DeLong. Ethel. The far side of Pine Moun- 
tain, 627. 
Democracy, 154. 

Labor's Ideals, 707. 

Lincoln Day message from Lloyd George, 564. 
Dependent children : Board recommended. 196. 
Derrick. Calvin M„ 726. 

Resignation, 429. 
Detroit. 

Cooperation of social worker*, i.'.l 

Srhool board, 703. 

School delinquents, 703-704. 

United Charities building, 663. 
Devine Edw. T. 

Conference on social insurance, 295. 

Letter correcting statement (vol. 36, p. 615) 
as to private institutions, 55. 

Letter on home rule in the South. 440. 

Ourselves and Europe, 99, 157, 217 (Home 
rule), 321. 



Review of Hughes's State Socialism After 
the War, 344. 

Review of Miner's The Slavery of Prosti- 
tution, 154. 

Review of Patten's Culture and War and of 
Ohlinger's Their True Faith and Alle- 
giance. 439. 

Review of Treltschke's Politics, 315. 

Review of Wellman's The uerman Republic, 
342 
Diamond, Mrs. E. S., [533]. 
Diet : police squad experiment, 607. 
Dietetics, 329. 

Disarmament: Hensley clause, 308. 
Disease. 

Burning figure of, 176. 

Contagious (cartoon), 611. 

War results. 649. 
Disputes. See Industrial disputes. 
District of Columbia : teachers' oath of alle- 
giance, 731. 
Doctors courageous (typhus and famine In Ser- 
bia), 6-14. 
Dodd, Alvin E.. Trade training, 361. 
Dodd, C. H., 637. 
Dolores, vendor of snails, 15-i.y. 
Donegan, Margaret, portrait, [216]. 
Donnelly, Dr. James, 6. 
Doten, C. W., 41. 

Dowd, Jerome. Letter on uncensored films, 440 
Dowd vs. The United Mine Workers, 146. 
Downey, June E. Mental examination In court. 

427. 
Drama : Provlncetown Players, 78. 
Dress and Waist Manufacturers' Association. 

288, 345. 
Drink. See Alcohol; Prohibition. 
Drugs. 

National drug problem, III (Towns), 169. 

Negro's big shoes. 588. 

Pamphlet by C. B. Towns, 561. 

Pennsylvania report, 147. 

Towns. C. B.. on, 47. 

World problem (Towns), 87. 
Drysdale, C. V., 162, 163. 
Duke, Emma, 161. 
Dunes in Indiana, saving, 263. 
Dunn, Arthur W., 272. 
Dunphy, Mary C. 73. 
Du Pont powder mills, 226. 
Dwight, Helen C. 

Beyond the reach of the law (child laborers). 
396-397. 

Review of Greene's Leavening the Levant, 
614. 
Dwyer, Bessie, 411. 



E 

Eastcote, 89. 

Eastman, Crystal. War and peace, 363. 

Ecuador : Eight-hour day, 317. 

Eddy, L. J. Letter on national service, 730. 

Edgerton, Chas. E. Letter on The Survey's 

war position, 674. 
Education. 

Adult, compulsory, 581. 

England, help from America, 527. 

England's war policy, 520-526. 

Radical movement in, 272. 

Secondary, experiment, 490. 

Surveys, federal, of 5 states, 616. 

See also Schools ; U. S. Bureau of Educa- 
tion. 
Educational research, 732. 
Effiriencv, 135, 422. 
Eight-hour day, 135. 

Brown, Dorothy K., on, 388. 

Campaign for women, 95. 

Ecuador, 317. 

Railroad yards, 374. 

Women and, 369. 

Women's conference on, 275. 

See also Adamson law ; Railroads. 
Election. 

Further results of referendums, 206. 

Results, 171. 
Election day measures to be voted on, 128. 
Elephant, niole and goat (game), 118. 
Elgin, 111.. 705. 
Eliot, C. W., 746. 

Canadian disputes act. 754. 
El Paso, Tex.. 622, 623. 
Embree, Edwin R., 618. 
Emergency Aid of Pennsylvania, 697. 
Emergency Peace Federation, 762. 
Emerson, Dr. Haven, 150, 176. 
Employers, organization of, 203. 
Employment. 

Federation of bureaus, 78. 

See also Unemployment. 
Employment bureaus. 

New York, 443. 

Testimonial, 182. 
Employment managers' conference, 731. 
England. 

Civil Liberties Group, 333. 

Drink question, 599, 602. 

Gardening In wartime, 432. 

Help for English schools from America, 527. 

National stress, 23. 

Objection to war, 252. 

Reconstruction in, 393. 

War policy toward education, 520-526. 

Women in Industry, 464. 
English language. 

Compulsory education In, 581. 

Mexicans learning. 624. 
Episcopal General Convention, 190. 
"Erickson, Jr." clubs, 221. 
Escapades, 473. 






VI 



Index 



Esch, Lewis G. Underdogs (letter), 559. 

Eskimo in Alaska. 494. 

Esmond. R. S., 182. 

Essex Waist Co., [533]. 

Estabrook, Arthur H., 150. 

Europe. 

Christmas tree cartoon, 374. 

National stress and social action, 23. 

Ourselves and Europe (Devine), 99, 157, 217, 
321. 

Sec also War in Europe. 
Evans, Ed. W., 643. 
Evans, W. A. Community health, 369. 
Everett, Wash. 

Bloody Sunday, 475. 

"Bloody Sunday", appeals to Congress. 553. 
Everhart, R. O. Letter on "Turning off the 

Spigot", 702. 
Ewers. Jas. E., 443. 
Exhibits. See Child welfare. 
Eyes. Sec Blindness. 



Fagg, Marcus C, 728. 

Fairhope, Ala., 347. 

Fake war relief schemes, 68. 

Family planning, 367. 

Farmers' health survey, 436. 

Fatigue, 135. 

Fawcett, J. W. "Self control" (letter), 501. 

Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in 

America, 414, 491, 561, 727. 

Christmas message, 347. 

Day of prayer recommended, 580. 
Federal Reserve Act, 32. 
Federal Trade Commission, 247. 
Federated movements, 40. 
Federation of churches, 727. 
Federation of Non-commercial Employment 

Agencies, 78. 
Feeblemindedness. 

Community education, 561. 

Increase, 197. 

Legislation in several states, 725. 

Limits, 125. 

Massachusetts, 729. 

New York committee organized, 73. 

Frogress In 1917, 361. 

Wisconsin conference, 211-212. 
Feiss, Richard A., 135, 136. 
Fellowship of Reconciliation, 637, 643. 
Fels, Joseph, 154. 
Felt, E. W. Letter of appreciation to The 

Survey, 588. 
Fernald. Dr. W. E., 197. 
Field, Anne P. L. The lighthouse (verses on 

T. M. Osborne), 148. 
Fieser, J. L., 561. 
Fighting. See War. 
Fines, petty, 500. 
Finley, John H., 616. 

In the service of the state, 424. 
Fire hazard, manual of prevention, 177. 
Fire Prevention Day. 77. 
Fisher, Herbert A. L., 527. 
Fisher, Irving, 159. 
Fitch, John A. 

Explosion at Bayonne, 61. 

Involuntary servitude and the right to strike, 
477. 

Reveille to American industry, 691. 

Review of American Labor Year Book, 208. 

Review of Industrial Conditions in Spring- 
field, III., 341. 

Solid front of labor, 219. 

Supreme Court on strikes, 737. 
Flame (periodical), 266. 
Flexner, Abraham, 490, 491. 
Flexner, Hortense. 

A child (verse), 408. 

Wandering (verse), 693. 
Flies, 53. 
Floods. 

Alabama, 695. 

Mississippi, bridging the, 721. 
Florida children, 728. 
Folk songs, 454. 
Food. 

Books on, 53, 54. 

England, 24. 

How to give, 45. 

Police squad experiment, 607. 

Protection in Philadelphia, 32. 

Riot cartoons, 639. 

Riots in New York City, 638. 

See aUo Cost of living. 
Food distribution. 

Red Cross train for Serbia, opp. p. 1. 

Serbia, 6. 
Forbes, Elmer S. Unitarian plans for social 

work, 365. 
Forbush, Wm. B., 443. 
Ford Motor Co., 146, 561. 
Ford Peace Commission, 538, 580. 
Forums, Congress of, 501. 
Forward, 639. 
Foss, E. N.. 587. 
Foster, A. N. Letter on Osborne's retirement, 

180. 
Foster, Eugene Cary, 73. 
Foster, J. H. Social hygiene, 566. 
Founders. See National Founders' Association. 
Foundlings, New York City, 698. 
Four Lights, 561. 
Four Winds Fellowship, 514. 
Fourteenth Street, 514. 
Fox, Hugh F. 

At least damp (Canada), (letter), 501. 

Review of Hunt's War Bread. 469. 
Framingham, Mass.. 172. 



France. 

Birth control, 163. 

Blind soldiers, 43. 

New cities for, 152. 

Red Cross war hospital, 732, 733. 

Tuberculosis, 436. 

War relief for, 67. 
Frank, Henry L. Lincoln and Lloyd George 

(letter), 701. 
Frankel, Dr. Lee K., 137, 296. 
Frankfort-on-Main, 731. 
Frankfurter, Felix. 517. 
Franklin, Margaret. Open Window Week 

(verse), 373. 
Franklin, Moses. Basis of peace (letter), 500. 
l'rayne, Hugh, 495. 
Free speech ; Everett, Wash., 475. 
Freedom, 187. 
Fresh air (poster), 308. 
Frey, John P., 135, 136. 
Friedland, Louis S. America to the nations 

of Europe (verse), 332. 
Friends. See Quakers. 

Fuller, Dorothy, Rosalind, and Cynthia, 454. 
Fuller, Mary Breese. 

Is Sir Thomas More Utopian? 223. 

Letter in reply to T. F. Woodlock, 441. 

Letter on Lane's article on Osborne, 286. 
Fuller, W. Gladstone. Bells are ringing, sail- 
ors singing, 454. 
Fulton, ex-Senator, 517. 
Funeral, country, 331. 
Furuseth, Andrew. 220, 221. 



Gallant, Bernard. Making laws for Mexico, 449. 

Gambling 15-19. 

Garcia, Carmelita, 624. 

Gardening in wartime, 432. 

Garment town plan, 213. 

Garment workers. 

Cooperation in New York City, 277. 

Men's clothing strike settled, 435. 

New York City, 140. 

Strike, 376. 
Gary, E. H., 38. 
Gary, Ind. 

Dunes for playground, 203. 

School motion pictures, 731. 
Oeier, Dr. O. P., 137. 
General Education Board, 490, 664. 
German sailors interned, 89. 
Germany. 

Before the break with the United States 
(Lochner), 538. 

Labor's plea for peace, 696-697. 

On Belgian deportations, 486. 

I'eace overtures, 297, 333. 

Social service during war, 687. 

United States and, 572. 
Germs, 53. 

Cartoon, 611. 

Long range results of war, 649. 
<iil)bon, J. M., 743. 
Gibbs, Winifred Stuart, 561. 

Home economics and public health, 329. 

Review of Bailey's Food Products, 54. 

Review of Matteson and Newland's A Labora- 
tory Manual of Foods and Cookery, 342. 
Gibson, Wilfred W., 409 (with portrait and 

poems). 496. 
Gifford, W. S., 692. 

Gilbertson, II. S. The short ballot, 364. 
Gillen, T. L., 211, 212. 
Gilman, A. E., 39. 
Gilmour, Dr. J. T., 733. 
Girls. 

Cleveland 213. 

Immigrant. 363. 

Recreation, 371. 

Waist and Dressmakers' T'nion, 699 
Giving. 317. 

Organized (Canada), 739. 
Goals for social work, 358, 442. 970. 
Godfrey, Hollis, 691. 
Goethe, C. M. 

Dolores, vendor of snails, 15-19. 

Xirman Singh, storv of a lizard eater. 111- 
118. 
Gompers, Samuel. 202. 219, 243, 295, 309, 

495. 601, 696, 746. 
Good will. See Fellowship of Reconciliation. 
Goode. Mary, 310. 
Goodrich, Anna, 560. 
Gothenburg system. 651. 
Gould, E. R. L.. 159. 
Gould, Jos. F. 

Review of Evjen's Scandinavian Immigrants 
in New York. 71. 

Review of Hard's Care nf the Insane, 177. 

Review of Hurd's Institutional Care of the 
Jnsnne in the United States and Canada. 
Vol. III. 497. 

Review of Roman's American Civilization and 
the Negro, 282. 
Government. 

Bills in various states on machinery of, 669. 

Chicago. 593. 

England, regulation. 23. 
Governmental Research Agencies. See National 

Federation, etc. 
Gradv. Henry P. 

Open Shop in San Francisco. 192. 

Reioinder to R. H. Lvnch. 717. 
Graham, Dr. Wm.. 211. 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. Recreation Contrress. 51. 
Grant, rerev S. Letter of commendation to The 

Survey. 588. 
Graves, Wm. C. 40. 
Gray, Herbert B., 527. 



Great Britain. 

Conscientious objectors, 636. 

German sailors interned, 89. 

I'ensions and medical fees for soldiers, 727. 
Greene, F. D. Review of Aaronsohn's ~\Yith the 

Turks in Palestine, 700. 
Greene, Jerome D., 276, 733. 
Greenway, Dr. J. C, 176. 
Greenwich, Conn., sanitary condition, 56. 
Grey, Earl, 134. 
Griffis, Wm. E. 

Review of books on Far Eastern politics, 699. 

Sabotage for germs (letter), 72. 
Gruenberg, Benj. C. Vocational guidance, 370. 
Gruening, Rose, 148. 
Guam, nurses, 727. 
Guardsmen. See National Guard. 
Gunnison, W. B., 423. 
Guthrie, Geo W., 733. 

Gvvin, J. B. Making friends of invaders (Mex- 
icans), 621. 



Hadassah, 760. 

Haines, Lynn, 275. 

Hair tonic, 338. 

Halbert, L. A., 553. 

Hall, Henry M. Letter on The Survey's war 

position, 674. 
Hallam, Wirt W. Scrubwomen (letter), 316. 
Halliday, W. F., 637. 
Ham, Arthur H. Remedial loans, 370. 
Hamilton, Dr. Alice, 161, 442. 

Health and labor (discussion at convention of 
American Public Health Association), 135. 

Health insurance (letter), 285. 

Letter on lead poisoning, 587. 

Prostitutes and tuberculosis, 516. 
Hamilton, Dr. Alice, and Gertrude Seymour. 

New public health, the, 166. 456. 
Hamilton, J. W. Orphanages in the country 

(letter), 344. 
Hamilton, Jean. Recreation for girls, 37. 
Hammar, F. V., 587. 
Hands across the sea, 261. 
Hannah, Ian C. 

Conscientious objectors. 636. 

Review of Williams's A Social Study of the 
Russian Oerman, 699. 
Hannah (ship), 69. 
Hapgood, Hutchlns, 78. 
Hare system, 466. 
Harmon, Wm. E. Frotest against The Survey's 

war position, 675. 
Harrington, Governor. 60. 
Harrington. Dr. T. H., 176. 
Harrison, Shelby M. In Lincoln's home town 

(Springfield survey), 503-513. 
Harrison law, 169. 
Hart. Schaffner & Marx, 447. 

Prizes announced, 561. 
Hartman, Edw. T. 

Review of Fels's Joseph Fels: His TAfe Work, 
154. 

Review of Rowe's Society. Its Origin and 
Development, 315. 
Harvard-Technology School for Health Officers, 

168, 318. 
Haselwood, F. W., 73. 
Hate, temple of, 114, 116. 
Hathaway, Winifred, 41. 
Hayes, C. J. H., 642. 

War without a purpose or armed neutrality 
with a purpose? 535. 
Hayhurst, Emery R.. 137. 

Letter on health insurance, 442. 
Health. 

Books on, 53. 

Do wages buy health ?. 517. 

Effect of war on, 181. 

Epigrams on (2 hooks reviewed), 178. 

Labor and, 135. 

Proposed legislation, 249. 

Social workers, 305. 

Workingwomen. 318. 

Yale department, 176. 

See alio Public health : Sickness. 
Health Information bureau, 21.5. 
Health insurance, 135. 

Andrews, J. B., letter on. 180. 

Business men and. 606. 

California Insurance Federation. 375. 

Capital and labor unite against. 495. 

Conferences and conventions, 632. 

Connecticut, 501. 

Frankel, Lee K.. letter on. ISO. 

Letter from E. R. Hayhurst. 442. 

Literature on, 631. 

Massachusetts. 41. 207. 

Medical men and (letter), 285. 

Milwaukee and. 584. 

Pro and con, 695, 705. 

Survov of spread of (Rublnow), 631. 
Health officer: Harvard Technology School, 168, 

318. 
Health Week poster. 308. 
Healy. Dr. William, 582, 
Heart disease, society to prevent. 278 
Ilea ton. James 1*.. 73. 
II i t,m. John L. Letter criticizing Tin- SURYSI 

for pacificism. 729. 
Hehble, C, R. Housing reform in 1S69 (letter*. 

560. 
Hell : Dante (cartoon!. 643. 
Hennessey, Geo. R.. 61. 
Henry Street Settlement, 640 

Endowment, 206. 
Hensley, Walter L., 308. 
Herkner, Helnrlc\ 733. 
Herre, Collin: poi'ralt In group, 11. 



Index 



Vll 



Herves, Amy, 665. 

Bridgeport, Conn., on the rebound, 49. 

Women as munition makers : a study of con- 
ditions at Bridgeport, 379-385. 
Hill, Clara, 73. 

Hill, Edw. E. Dynamic civics, 270. 
Hill, Dr. Hibbert Winslow, 166, 457, 458. 
Hindenburg, Gen. von, portrait in group, 231. 
Hoag, C. G. New system of voting, 361. 
Hoagland, H. E., 133. 
Hoare, F. R., 637. 
Hobhouse, Stephen, 637. 
Hodges L George. Twenty-five years of South 

End House, 567. 
Hodgkin, Henry. 637. 
Hodgson, Elizabeth. Review of Hinchman's 

The American School, 281. 
Hoffman, Frederick L., 496. 

Save-a-Life League (letter), 500. 
Holland, birth control in, 162, 163. 
Holmes, John H., 316. 

Gibson, Wilfred Wilson, 409. 

Penitential hymn (verse), 170. 
Holt, Wm. L., 165. 
Holt, Winifred, 65. 

Lighthouse for blinded soldiers, 43. 
Home and school, 368. 
Home economics, 329. 

Letter on, 55. Experience meetings, 442. 
Home Hospital, 57. 
Home rule (Devine). 217. 
Home rule, Southern, 440. 
Hooker, Edith Houghton. 

Magdalen, 20. 

Reply to letter on "Magdalen", 287. 
Hookworm, 72. 
Hoover, Herbert C, 644. 

Return to New York for new campaign, 490. 
Hopewell, Va., 226. 

Hopkins, Mary 1>. Do wages buy health? 517. 
Hopkins, Mrs. W. II., 501. 

Birth control (letter), 345. 
Horwill, Herbert W. Reconstruction in Eng- 
land, 393. 
Hospitals. 

American Association convention, 52. 

France, Red Cross, 732-733. 

History, book on, 497. 

Home, tuberculosis, 67. 

Ignatius Phelan at the hospital, 108. 

Lepers, 430. 554. 

Occupation for inmates, 431. 

Pennsylvania's, untangling, 597. 

Tokio, 56. 

Washington, D. C. lack, 443. 

See also Red Cross. 
Hotel, country. 85. 

Hotpoint Electrical Heating Co., 182. 
Hours of work. 

Campaign for women, 95. 

Kelley, Florence, on, 358. 

Lackawanna Steel Co., 131, 172. 

Seven-dav week, 38. 

Steel mills, 146. 

Waitresses, 174. 

See also Eight-hour day. 
Housing. 

Americanization Committee housing competi- 
tion (with cuts and plans), 595. 

Baltimore, 283. 

Bills in four states on zoning and housing, 
668. 

Bridgeport, Conn., 49. 

Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co., 725. 

German women, 731. 

Hopewell, Va., 226. 

Minneapolis, 584. 

National Conference, proceedings, 94. 

Providence, R. I., 143. 

Reform in 1869; Cincinnati (letter), 559. 
Houston, Texas, school of civics, 174. 
Howard, Geo. Elliott. 160. 
Howe, Stanley H., 442. 
Howell, James, 427. 
Howland, A. H., 79. 
Hoyt, Helen. At the Community Christmas 

Tree (verse), 335. 
Hudson, Manley O. Letter on The Sukvey's 

war position, 675. 
Huebsch, Alina. Fresh air first (letter). 616. 
Hughes, Chas. E. Ramson's hook reviewed, 54. 
Hull House, 1. 

Hunt, Ernest M. Surcease (verse), 262. 
Hunt, Geo. W. P., 279, 317. 
Hunt, Rockwell D. College men and the al- 
cohol question, 159. 
Hutchinson, Emilie J. Review of Morgan's 

Education and Social Progress, 437. 
Hygiene. See Public health. 
Hymns. See Verse. 



Ideals, national, 187. 

Ignatius Phelan at the hospital, 108. 

Ihlder, John, 347. 

Hopewell, 226. 

House for wage-earners (with cuts and plans). 
595. 

Municipal week at Springfield. 264. 

Providence (R. I.), houses. 143. 

Review of two books on cities, 468. 
Illinois. 

Abatement law held constitutional, 173. 

Blindness, 340. 

Child care, 147. 

Conference of Charities and Correction, 150. 

Cooperative stores for miners, 145. 

Countv jails, 434. 

Lowden's appeal for attention to public busi- 
ness, 466. 



Reorganized state service, 663. 

Tax amendment, 347. 

Vice law, 499. 
Illinois Steel Co., 146. 
Illiteracy in the Appalachians, 027. 
Immigrants. 

Girls, after the war, 363. 

Private banks and, 38. 

Review of books on, 313. 

State and federal bills for protecting and 
educating, 669. 
Immigration. 

Lee, Joseph, on, 368. 

Literacy test adopted, 549. 

Mexicans 622. 

Plans for fitting to the labor market, 452. 

Proposed legislation, 249. 
Immigration bill, 334. 
India : Nirman Singh, story of a lizard eater, 

111-118. , 
Indiana. 

Dunes, 263. 

Farmers' health, 436. 

Mental defectives, 150. 

Three-ply school survey, 278. 

Tuberculosis crusades, cover of Dec. 9 Issue. 
Indians. 

In industry (Ford works), 561. 

Lake Mohonk conference, 283. 

Society of American, conference, 51. 
Industrial accidents in New York State, 435. 
Industrial Conference. See National Industrial 

Conference Board. 
Industrial counselor, the first, 189. 
Industrial disputes ; Canadian act, 740 759, 764- 

765. 
Industrial education, 272. 

Bills for physical, military, and vocational 
schooling in various states, 070. 

Future of, 361. 
Industrial peace, proposed league to enforce, 

256. 
Industrial preparedness. See Preparedness; In- 
dustry. 
I. W. W. 

Everett, Wash., 475, 553. 

Minnesota, 443. 

Prison reformers, 461. 

Sugar strike in Philadelphia, 096. 
Industry. 

Militarism in (England), 464. 

New York garment workers atid siilvcom- 
munities, 140. 

Reveille to Americans. 691. 

Wartime standards, 761. 

Women in (letter from J. Martin). 560. 

Women's new division in Department of La- 
bor, 327. 
Infant mortality, 161. 

Association convention, proceedings, 94. 

Knipp, Gertrude B., on, 358. 
Infantile paralysis. Sec Poliomyelitis. 
Infection, 167. 
Ingersoll, C. H. 

Letter on The Survey's war position. 6i4. 

New Year goals (letter), 470. 
Initiative, referendum, and recall, 153. 
Insanity. 

Hurd's work on care of, 177. 

War and, 214. 
Institutions. 

Devine, Edw. T., on (letter), 55. 

Foundlings and New York City. 698. 
Intercollegiate Socialist Society, 52. 
International Recreation Congress, 51. 
International relations analogous to industrial, 

447. 
Internationalism. 89. 

Magazine of. 561. 
Internment camp, British. 89. 
Interstate Commerce Committees, 477. 
Investigation. 

Compulsory. Canada. 746. 

Industrial disputes, 754-759, 764-765. 
Investigator, government (sketch). 491. 
Iowa State Conference of Charities and Correc- 
tions, 211. 
Italian phrase book, 347. 
Italian women in church (cut), cover of Oct. 

7 issue. 



Jabs, 36. , „.., 

Jackson, Lucy. The sandwich-man (verse), 301. 
Jacobi, Abraham, 164. 
Jacobs, Philip P. 

Consumptive, the. 359. 

Review of French's Home Care of Consump- 
tives, 178. 
Jails. 

Abolishing, 150. 

Failure of county (California and Illinois), 
434. 

Michigan and tuberculosis. 494. 

Morris Co., N. J., 412. 

New Haven. Conn.. 611. 

Pennsvlvania, Society of Friends on, 502. 
James, Henry : portrait in group, 11. 
January : Citizen's calendar, 339. 
Japan. 

As the American bugbear, 391. 

Laborers' Friendly Society. 202. 
Japanese labor movement, 202. 
Jennings, Edgar S„ 530. 
Jerusalem, Zionist Jews in, 760. 
Jewish charities, federation, 336. 
Jews. 

Central Relief Committee, 443. 

Palestine, 760. 

Russia's policy toward, 461. 



Johnson, Alex. 

Appreciation of Frank B. Sanborn, 656. 
Feebleminded, progress in 1917, 361. 

Johnson, Chas. H., 199. 

Johnson, Eleanor H. Children vs. a great ma- 
chine, 425. 

Johnson, Hiram, 634, 731. 

Johnson, Marietta L., 347. 

Johnstown, Pa., 161. 

Joint Board of Sanitary Control, 277. 

Jones, Cheney C, 443. 

Jones, Eugene K. Negro welfare, 371. 

Jones, Geo. M„ 493. 

Jones, Jimmy, 318. 

Jordan, Arthur, 202. 

Jota, La (dance). 625. 

Judd, Chas. H., 145. 

Justis, Guy T., 347. 

Juvenile court, Chicago, 204. 



Kalighat, 116. 

Kaltenbach, H. J. National pronibition (letter), 

471. 
Kane, Francis F. Letter on The Sukvey's war 

position, 676. 
Kansas. 

Cigarette crusade, 494. 

Settlers (silhouette), 544. 
Kate Adams law, 173. 
Kavanaugh. Judge M. A., 78. 
Keegan, John J., 443. 
Kelley, Florence, 284. 

Review of Ransom's Charles E. Hughes, 54. 

Starving the Children's Bureau, 332. 

Writing English (letter), 442. 
Kellogg, Arthur P. Review of Cesare's One 

Hundred Cartoons, 209. 
Kellogg, Paul U. 

Canadian Patriotic Fund and the women 
of Montreal, 677-684, 705. 

Families of soldiers overseas (Montreal), 709- 
715. 

Fighting issues, the, 572-577. 

Reply to protest from Baltimore social work- 
ers on pacificism, 729. 

Wav-marks of organized giving (Montreal), 
739-745. 
Kelly, Dr. E. R., 458. 
Kelsey, Frederick W. The initiative for peace 

(letter), 470. 
Kendall, Henry P. First industrial counselor — 

Robert G. Valentine, 189. 
Kennaday, Paul, 605. 
Kent, Wm., 40. 
Kent bill, 352. 

Burns, F. J (letter) 702. 

Helpfulness (R. J. Newton), 546. 

Vaile, Gertrude (letter), 702. 
Kentuckv. illiteracy, 627. 
Keyes, Edw. L., Jr. Review of Scholts on 

Srx Problems, 53. 
Killits, Judge, 462. 
Kilpatrick, W. H. Review of Moore's What is 

Education? 615. 
Kindergartens, 372. 
King, Clyde L... 605. 

Review of four books on the cost or living, 
etc., 585. 
King, Edith S. My Mexican neighbors, 624. 
King, Fred A. Review of Thayer's The Life and 

Times of Cavour, Vols. 1 and II, 700. 
King, W. L. Mackenzie, 749. 752. 
Kingsbury, John A.. 698. 
Kingsley, Sherman C, 348, 473. 
Kinqslcy Record, 703. 
Kirchwey. Geo. W., 200. 
Kittv (with portrait), 677, 684. 
Kleen, Tyra, 301. 

Knipp, Gertrude B. Infant welfare, 358. 
Knopf. Dr. S. A. 

Birth control, address, 161-165. 
Letter in reply to criticism of birth control 
article, 346. 
Knowles, Morris. Bridling the Mississippi, 721. 
Kober, Dr. Geo. M„ 137. 
Kraemer, Wm. H., 71. 
Kranse. Dr. A. K.. 561. 
Kuser W. L. Truant children, 366. 



Labor. 

Arbitration and. 201. 

Canadian act, 746. 

Oerman plea for peace, 696-697. 

Health and. 135. 

Immigrants and, 452. 

Issues before Congress, 309. 

Mexico's constitution on. 695. 

National Labor Defense Council. 214. 

New division in Department of Labor, for 
women, 327. 

Open shop in San Francisco, 192, 716. 

Organized, and compulsion in disputes (O'Con- 
nell), 756. 

Proposed legislation. 249. 

Protest against health insurance, 495. 

Solid front of (Fitch), 219. 

Standards in war time, 761. 

Testing the Clayton act, 146. 

Uncertain status of bills. 430. 

TTnderdogs (letter), 559. 

War and. 707. 

Wilson's message on disputes. 274. 

Woman's Bureau in Department of Labor 
(letter), 441. 

Women in New York. 726. 

Year Book, 208. 

See also American Federation of Labor. 
Lackawanna Steel Co., 38, 131, 172. 



VI 11 



Index 



Almy, P., on (letter), 170. 
Laidler, Harry W., 52. 

Review of Wolman's The Boycott in Amer- 
ican Trade Unions, 72. 
La .Tota (dance), 625. 
Lake Mohonk conference, 283. 
Lakeman, Curtis E. Control of cancer. 362. 
Lane, Wlnthrop D. 
Charity patchwork and a program, li>4 . 
Children's bit in tiie wars, 520-526. 
In reply to Mr. Peabody, 210. 
Letters as to his article on Osborne, 285. 
Retirement of T. M. Osborne, 80. 
Review of books on schools. 281. 
Review of Osborne's Society and Prisons, 280. 
Rich man in t lie poorhouse, 101. 
Sing Sing's new warden, 291. 
Lantz, Violet, 20. 

Laredo, Texas: competing for the boys. 205. 
Lasker, Bruno. 

Belgian deportations, 486. 
Conference of oppressed and dependent na- 
tionalities, 20.1. , 
Food riots in New York, 638. 
Germany's social service during war, 687. 
Review of Fried's The Restoration of Europe, 

208. 
Review of Hayes's A Political and Social 

History of Modern Europe, 499. 
Review of Key's War, Peace and the Fitiuri , 

469. 
Review of Kohler and Wolf's Jewish Disabil- 
ities in the Balkan States, 438. 
Review of Steiner's Nationalizing/ America, 
343 
Latin and Greek, 490, 527. 
Lausanne conference on nationalities, 151. 
Lavinder, Dr. C. H., 311. 
Lead poisoning. 587. 
League to Enforce Peace, U. S. Constitution 

and, 491. 
Learned societies, joint meetings, 422. 
Lee, Elisha. Canadian disputes act, 759. 
Lee, F. S., 135. 
Lee, Harry, 300. 

Just pretend (verse). 326. 
Lee, .Toseph, 339, 733. 
Immigration, 368. 

Letter on Mexican border immigrants, 316. 
Soldiers as brothers (verse), 443. 
Lee, Porter R.. 106. 

Topics for 1918 (letter), 316. 
Lee, W. G., 220. 
Lee. (Calcutta), 176. 
Legal Aid Societies, conference, 70. 
Legislation. 

Pennsylvania. 588. 
Pictures as influence, 725. 
Social, bills in various states, 666 (171. 
Social, for Congress. 249. 
Social, In the 64th Congress, 658. 
States, 645. 

Summary of, bulletin, 288. 
Summary of, bulletin, correction, :'.17. 
Washington (state), 83. 
Legislative drafting and reference bureaus. 386, 

500. 
Legislatures: sessions scheduled for 1017, list 

of states, 387. 
Leiserson, Wm. M. 

Review of Rubinow's Standard of Health 

Insurance, 467. 
Review of Tarbell's Nem Ideals in Business, 
498. 
Leonard, Wm. E.. 316. 

Mexican bullets and ballots. 86. 
Lepers, hospital for. 430, 554. 
Lepers' Christmas, 411. 
Lewisohn, Adolph. Letter on Lane's article 

on Osborne, 285. 
Libraries, public, 307. 
License. Sec Prohibition. 
Life's clinic, 20. 

Lighthouse for blinded soldiers. 43. 
Lincoln, A., 503, 510. 701. 
Birthplace, 588. 

Head (Borgluml. cover of Feb. issue. 
Statue in Newark, 551. 
Lindsey, Judge B. B., 206. 
Lion, Herman F. Letter on The Subvkt's War 

position. 674. 
LIpsitch, I. Irving, 182. 
Lipton, Sir Thos., 6. 

Liquor traffic. See Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Literacy test, 334. 

Adoption. 549. 
Lithuania, 616. 

Appeal from, 531. 
Little. R. M., 443. 
Lizard eater story, ill -118. 
Lloyd George, David, 157, ir,0, 261, 277, 701. 
Lincoln Day message. 564. 
Speech on German peme proposals, 333. 
Loan Gazette, 703. 
Loans. 

Bills in 15 states. 671. 
Monev lenders and the laws, 173. 
Remedial, 370. 
War (cartoon), 77. 
See also Morris plan. »» 

Loch tier, Louis P., 134. 

Refore the break, 538. 
Ijocke, Bessie. Kindergartens, .".72. 
I.oeb, Max, 581. 

The radical movement In education, 272 
Los Angeles municipal camp, 42. 
Lotteries, 15-19. 
Lovejoy, Owen R. Letter correcting error In 

account of Federal Child Labor Law, 55. 
Low, A. B.. 747. 
Ijowden, Gov. F. O., 406. 
Lupton, R. J., 333. 



Lynch, R N. Open shop in San Francisco, 716. 
Lynching, 461. 

Copies of address to be had, 181. 



M 

Mabon, Wm. A., 618-619. 
McCall, S. W., 429, 634. 
McClenahan, Bessie A.. 211. 
McClure, Archibald. An army for peace (let- 
ter), 344. 
McCurdy, Dr. Sidney, 137. 
McDonald, Duncan, 145. 
Macdonald, Mrs. C. A. Letter on The Sdevet. 

703. 
Macdonald. Ramsay, 334. 
Mac Dougall, Allen, 637. 

Macfarland, Chas. S. Church social work, 365. 
Mack, Julian W., 38. 
McKelway, A. J., 291, 292. 

Children's bureau (letter), 316. 
McLane, Kate M. Letter on The Survey's war 

position, 676. 
McLean, Annie M. Review of Wilson's Fifty 
Years of Association Work Among Young 
Women, 209. 
McLean, Francis H., 493. 
Family planning, 367. 
McLennan, Wm. E., 132. 
Macy, V. Everit, 288. 726. 

Work for the Westchester County Alms- 
house (with portrait and cuts), 101-108. 
Madison Square Garden, 762. 
Magdalen, 20. 

Letters. 287. 
Maine : social program, 612. 
Maine Community Efficiency Conference, 589. 
Malmberg, Aino, 151. 
Manila Woman's Club, 411. 
Mann white slave law, 473. 
Manny, Frank A. Review of Dewey's The 

School and Society. 282. 
Marketing and Farm Credits, National Confer- 
ence, notice, 213, 334. 
Mars exultant (verse), 62. 
Marshall, K. M. Letter on The Survey's war 

position. 674. 
Martin, John. Fie on us (letter), 560. 
Maryland. 

Conference of Charities and Correction, meet- 
ing, 283. 
Election results, 171, 172. 
Penal Board polities, 60. 
Massachusetts. 
Beer, 603. 
Child Labor Committee and school attendance, 

463. 
Feebleminded, 729. 
Health insurance. 41, 633, 634. 
Prison director, 37. 
Prohibition, history, 483. 

Schools of agriculture and horticulture, 617. 
Social and health insurance, 207. 
Social insurance. 429. 
State Conference of Charities. 211. 
Massachusetts Civic League, 339. 
Mast in, Florence R. The schoolmaster (verse). 

423. 
Mntzon, H. H., cover of Jan. 20 issue. 

Mawsh". 275. 
Mend. Mrs. F. S.. 686. 
Medical ease histories (last case). 20. 
Medical schools in China. 403-408. 
Medicine, new, 431. 
Meeker, Royal, 137. 
Melish, John H. "The stones will cry out", 

563. 
Melpolder, John. Democratizing social welfare 

efforts, 303. 
MendenhaH, Dorothy R. Review of Rends The 

Mothercraft Manual. 672. 
Mental defectives. 
Alcohol and. 162. 
Criminals as, 195 107. 
Indiana conference, etc.. 150. 
Mental deficiency board recommended, 196. 
Mental hygiene. 
TjpctiireR, 317. 
Societies, officers, 704. 
Mental Hygiene, 501. 
Mental tests. 122. 427. 
Mercier, Cardinal, 338. 
Merriam, Charles E., 503. 
Merrick, Miss, 336. 
Mesaba Range strike, end of. 411. 
Methodists: refusal of aid, 73. 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 17'J. 
Meunler, Constantln, 540. 
Mexican border: Y. M. C. A. work among the 

soldiers, 205. 
Mexicans. 

\s immigrants, 316. 

Bullets and ballots, 86. 

My Mexican neighbors (King). 624. 

Refugees in advance of returning troops, 621, 

Students in the United States. 307. 
Mexico. 

Education. 605. 

Free schools, 460. 

Labor in the constitution. 605. 

Labor movement, 237. 

Making laws for (Constituent Congress), 110. 

Sympathv not shrapnel needed. 10, 
Mever, Annie Nathan. Home economics (letter), 

55. 
Mever bill. 758. 

Mevneii. Francis, 637. 

Miehie. II. Clay, 404. 

Michigan, 

Jails and tuberculosis. 494. 
Tuberculosis. 79. 



Microbes. See Germs. 
Militarism. 
Books on, 92. 
Industry and, 464. 

See also American Union Against Militarism. 
Military misfits, 551. 

Military training in schools, letter on, 616 
New York state, 703. 
Postponement in Congress, 460. 
Swiss and Russian views of compulsory, 492 
Trade training with, 278-279. 
Wood, Gen. L., on. 444. 
Military Training Commission, 424. 
Milk. 

Distribution, 605. 
New York supply. 30. 
Miller, J. Corson. The dead laborer (verse), 82. 
Milliken, Carl, 612. 

Mills, Harriet M. Letter on Miss Rankin. 285. 
Mills bill (N. Y., health insurance), 606, 633, 

695. 
Milner, Duncan C, 499. 
Milwaukee. 

Evening schools, social centers, etc.. 298. 
Schools. 610. 
Sickness census, 147. 
Sickness losses, 464, 584. 
Mind of a boy, 122. 
Miners returning from the mines (Meunler), 

(cut), 540. 
Minimum wage. 

Ford Motor Co.. 146. 
Oregon case re-argued, 517. 
Minneapolis. 

Bureau of Municipal Research. 300. 
Health control, 728. 
Health poem. 641. 
Housing code, 584. 

Humane Society and Juvenile Protection 
League, 336. 
Mississippi River. 721. 
Missouri. 

Children's Code Commission, 42. 
Children's Code Commission posters, 553. 
Children's Code described. 856. 
Children's Code partly enacted, 760. 
Penitentiary, mutual welfare plan, 582. 
Pension for the blind, 443. 
Social legislation urged, 553. 
Social welfare conference, 318. 
Mlinik, Julia, 26. 
Money lenders, 173. 
Montana: Miss Rankin (letter), 285. 
Montezuma, Carlos, 51. 
Montgomery, Louise. Reproach among women, 

a (sketch), 26. 
Monthly news summary, 30, 12s, 245. 
Montreal. 

Patriotic Fund and women. 677, 709. 
Soldiers' families, 709 715. 
Wav-marks in organized giving. 739-745. 
Moors, John F., 686. 
Moot, Adelbert. 132. 
More. Sir Thomas. 223. 

More's Ftopin : correspondence on M. B. Ful- 
ler's article, 441. 
Moree. E. A., 561. 
Morons, 78. 
Morphine. 169. 

Morris Countv, N. J., jail, 412. 
Morris plan in Ohio. 78. 
Morrison, Stanlpv, 637. 

Morse. R. C. Outlook of Y. M. C. A.. 368. 
Mothers and Parent -Teacher Associations. 368. 
Motion pictures. 
Cleveland. 318. 

Gary schools, 731. , 

Lancaster. Pa., circular, 588 
Nude in, 555. 

Obscene films (letter). 440. 
Prison reform film. 270. 
Sociological films. 33. 
Sundav. (.17-618. 
Moton. Robt. R.. 347. 
Mountaineers, southern. 627, 
Mover. Win. n.. 291. 
Mnlr. Mrs. Kenneth J.. 644. 

Municipal camp, 42. , 

Municipal farm, Dallas, 317. 
Municipal League. See National Municipal 

league. 
Municipal ownership. 288. 

Municipal research : Minneapolis bureau. 300. 
Municipal Research Conference. 264. 
Munition makers. 

Protection of. In Connecticut. 665. 
Women as : a studv of conditions at Bridge- 
port. 370 385. 
Women workers and their pay. 665. 
Munro. Alice B. To mothers who must be edu- 
cated. 515. 
Murnhv. J. Prentice. 
Allison case. 206. 

I/etter on Osborne's retirement. 180, 
Murray. John. Behind the drums of revolution 

(Mexico), '-'.".7. 
Murtha, J. J.. 530. 

Music : international festival proposed. 644. 
Muskegon. Mich., 725. 

Mnssev. Henrv R. The American Bugbear (Ja- 
pan). 301. 
Musi,- A. J. Letter on The Sctnrv's war 

position. (',75. 
Myers, ('has. Haven. Two poems. 5. 

N 
VageV Chns.. 202. 

V.ash Roy. North and South. 362. 
National Americanization Committee: housing 

competition (With cut and plans). 505. 
National Conference of Catholic Charities. 52. 



n 



d e 



IX 



204. 



National Conference of Charities and Correc- 
tion. 

Legislation summary, bulletin, 288. 

New names suggested, 316. 

Printed report, 347. 

Topics for iul8 wanted, 316. 

Wanted — a name (letter from F. Almy), 
701. 
National Education Association : Superintend- 
ence Department, annual session, 723. 
National Federation of Governmental Research 

Agencies, 265. 
National Founders' Association, 
National Guard. 

Families, 763. 

Relief or support? 204. 
National ideals, 187. 

National Industrial Conference Board, 203. 
National Labor Defense Council, 214. 
National League for Woman's Service, 579. 
National Municipal League : prizes offered, 617. 
National service (letter), 730. 
National Social Unit Organization, 288. 
National stress (Europe), 23. 
National Voters' League, 275. 
National Woman's Trade Union League, 312, 

327, 441. 
Nationalities. 

Lausanne conference, 151. 

See also Oppressed and dependent national- 
ities. 
Nationalization, 126. 
Naval prisons, 552. 
Negroes. 

Alabama needs, 695-696. 

Big feet, 588. 

British, 637. 

Health, 347. 

In northern cities, 569. 

New lear opportunity, 362. 

Roman's book reviewed, 282. 

Tuskegee Conference, 590. 

Welfare. 371. 
Neighborhood gift from settlement boys, 148. 
Neighbors : address to settlements, 581. 
Neill. Carrie E. B. (Mrs. A. B.). "Beeters" 

and suffrage (letter), 284. 
Nestor, Agnes. The eight-hour day, 369. 
Neutrality, 157. 

Armed : Hayes, C. J. II.. on, 535. 

Armed : President's request for, 642. 

Armed: Survey's position, 730. 
Nevada : prohibition, 442. 
Nevin, A. Parker, 495. 
New Haven, Conn., jail, 011. 
New Jersty. 

Morris Co. jail, 412. 

Negroes, 569. 

Report on state prison, 610. 

State prison, 401. 
New Orleans : rats, 214. 
New Year goals in social worn, 358. 
New York (City). 

Bulletin of Public Charities, 561. 

Bureau of Child Hygiene, 318. 

City College, 424. 

City College, extension of service, 528. 

City Homes, occupation in, 431. 

Federal help in domestic quarantine, 42. 

Fifth Avenue, old and new, 140, 141. - 

Food riots, 638. 

Foundlings, 698. 

Industrial sub-communities proposed, 140. 

Public Employment Bureau, *48. 

Schools, need of reorganization, 425. 

Street car strikes, plan to prevent, 496. 

Trolley arbitration, 608. 

Wages investigation proposed, 554. 

Woman's Municipal League, 704. 
New York (state). 

Budget and economy, 733. 

Charities report, 130. 

< 'hild labor law, 554. 

Industrial accidents, 435. 

Industrial commission, 172. 

Labor safeguards for women, 726. 

Park proposition election advertisement, 171. 

Strong's report on Board of Charities, 194. 
New York Academy of Political Science, 254, 

256. 
New York Association for Improving the Con- 
dition of the Poor : Home Hospital enlarged, 

57. 
New York Call. 79. 
New York Community Chorus, 347. 
New York State Conference of Charities and 

Correction. 

Against Strong plan, 207. 

Meeting, 211. 
New York State Probation Commission, report, 

311. 
Newark, N. J. 

Negroes, 569. 

Survey in Central High School, 724. 
Newburgh. N. Y., 588. 
Newcastle, Ind., 724. 
Newfoundland, Pa., 85. 
Newlands bill to restrain strikes, 477. 
News. See Monthly news summary. 
Newsom, Rev. John W., 146. 
Newton, Robt. J. Kent bill favored, 546. 
Nirman Singh, story of a lizard eater, 111-118. 
No-license. See Prohibition. 
Nolen, John, 495. 

North Carolina : health "cures". 617. 
Norton, W. J. Letter on The Survey's war 

position, 675. 
Norway. See Gothenburg system. 
Nude in movies, 555. 
Nurses. 

Guam, 727. 

Registered, 588. 



Nursing. 

Book of talks on, 179. 
Legislation on, 667. 
Public health nurse, 168. 
See also Public health nursing. 



O 

Oberucheff, C, 337. 

Objectors. Bee Conscientious objectors. 

O'Connell, James. Canadian disputes act, 756. 

O'Connor, J. J., 724. 

Oehler, Chas. F. Letter on The Survey's war 

position, 674. 
Ogburn, Wm. F. Review of Kirkpatrick's Fun- 
damentals of Sociology, 556 ; and of Gillette's 

Sociology, 5o7. , 

O'Grady, John, 52. 

Catholic charities, 359. 
Ohio. 

Morris plan difficulties, 78. 

Social insurance, 764. 

Suffrage, 617. 
Old age. 

Illustration, cover of Jan. 13 issue. 

Verse, 604. 
Old-age insurance, 433. 
Old-age pensions, 207. 

Old Men's Toyshop, 309, cover of Dec. 16 issue. 
O'Leary, Mrs., 77. 
Onions (cartoon), 639. 
Open shop in San Francisco, 192-710. 
Open Window Week (verse), 373. 
Ophthalmia neonatorum. See Blindness. 
Oppressed and Dependent -Nationalities, confer- 
ence, 214, 293. 
Orchard, Dr. 637. 
Oregon. 

Initiative, referendum and recall, 153. 

Minimum wage case re-argued, 517. 

Rural credits, 206. 
Orizaba, 237, 240. 

O'Rourke, Mrs., and new bead of hair. 338. 
Orphans, country for (letter), 344. 
Oshorne, Thos. M., 210, 224, 280, 552. 

Letters on Lane's and Peabody's article on, 
with editorial comment. 285. 

Peabody, Geo. Foster, reply to \V. 1 >. Lane, 
198. 

Prison reform campaign, 173. 

Resigns from Sing Sing, 37. 

Retirement (Lane), 80. 

Retirement (letter), ISO. 

Verses on (A. P. L. Field), 148. 
Out to Win, 463. 
Oviugton, May W. Review of two books on 

B. T. Washington, 4. is. 
Owen, Senator, 492. 
Owen-Hayden bill, 462. 
Owings, Cnloe, 212. 
Oxnard, Cal., 202. 



1' 

Pacifism. 

Germany and, 208. 

Survey and, 729. 
Pacifists. 

College and other, 612. 

Emergency Peace federation, 702. 

Four Winds Fellowship, 514. 

Overruling, 646. 

Referendum movement, 579. 

War relief, 66. 

See also Peace. 
Paget, Lady Ralph, 7, 9. 
Palestine, plight of Jews, 700. 
Pan-American Federation of Labor, 221, 242. 
Paradise, Viola I. Government investigator, 

the, 491. 
Paralysis cure, 323. 
Parks, 370. 

New York (State) election advertisement, 171. 
Patriotic Fund. See Canada. 
Paulding, J. K. Charity, education and the 

state (letter), 470. 
Payton, Wm., 637. 
Peabody, Geo. Foster, 285. 

In reply to (Lane), 210. 

Reply to W. D. Lane about Tims. M. Os- 
borne, 198. 
Peace. 

American organization after break with Ger- 
many, 550. 

American Peace Society meeting, 612. 

America's chance to speak for, 258. 

Basis (letter from M. Franklin), 500. 

Books on, 92. 

Call for private conference, Oct. 20-27. New 
York City, 77. 

Cartoon by L. D. Bradley, t-tfs 

Chances for negotiated, 447. 

Chances for negotiated ; letter on the arti- 
cle, 587. 

Conference of Feb. 22-23, C^O. 

Eastman, Crystal, on. 363. 

Emergency Peace Federation, 762. 

Enduring (Devine), 157. 

English sentiment (B. Russell), 372. 

Germany's overtures, 297, 333. 

Initiative for (letter), 470. 

International music festival for; cover of pro- 
gram, 644. 

Joint effort (private conference, Oct. 26-27), 
149. 

Letters on Bertrand Russell's letter. 441. 

Melish, J. H., sermon of Feb. 4, 563. 

Messages to churches of Europe, 491. 

New York City demonstration on New Year's 
eve, 453. 

People's voice for, 579. 



Plans for a league, 134. 

Ponsonby and Buxton letters, 430. 

Referendum 579. 

Secure, British feeling, 261. 

Whose move? (cartoon), 433. 

Wilson's address to the Senate, Jan. 22 (text), 
488. 

Wilson's inaugural address, 658. 

Wilson's note (text), 377. 

World, 188. 

See also Industrial peace ; Woman's Peace 
Party. 
Penal Board, Maryland, 60. 
Pendleton, Helen B. Negroes in northern cities, 

569. 
Penitentiary : Westchester County, 726. 
Pennsylvania. 

Drug users,, 147. 

Hospitals, 597. 

Legislation, 588. 

War relief, 697. 
Pennsylvania R. R. Co. : employment, 501-502. 
Pensions. 

British military, 727. 

See also Old age pensions ; Widows' pensions. 
People, the (cartoon). 607. 
1'erlman, Ray, 442. 
Person. H. S., 662. 
l'eters, W. W., 317. 
Peterson, Axel, 302. 
Phare de France. 43. 
l'helan. See Ignatius Phelan. 
Phelan, John J. Pool-rooms (letter), 316. 
Philadelphia. 

City Club, 527. 

Food protection, 32. 

Merging social agencies, 433. 

Sugar strike, 696. 

War relief, 697. 
Philanthropy. Sec Schools of pnllanthropy. 
Philo coops (poultry), 59. 
Physical training. 424. 

Without a gun, 552. 
Physicians. See Doctors ; Drugs. 
Pickering, Ruth. Coalition revolution : inter- 
view with V. G. Simkhovitch, 718. 
Pictures and legislators. 725. 
Pilgrim fathers. 187. 
Pinckney, M. W., 204. 
Pine Mountain Settlement School, 627. 
l'ittsburgh. 

Birth control movement, 347. 

Smoke poster, 17:!. 
Pity, experience with, 491. 
Plague, human, 214. 
Play. 369. 

Value, 51. 
Playgrounds. 

Dunes of Indiana, 263. 

Exporting the American. 15-19, 111-118. 

Los Angeles municipal camp, 42. 

Shanghai, 501. 
Play's the Thin//. The, 704. 
Pneumonia in Philadelphia, 660. 
Poems. See Verse. 
Poetry : Gibson, W. W., 409. 
Poland : 

Begging bread for, 398-402. 

Bicknell, E. P. on, 231. 
Police, course in law for, 703. 
Poliomyelitis. 

After-care, 58. 

Automobile theory, 176. 

Distribution by states, 312. 

Education of mothers for after-care, 515. 

First studies and notes. 58. 

Public Health Service aid, 42. 

Report of N. Y. Committee on After Care, 
442. 

Scholarship fund seal, 318. 

Winter cases, 561 
Polish Social Workers, 183, 701. 
Political education, league for, 181. 
Political Science. See New York Academy of 

Political Science. 
Politics, ethics of. 315. 
Pomeroy, Jesse, 529. 
Ponsonby, Arthur, 430. 
Poolrooms. 

Columbus, Ohio, 42. 

Letter on. 316. 
Poorhouse. 

Rich superintendent of, 101. 

Verse on, 641. 

See also Almshouse. 
Popovich, Gen., 10. 
Porter, H. F. J. 

Review of Eichel on fire prevention, 177. 

Work to save New York uy industrial sub- 
communities, 140. 
Portland, Oreg. : birth control, 60. 
Porto Rico workers retain ballot, 434. 
Postal savings, 31. 
Potatoes, 639. 

Potter, Z. L. Petty fines (letter), 500. 
Poultrymen, deaf and blind, 59. 
Poverty. 

Relation to wages, 554. 

Ways to lessen. 211. 
Powell. Warren T. Social center plans wanted 

(letter), 587. 
Powers, L. M. 

L"tter on Holmes' "Penitential hymn", 316. 

Russian prisoners (letter). 440. 
Powlison, Chas. F. Exhibits by mail. 366. 
Praver. 

Day of (Feb. 18), 580. 

Morning (verse), 29. 
Preparedness. 

Army for peace, an (letter), 344. 

Civic hopes, 359. 

Industrial stock-taking, 69i. 



Index 



Preventive medicine, 166. 
l'rice, Dr. Geo. M., 140, 277. 
Trices. 

Coal, 247. 

Government intervention, 246. 

See also Cost of living. 
Prison reform, 198. 

American l'rison Association meeting, 71. 

Bills in various states, 670. 

Byers, J. P., on, 362. 

Campaign by T. M. Osborne, 173. 

I. W. W. writers, 461. 

Motion picture lilm of, 27t>. 
Prisoners, paroled, 212. 
Prisoners of war, dire need, 251. 
Prisons. 

Affairs in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and 
New York, 529. 

Massachusetts director, 37. 

Missouri, 56. 

Naval, 552. 

New jersey, report, 610. 

Sterilization as alternative, 78, 500. 

See a/60 Reformatories ; Slug Sing. 
Probation, 367. 

After-study of men on probation, 311. 

Denied to federal offenders, 462. 
Progressivism, 188. 
Prohibition. 

Amendments proposed, 128. 

Boston election, 413. 

Campaign of 1917, 360. 

Canada, 416. 

Canada (letter), 501. 

College men and, 159. 

Election results, 171. 

England, 24, 26. 

Massachusetts, history, 483. 

National (letter from \V. J. Vance), 558. 

National (letter by Kaltenbach and Woods), 
471. 

National (reply of R. A. Woods to W. J. 
Vance), 558. 

National amendment impending, 340. 

Washington, 206. 

See also Alcohol. 
Proportional representation, 361. 

Calgary, 466. 
Prostitution. 

Book on, 154. 

Chivalry of women, 1. 

Magdalen, 20. 

Magdalen (letters), 287. 

San Francisco, 694. 

Tuberculosis and, 510. 
Protocol, 704. 

Providence, B. I., houses (Ihider), 143. 
Provincetown Players, 78. 
Prussianism, 572. 
Psychology, experimental, 122. 
Public health, 135, 149. 

Advances to be expected, 360. 

Bills on, in various states, 067. 

China, 175. 

Home economics and, 329. 

Minneapolis, 728. 

Municipal Reference Library, New York City, 
317. 

New, the (Hamilton and Seymour) , 100, 450. 

New profession, 168. 

See also American Public Health Association. 
Public health nurse, 168. 
Public health nursing. 

Chicago School of Civics, 285. 

Jacksonville, Fla., 278. 

National organization seal (cut), cover of 
Jan. 20 issue. 
Public Health Service : New York's poliomye- 
litis, 42. 
Public School No. 40, 690. 
Public schools. See Schools. 
Public service. See Society for the Promotion 

of Training for Public Service. 
Public welfare : county boards, 42. 
Publicans and sinners, 138. 
Purdy, Lawson, 265. 



Quakers. 

English in war times, 277. 

London, message on war and Industry, 609. 

Mexican scholarships, 307. 
Quensel, Dr. Ulrik, 599. 
Queretaro, 449. 
Quinlan, Patrick, 461. 
Quintero, G. T., 659. 



R 

Races. 

Mexicans and Negroes, 86. 

Review of books on, 313. 
Raemaekers, Louis. One who can't conceive the 

beauty of war (drawing), 98. 
Railroads. 

Adamson law and Brotherhoods, 414. 

Adamson law commission. 56. 

Bill to restrain strikes, 477. 

Brotherhoods and American Federation of La- 
bor, 204. 

Capital and labor on arbitration, 201. 

Eight-hour day in yards, 374. 

Settling disputes (Commons), 754. 

Supreme Court upholds Adamson law 722. 
Rankin, Jeanette, 171, 285. 
Ransdell-Humpbreys bill, 721. 
Rats, 214. 

Boston, 609. 
Rattlgan.C. F., 530. 
Ravenel, Mazyck P. R'vlew of Hutchinson's 

Community Hygiene, 46i. 



Ray, Mary. Come out of the kitchen, 300. 
Recreation, 369. 

Bills in various states, 668. 

Cleveland survey, 375. 

Girls', 371. 
Recreation Congress, 51. 
Recreational leadership, course in, 731. 
Red Crescent, 118. 
Red Cross. 

Alabama, 695-696. 

American instructions for war time, 549. 

Annual meeting and plans, 416. 

Bicknell, E. P., on, 365. 

Canada, 681, 682, 740-743. 

Civilian plans, 579. 

Food for Serbia, opp. p. 1. 6 14. 

Germany, 687, 689. 

Magazine, 181. 

Mexican invaders and, 621, 

Military units, 578. 

Mobilized on moving day, 085. 

Red Crescent and, 118. 

Serbia, 9. 

Tornado work, 724. 

War relief from America, 63. 

Washington, D. C. building, 685. 
Red Cross seals, 207. 
Redfern, Percy, 637. 
Reed, Dr. C. A. L„ 163. 
Referendums, 128. 

Election results, 206. 

Peace conference on, 647. 

People, the (cartoon), 607. 

See also Peace. 
Reformatory, Connecticut, 581. 
Reformers, 138. 
Reid. Helen R. Y. (with portrait), 67S. 081, 

682, 683. 
Reider, Edith S. Publicans and sinners. 138. 
Relief. 

Cost of living and, 201. 

Psychology, 45. 

Trained service before, 493. 
Religion as patriotism. 314. 

Religious Education Association, program. 443. 
Remedial loans. See Loans. 
Remington Arms-Union Metallic Cartridge Co., 

379-385. 
Repplier. Agnes. 159. 187. 
Reproach among women, a (sketch), 26. 
Restaurants. 

Burton, Bella, plea of, 008. 

Women in. 174, 588. 
Rhein, Dr. H. W., 147. 
Rbinelander. P. M. Letter on The Survey's 

war position, 674. 
Rhode Island. Consumers' League, 182. 
Rich man in the poorhouse. 101. 
Richards,, Rev. Leyton, 252, 637. 
Rights, American : call to uphold. 642. 
Rimka; Albinas. Letter on Lithuania. 616. 
"Ring-around-the-rosie". Calcutta. 114. 115. 
Rivola, Flora S. Sympathy (verse), 395. 
Roadtown Association, 703. 
Roberts, Richard, 637. 
Robins, Mrs. Raymond, 312. 
Robinson, Geo. B. letter on the Strong report, 

344. 
Robinson. Leonard C. 733. 
Rock River Conference. 73. 
Rockefeller, John D., 490. 
Rockefeller Foundation, 276. 277. 

War Relief Commission, 10, 11 (group). 
Rockwood. Dr. H. L, 733. 
"Rod and Serpent" story, 108. 
Roe, A. N. Letter on war, 72. 
Rogers, Arthur C, 619. 
Rojas, Manuel, 450. 
Rose, Mary S„ 607. 
Rosenau, M. J.. 160. 168. 

Rosenwald, Julius, 760. 

Ross, John W., 742. 

Rowell, Chester, 035. 

Rubberoid houses, 227, 229. 

Ruhinow, T. M. Spread of health insurance 

movement, 631. 
Rucker, Dr. Wm. C, 649. 

A country funeral, 331. 
Ruppln, Arthur, 700. 
Russell, Bertrand. 

Letters on his letter, 441. 

Open letter to President Wilson. 372. 
Russell Sage Foundation. 379. 456. 472. 

Survey of Springfield, 111., 503 51:'.. 
Russia. 

Conscription, 493. 

Jewish policy, 461. 

Lithuania and, 531. 

Revolution Interview with V. G. Simkhovileh 
(with cartoons). 718. 
Russian prisoners (letter from I,. M. rowers), 

440. 
Russians : Prisoners In Germany, 337. 
Rutgers, Dr. J., 163. 
Ryan, Dr. Edward, opp. p. 1, 9 14. 



Sabot. 72, 73. 
Sacramento. 

Pity planning. 495 

Dinner to Gov. Johnson. 731. 
Sage. Hen. M., 733. 
St. Louis. 

Central Council of Social Agencies, 193. 

Chamber of Commerce. 602 

Land reclamation. 434. 

School bonds, 200. 

School crisis, 145. 

Social hvglene meeting. 284. 

Tuberculosis verses by Jerry, 288. 

Workhouse, 732. 



Salaried man (cartoon), 275. 
Samoan nurses, Tzl. 
Sanborn, Frank B. 

Appreciation (A. Johnson), 656. 

Portrait, cover of March 10 issue. 
San Diego, Cal., Mexicans in, 625. 
San Francisco. 

Chamber of Commerce, 192. 

Chamber of Commerce and II. F. Grady, 716. 

Open shop and Chamber of Commerce, 192, 
716. 

Prostitution ended, 694. 
Sand dunes. See Dunes. 
Sanderson, John P., 560. 
Sanger. Margaret, 60, 555. 
Sanitation in Serbia, 6-14. 
Santa Claus at his bench (ill.), cover of Dec. 

16 issue. 
Sargent, Dudley A., 552. 
Savage, Sir George, 551. 
Save-a-Life League, 500-501. 
Savings banks, 83. 

Commemoration of first century of American, 
30. 
Si haefer, Philip, 442. 
Scharrenberg, Paul, 202. 
Schereschewsky, Dr. J. W., 137. 
Schneider, Dean, 124. 
Schneider, Franz, Jr., 166, 456. 
Schools. 

Alabama, 318. 

Americanization and military training (N. 
E. A.). 723. 

Boston, 413. 

Boston, and high cost of living, 731 

Buildings, use as centers, 35. 

Chicago, report of Anne S, Davis, 340. 

Educational research, 732. 

Factory children and federal child-labor law, 
311. 

Food, air and military training (letter), 616. 

Gary, 731. 

Home and. 368. 

Making a boy want to go to school, 463. 

Milwaukee, 610. 

National crisis and (Cleveland), 723. 

New York City, need of reorganization, 425. 

Physical education ; model bill, 552. 

Public health training, 168. 

St. Louis crisis, 145. 

Survey in, 724. 

Teachers College experiment. 490. 

Teaching citizenship, 270. 

Why children leave, 340. 

See also Education. 
Schools of philanthropy : cooperation, 318. 
Schuettler, H. F., 463. 
Sc hweinitz, Karl de. Review of Parmelee's 

Poverty and Social Progress, 71. 
Scientific management : facing about, 002. 
Scott, R. C.j Letter on The Survey, 703. 
Scouting, 731. 

Scrubwoman, portrait of a. [216]. 
Scrubwoman in Chicago (letter), 310. 
Seabury essay prizes. 182. 
SearcTUiQht on Congress, 275. 
Searl, Mary I*. Letter on The Survey's war 

position, 670. 
Sears, Amelia, 147. 
Sears, Annie L. Letter on THE SURVEY'S war 

position, 670. 
Seattle Juvenile Court, 704. 

See-saw, Marjory Daw", Calcutta. 117 
Selekman, Ben M. Nine years of the Canadian 
740 759, 704 705. 

Serbia. 

cartoon, 66. 

Typhus and famine, etc. (E. P. Bicknell), 6- 
"14. 
Sermon (J. H. Melish). 563. 
Service, R. W. My foe (verse), 613. 
Settlements. 

Address to, 581. 

Rovs' gift, 148. 

Woods. Robt. A., on, „66. 
Seven day week, 131. 
Sex. 

Book on (Scbolts). 53. 

Single standard of morality, 55. 
Sex education, 437. 

Motion picture films, 33. 
Sex Immorality, new chivalry for, 1. 
Sex problem. L'sT. 
Seymour. Flora W., 51. 
Sevmour, Gertrude. 

New public health, the (with Dr. Alice Ham- 
ilton). 100. 456. 

Review of books on China, 614. 

Review of four books on health, 53. 

Review of Prinzing's Epidemics Resulting 
I rum Wars, 557. 

Review of Rosenau's Preventive Medicine 
and Hygiene, 468. 
Shadows of the war (cut), cover of Oct 7 Is- 
sue. 
Shafrnth. Senator. 491. 

Shanghai, playground, 501. 
Shattuck, Angelo E. Letter on The Sorvbt's 
war position, 074. 

Shelter : psychology, 45. 
Sherwood Forest, Md.. 52, 
Shillady. J. R.. 288. 

Shoes, wooden. 72, 73. 
Short ballot. 364. 
Short t, Adam. 753. 

Shumway. F. P. Antl alcohol advertising (let 

ter), -".ST. 
Sickness. 

Census. Milwaukee. 147. 
Milwaukee losses, 464, 584. 



Index 



XI 



Silhouettes. 

Abstinence and prohibition, bol. 

Alcohol, 418, 419. 

Artist of (letter), 500. 

Grandfather, etc., 485. 

Kaiser and beer-drinker, boo. 

Kansas settlers, 544. 

Uncle Sam's growing thirst, 483. 
Simkhjvitch, Mary K. Address to Settlements, 

581 
Simthovitch, V. G. Coalition revolution in 

Russia (with cartoons), 718. 
Sims, Newt 11 L. Letter on The Survey's war 

position, 674. 
Singh. See Nirman Singh. 
Sinking, 454. 
Single tax, 153, 588. 
' Singleton, Shelby M., 462. 
Sing Sing, 37. 

Derrick s resignation, 429. 
New warden, 291. 
Osborne's retirement, 80. 
See also Osborne, T. M. 
Sing Sing No. 65368. The scarlet house (verse), 

2P6. 
Sioux City, Iowa, 731. 

Organized charities, 502. 
Slavery of yesterday, 341. 
Sleszynski, Thaddeus, 183. 

Polish Social Workers' (letter), 701. 
Slovensko, Jeroslav and Mary, 26. 
Small loan brokers. See American Association, 

etc 
Smith, Alex. W., 201. 
Smith, Clarence F., 678, 682, 683. 
Smith, Hilda W. The rag picker (verse), 165. 
Smith, Rev. Paul, 694. 
Smoke : Pittsburgh poster, 173. 
Smyth, Nathan A., 642. 
Snail vendor. 15-19. 
Sobering up, nations, 420. 
Social agencies. 

Philadelphia, merging, 433. 
St. Louis, 493. 
Social centers. 
Milwaukee, 298. 
Plans wanted (letter), 587. 
Social hygiene. 

American Association, annual meeting, 284. 
Foster, J. H., on, 366. 
Social insurance. 

Massachusetts, 207, 429. 
Ohio, 764. 

Washington conference (Devine), 295. 
See also Health insurance. 
Social Insurance Commission, 631. 
Social Insurance Conference, 632. 
Social legislation. See Legislation. 
Social order, Quakers on, 609. 
Social preparedness for war in Canada, 677. 
Social Progress, 703. 
Social reform in England, 23. 
Social service. 

Episcopal General Convention and, 190. 
Germany during war, 687, 
See also American Institute of Social Serv- 
ice. 
Social surveyor, first, 260. 
Social Unit Organization. See National Social 

Unit Organization. 
Social welfare. 

Democratizing efforts, 303. 
Missouri conference, 318. 
Social work, New Year goals, 358. 
Social workers. 

Boston supporters of the President, 659. 
Detroit, cooperation. 731. 
Health of, examinations, 305. 
Preachment to (Reider), 138. 
Protest from Baltimore to The Survey on 
Pacifism, 729. 
Socialism, the church and, 79. 
Socialists. 

Election results, 171, 172. 
Intercollegiate Society, conference, 52. 
Society for the Prevention and Relief of Heart 

Disease, 278. 
Society for the Promotion of Training for Pub- 
lic Service, conference, 210-211. 
Society of American Indians, conference, 51. 
Socio'ogical Club of New York, 471. 
Sociology, popular, 315. 
Soldiers. 

Blinded, 43. 
British disabled, 727. 
See also Canada ; War In Europe. 
Somebody to talk to", 493. 
Songs, 454. 
Soul, 497. 
South America. 

Child welfare, 222. 
„ Medical societies, 212. 

°outh End House, twenty-five years of, 567. 
gmtnern Sociological Congress, 703. 
gpnn : Dolores (sketch), 15-19. 
gpa elding. Frank E., 734 
spenc-r, Anna Garlin, 646. 
Spigot See Alcohol. 
Spinning, 627, 630. 
Soringfiela. Hi., 341 
S,.™"^. methods and •■esults. 503-513. 

264' s ' : MuDici Pal Week gatherings. 

Standard Oil Co., 61 

Stanw" J? ark T ecreat on cei »ter, 181. 
Stanley, Gov. A. O.. 461. 
Starkweather, Wm„ ['. 16] 

Stat* it he ' i b Y^ y ' ed 'cation and (letter), 470. 
Mate board of health program of a, 456. 
Mate economy, 733. 

Staff 'i SS, J e , s for voterf - on Nov. 7. 128. 
Mate legislatures. 386. 



Steel mills, 38, 172. 

Preacher's vacation in, 149. 
Steel workers' hours, 131. 

Steiner, Edw. A. Face of the nation, the, 126. 
Stella, Joseph. Drawing of Italian women in 

church, cover of Oct. 7 issue. 
Stelzle, Charles, 132. 
Sterilization, 78, 500. 
Stewart, Geo. C. Social service in hall and 

tent, 190. 
Stimson, Henry A. Letter on The Survey's 

war position, 676. 
Stoddard, Cora F. Prohibition, 360. 
Stone, George E., 34. 
Stone, Warren S., 49o. 
"Stones, the, will cry out" (sermon), 563. 
Storey, Chas. J. Review of Comment Re- 

construire Nos Cites Detruite, 152. 
Straus, Oscar. Plan to prevent street car 

strikes, 496. 
Street cleaner, velocipede, 436. 
Street railway fares, collecting, 145. 
Street railway strikes, 496, 583. 

Opposition to arbitration, 608. 
Strikes. 

Bayonne, 61. 

Bill to prohibit railroad strikes, 430. 

Canada, 746-759, 764-765. 

Clothing, 376, 435. 

End of Mesaba Range, 411 

Investigation and suspension of right to 
strike (Williams), 755. 

New York City plan to prevent, 496. 

Preventing street railway, 583. 

Right to strike : bill to restrain strikes, 477. 

Right to strike (Walters), 757. 

Sugar workers in Philadelphia. 690. 

Supreme Court on (Fitch), 737. 
Strong, Anna L., 206, 560. 

Everett's bloody Sunday, 475. 
Strong, Chas. H. 

Letter on his report, 344. 

New York State Conference against his plan, 
207. 

Report on state charities, 130. 

Review of his report (Lane), 194. 
Strong, Dr. Richard P., 11-13. 
Stuart, Edward, 13, 14. 
Subsidies, sectarian, 609. 
Sugar Workers' Union, 696. 
Suicide, 500-501. 
Supreme Court. 

Adamson law, 414, 737. 

Billboard decision. 584. 

Strikes (Fitch), 737. 

Workmen's compensation, 698. 
Surgeon-general, 288. 
Survey, The. 

As supplemental reading in colleges and 
schools, 724. 

Criticisms of its position on war, and reply, 
729, 730. 

Criticism of its position on women in in- 
dustrv by J. Martin and reply, 560. 

Criticized for personalities and controversies 
(letter), 285. 

Letters of appreciation, 588, 616, 703. 

Position on the war issue, 572-577. 

Position on the war issue : letters on edi- 
torial statement of Feb. 17, 674. 
Surveys. 

Cleveland schools, 561. 

Educational, 616. 

Six characteristics, 506-507. 

Springfield, 111., 503-513. 
Suzuki, Bunji, 202. 
Sweden. See Gothenburg system. 
Swedish wood carvings. 302. 
Sweep O' the World, 79. 
Swinnerton, Cornelia L. Letter of appreciation 

to The Survey, 588. 
Switzerland. 

Military system, 492. 

Peace echo, 375. 
Syphilis : yesterday, today, and tomorrow, 176. 
Syrian relief, 56, 119. 



T 

Taber, Marion R., 431. 
Tag-days, 214. 
Taxation, 153. 
Taylor, Graham. 

Review of Adderley's In Slums and Society, 
615. 

Review of Antrim's Fifty Million Strong, 154. 

Review of books on Socialism and on the 
war, 673. 

Review of Bridges's The Religion of Experi- 
ence, 314. 

Review of Goodwin's The Church Enchained, 
439. 

Review of several religious books, 586. 

Social aspect of thrift, 83. 

Unified government for Chicago, 593. 
Taylor Society, 662. 
Teachers : oath of allegiance, Washington, D. C, 

731. 
Teachers College. 490. 
Teaching, first aid to, 209. 
Teasdale, Sara. The poor house (verse), 641. 
Teh, Wm. Lien. The medical renaissance In 

China, 403-408. 
Telephone canvass, 310. 
Teller, Sidney A., 181. 
Terry, Dr. C. E., 278. 
Texas : two schools of civics, 174. 
Third Avenue Railway Co., 145. 
Thomas, Gilbert, 637. 
Thompson, Wm. O. Canadian disputes act, 755. 



Thomson, Alec Nichol, 73. 
Thrasher, S. P., 173. 
Thrift. 

American Bankers' Association on, 30. 

Bibliography, 73. 

Campaign poster, 722. 

Schoolchildren and old papers, 347. 

Social aspect (G. Taylor). 83. 
Thurston, Henry W., 272. 

Review of Butler's Your Boy and His Train- 
ing, 343. 

Review of Kreb's Reaching the Children, 209. 
Tilton, Elizabeth. 

Letter on The Survey's war position, 676. 

Turning off the spigot, 417, 482, 541, 599, 
651. 
Tipping, 174. 

Tippy, Rev. Worth M., 733. 
Tobacco : Kansas cigarette crusade, 494. 
Todd, Arthur J. A job for every alien, 452. 
Todd, Robt., 79. 
"Toddy" gatherer (cut), 111. 
Tokio, hospital. 56. 
Toleration, modern, 224. 
Tornado, Red Cross in wake of, 724. 
Towne, E. T. Letter on The Survey, 703. 
Towne, H. R., 202. 

Canadian disputes act, 75T. 
Towns, Chas. B., 561. 

Drugs and the drug user, 47. 

Drugs : a world problem, 87. 

Letter on "Turning off the Spigot", 702. 

National drug problem, III, 169. 

Work of, 47. 
Toys : old men makers, 309, cover of Dec. 

16 issue. 
Trachoma, 284. 
Trachtenberg, A. L., 493. 
Trade Commission, federal, 247. 
Trade unionism. 

Japan, 202. 

Mexico, 237. 

Women in, 312. 
Tramps. See Vagrancy. 
Trask, Dr. J. W., 457. 
Tree of Light Committee, 285. 
Treitschke, H. von. 315. 
Trenton, N. J., prison, 461, 531, 610. 
Trevelyan, C. P. 

Hands across the sea, 261. 

Letter from a Frenchman in reply to his 
letter, 345. 
Truant children, 366. 

See also Children. 
Tuberculosis. 

American expert (H. M. Bigsjsi, for France, 
436. 

American Review, 561. 

Birth control and, 161. 

California conference, 589. 

Campaign of 1917, program, 359. 

Christmas seals, 207. 

Demonstration at Fram'mgham, Mass., 172. 

Federal aid, 352. 

Federal aid favored, 546. 

Home care, book on, 178. 

Home Hospital, 57. 

Indianapolis parade, cover of Dec. 9 issue. 

Leaflet, New York City, 704. 

Michigan, 79. 

Michigan jails, 494. 

National Children's Society, 728. 

New York, 703. 

Prostitutes and, 516. 

St. Louis Society's boy verses, 288. 

Tuberculosis week, 308. 

Why and when, 79. 
Turkey. 

Oerman apprentices, 703. 

War relief, 118. 
Turning off the spigot. See Alcohol. 
Tuskegee Institute : lynching figures for 1916, 

461. 
Tuskegee Negro Conference, 590. 
Typhus in Serbia, C>. 



U 

Underdog (letter), 559. 
Unemployment. 

Aftermath, Chicago, 584. 
England, 24. 
Massachusetts, 207. 
New York Municipal Bureau, 56. 
War relief work for women in New York, 
65. 
Union Against Militarism. See American Union 

Against Militarism. 
Union of Nationalities. 151. 
Union Park, Boston, 567. 
Unitarian plans for social work, 365. 
United Mine Workers, 145, 146. 
United States. 

Before the break with Germany (Lochner), 

538. 
Constitution and peace league, 491. 
Devine, E. T., on enduring peace In Europe, 

157. 
Devine, E. T., on home rule, 217. 
Face of the nation, the, 126. 
Map, revised, of wet and dry, 541. 
Peace note to the belligerents, 377. 
Peace organizations' positions after break 

with Germany, 550. 
Prospect of war, 563-565. 
War issues as seen bv the editor of The 

Survey, 572-577. 
War without a purpose or armed neutrality 

with a purpose (Hayes), 535. 
See also War in Europe ; War with Ger- 
many. 



Xll 



n 



e x 



U. S. Bureau of Education, 616. 

Simon-pure government department, 664. 
United States Steel Corporation, 38. 
X'tlev. Geo. B. Books for the public, 367. 
Utopia, More's, 223. 



Vagrancy, time to deal with, 268. 
Yaiie, Gertrude. 546. 

Federal aid for consumptives, 352. 

Letter on the Kent bill, 702. 
Valentine, Kobt. G. 

First industrial counselor (Kendall), 180. 

Obituary (with portrait), 181. 
Van Blarcom, Carolyn C, 340. 
Van Hise, C. It., 202. 
Van Kleeck, Mary, 296, 472. 

For women in industry, 327. 
Vance, W. J. National prohibition (letter), 558. 
Vanderbilt, Mrs. Cornelius, 763. 
Vasectomy, 500. 
Venereal diseases. 

Birth control and, 164. 

Chicago, 703. 
Verse. 

America to the nations of Europe, 332. 

At the Community Christmas Tree, 335. 

Birthright, the, 5. 

Child, a, 408. 

Dead laborer, the, 82. 

Intrusion, the, 5. 

.Tust pretend, 326. 

Lighthouse, the (T. M. Osborne), 148. 

Mars exultant, 62. 

Miners, the, 540. 

Morning prayer, a, 29. 

Mv foe (R. W. Service), 613. 

Old age, 604. 

Open Window Week, 373. 

Penitential hymn, 170. 

Poor house, 641. 

Rag picker, The, 165. 

Sandwich-man, the, 301. 

Scarlet house, the, 296. 

Schoolmaster, the (W. B. Gunnison), 423. 

Shadow, the, 657. 

Singer, the, 489. 

Surcease, 262. 

Sympathy, 395. 

Tuberculosis verses by Jerry, 288. 

Wandering, 693. 

Wanted — a playground, 90. 
Village, model, 726. 
Vincent, George E., 276. 

Vocational education. See Industrial education. 
Vocational guidance, 370. 

Mind of a boy, 122. 
Vocational guidance survey, 731. 
Voting. 

New system, 361. 

"Voters' daze", 594. 



W 

Wadhams.' Judge W. H., 61, 165. 
Wadsworth, Eliot, 687. 
Wages. 

Federal report on women and children, 212. 

Ford Motor Co.. women, 146. 

Health and, 517. 

Increases, 246. 

Kelley, Florence, on, 358. 

Relation to poverty, 554. 
Waist and Dressmakers' Union, C99. 
Wait, Wm. B., 181. 
Waitresses. 174, 588. 

Burton, Bella. 608. 
Wald, Lillian D., 641. 
Waldman. Morris D., 561. 
Walter, Henriette R. 

Review of Mergeland's two books on slavery, 
341. 

Review of Proud's Welfare Work, 671. 
Wambaugh, Sarah. Mars exultant (verse), 62. 
War. 

Cartoons by Cesare, 582, 583. 

Child labor and, 762 763. 

Eastman, Crystal, on. 363. 

Insanity decreased by, 214. 

Labor and, 707. 

Letter from A. N. Roe, 72. 

Mars exultant (verse), 62. 

"Misfits" from nerves, 551. 

Objectors, 252. 

Raemaekers drawing. 98. 

School relation to. 723. 

Substitutes recommended bv Emergency Peace 
Federation. 762. 

Survey's position. See under Survey, The. 

Verse on, 613. 

Women organized for, 579. 

See also Conscientious objectors ; Prisoners 
of war. 
War books reviewed, 91. 
War same. Calcutta, 114. 



War in Europe. 

Balch, Emily G., on (United States) and, 
565. 

British feeling, 261. 

Canada's women and their work, 677, 709- 
715, 739-745. 

Devine, E. T., on United States and Europe, 
II, 157. 

England's war policy toward education, 520- 
526. 

Health, effect on, 181. 

Lloyd George's Lincoln Day message, 564. 

Microbes resulting from, 649. 

Shadows of (Italian women in church), cover 
of Oct. 7 issue. 

Social action as a result, 23. 

Some fighters against, 514. 

See also countries involved ; United States. 
War loan (cartoon), 77. 
War relief. 

American contributor and, 63. 

Committee, list, 68. 

New handicaps. 549. 

Pennsylvania, 697. 

Turkey, 118. 

Urged upon the churches, 644. 
War with Germany. 

National service: something to fight for (let- 
ter), 730. 

Schools and crisis (Cleveland), 723. 
Warbasse, James P., 460. 

Letter on The Survey's war position, 675. 
Warburg. Felix M., 336. 
Warren, H. M., 501. 

Everett, and I. W. W., 288. 
Washington. 

Capital punishment, 732. 

Everett's bloody Sunday, 475, 553. 

Preparing social laws for the legislators, 583. 

Prohibition, 206. 

State Conference of Social Welfare, program, 
288. 
Washington, D. C. 

Red Cross mobilized and moved, 685. 

Teachers' oath of allegiance, 731. 
Washington. Booker T., books on, 438. 
Water cure. 323. 

Watrous, Richard B. City and park, 370. 
Watters. James C. Canadian disputes act, 757. 
Weatherford, W. D., 181. 
Webb, Chas. N. The miners (verse), 540. 
Webb-Kenyon law, 444. 645. Cartoon. 653. 
Weber, Joseph J. The health of social work- 
ers, 305. 
Weinstock, Harris. Canadian disputes act, 758. 
Weller, Chas. F., 51. 
Wells, H. G., 464. 
Westchester County (N. Y. i almshouse, 101, 

288. 
Westchester County penitentiary, 726. 
Western Federation of Miners, 241. 
Weston, Mildred. Wanted — a playground 

(verse), 90. 
Wheeler, Chas. B., 500. 

Alcohol silhouettes, 418, 419, 651, 655. 
Whipple, Dr. G. C, 456. 
White, Sir Thomas, 741. 
White, Wm. P. Letter on B. Russell's open 

letter, 441. 
White slave law, 473. 
Whitin, E. Stagg, 173. 
Widow's mite (war cartoon). 77. 
Wiers, Edgar S. Letter on Mrs. Tilton's arti- 
cles. 587. 
Wilcox, Ansley. 318. 
Wilcox. Delos F. Review of Mary and Gauna- 

way's Comparative Free Government, 154. 
Wile, Ira S. 

Letter on birth control, 346. 

Review of Grover's Moral Sanitation, 342. 
Williams. Chas. W., 79. 
Williams, Dr. F. R., 729. 
Williams. J. E, 587. 

Canadian disputes act, 755. 

Chances for negotiated peace, 447. 
Williams, John Skelton, 32. 
Williamson. C. C. Review of Young's Single 

Tax Movement, 153. 
Wilmington, Del. : regional conference on eight- 
hour day, 95. 
Wilson. Geo. S. Letter on The Survey's war 

position. 674. 
Wilson, J. Havelock. British internment camp, 

89. 
Wilson. President. 

Address on "Peace among the nations" (text), 
488. 

Asks for armed neutrality. 642. 

Boston social workers in support of. 659. 

Ideals and attitude on tne war (letter), 730. 

Inaugural and the principal of peace, 658. 

Message. 274. 

On labor disputes, 274. 

Open letter to (B. Russell) . 372. 

Peace note to the belligerents, 377. 
Winkler. Helen. Immigrant girls, 363. 



Winslow, C.-E. A., 135, 456, 459 

R Fojr s ,°76o 0neS ' S Keep - Wel1 8t »-ie* for Little 
Winsto^ Emma A. Food, shelter, and cloth- 
ier!' 44L ing ' ^"^ ° D B ' RUSS " ls open 
Wisconsin conference on feeblemindedness, 211- 

Wise Stephen S. Letter on Osborne's work, 9 8 fi 
Woglom, W. H. Review of Hoffman's voVk 

on cancer, 178. 
Woman Congressman. 171. 
Woman Physician, 73. 
Woman suffrage. 

"Beeters" and (letter), 284 

Ohio, 617. 

State legislation, 646. 
Woman's Municipal League. 704. 
Woman's Peace Party, 561, 647. 

Second annual meeting, 307. 
Women. 

Breaking down labor safeguards it. New 
York, 726. 

Canadian Patriotic Fund (with portraits) 
677-684, 705, 709-715, 739-745. '' 

Chivalry of women to, 1. 

Conference on eight-hour day. 275. 

England, industrial pursuits "in wartime, 464 

For women in industry (new department), 

Industry (letter from J. Martin), 560. 

Leadership in trade unions, 312. 

Legislation protecting, 666. 

Minneapolis Bureau of Municipal Research 
and, 300. 

Munition makers. 379-3S5. 605. 

Organized for war service. 579. 

Position in reconstructed Germanv, 731. 

Reformatory in Connecticut, 58L 

Reproach among (sketch), 26. 

Self-release (111.), 301. 

Spread of campaign for shorter hours, 95. 

Wages at Ford Motor Co., 146. 

Waitresses, 174. 

Working, health, 318. 
Wood. Arthur Evans. 

Review of Barnett's Operation of the Initi- 
ative, Referendum, and Recall in Oregon, 
153. 

Review of Hecker's Russian Sociology, 556. 
Wood, Dr. Francis C, 337. 
Wood, Gen. Leonard, 444. 

Wood carvings of a Swedish peasant lad, 302. 
Wooden shoes, 72. 73. 
Woodlock, Thos. F. 

Charity film (letter), 179. 

Letter on More's Utopia and M. B. Fuller, 
441. 

Letter on sex moralitv. 55. 
Woodruff. Clinton R. Civic preparedness, 359. 
Woods, Amy, 212. 
Woods, Robert A.. 55. 

National prohibition. 349. 

National prohibition (reply to H. J. Kalten- 
bach), 471. 

Reply to W. J. Vance on national prohibition. 
558 

Settlements. 366. 
Woodward. Dr. Wm. C. 136. 
Woollev, Helen Thompson. 

Mind of a boy. the, 122. 

Review of Hollingworth's Vocational Psy- 
chology, 2S0. 
Work cure, 43.1. 
Workingmen, houses for. 505. 
Workmen's compensation. 

Bills, state and national, 667. 

Federal law commission. 443. 

U. S. Supreme Court upholds state laws. 6P«. 
World Conference on Faith and Order. 472. 
World Court (periodical). 142. 
World peace. See Peace. 
Wright, Frederick A. Old age (verse). 604. 
Wrieht. Henry C, 432. 
Wvomlng. 

Convicts. 36. 

Mental tests In court, 427. 
Wyon (sculptor), 637. 

Y 

Yale Universitv health department. 176. 
Yates, John, 733. 

Yerkes-Brtdges point scale. 123. . 

Young, Nannie. Review of the Countess of 

Warwick's .1 Woman and the Wa', (00. 
Y. M. C. A. 

Border work, 205. 

Outlook, 368. 

Thrift campaign poster, 722. 
Y W C. A.. 209. I 

Yucatan schools seeking United States help, 659 



Zionist Jews in Jerusalem. 760. 
Zoning. See Housing 









7 THE NEW ONCE-A-MONTH EDITION 

SOrW€y 

A JOURNAL OF SOCIAL EXPLORATION 

f ^ 

i o 

Disturbing Conventions JANE AQD^MS C 

National Stress : A Stimulus to Social Action PERCY ALDEN 

Magdalen EDITH HOUGHTON HOO 

Doctors Courageous: Serbia ERNEST P. BICKNELD 

Dolores : Vendor of Snails C. M. GOETHE 





SHADOWS OF THE WAR 

Kneeling Women in a Church in (he Italian quarter of Neu) York 
OCTO ber 7 IQl6 ° RA W V F ° R THE SURVEY BY J° SEPH STELLA 



PRICE 25 CENTS 



Charles E. Hughes and Social Progress 

Why Workers in Social, Civic and Industrial lines 
are eager for the election of Hughes 

By Frances A. Kellor 



THE BIG ISSUES OF THIS CAM- 
PAIGN ARE: 

An undiluted Americanism. 

The preservation of American 
standards of living. 

Social and industrial prepared- 
ness. 

Economic and efficient national 
housekeeping. 

A fair chance for the Youth of 
America. 

Those can be guaranteed to the 
nation only by national action. 

Of laws to secure them, we have 
merely the first crude outlines. 
We must push on, and in the 
meantime have an administration 
of the few Federal statutes 
marked by high vision, sympathy 
and courage. 

The skeletons of existing laws 
must be given flesh and blood by 
an energetic Executive backed by 
intelligent co-operation. Public 
opinion, based on nation-wide 
education, must be called to his 
support. 

The decisions that will face 
America after the war will de- 
termine her future. The work- 
ers who have been through the 
grime of battle with Governor 
Hughes in New York know that 
he will do for the nation what he 
has done for New York. 

Upon his record as Governor of 
New York State, we ask the peo- 
ple of this country to elect Mr. 
Hughes as President. The qual- 
ities he has shown in the State of 
New York are the qualities most 
needed in a National Executive 
for these United States in the 
critical years before us. 




THE RECORD OF GOVERNOR 
HUGHES. 

Let us examine his record as an 
effective worker for social prog- 
ress in New York. 

Every social and civic worker was 
behind Hughes when he was Gov- 
ernor of New York. 

They were always welcome, they 
were consulted, and they were 
trusted to serve the State in many 
responsible positions. 

Hughes used the power, the 
vision, the spirit, the intelligence, 
the facts, the organization, the re- 
sources and the facilities of these 
workers for the Statewide im- 
provement of conditions. 

From 1906 to 1910 the record of 
social progress in New York State 
is a record of co-operation, under- 
standing and service between the 
Chief Executive and the thou- 
sands of disinterested public 
spirited men and women who 
work unceasingly for the welfare 
of the whole people of the State. 

GOVERNOR HUGHES' CON- 
STRUCTIVE ACTS. 

He reorganized the Department 
or Labor, and made it a real 
power in the State. 

He secured the passage of laws 
restricting the employment of 



children in factories, and pro- 
hibiting their employment in cer- 
tain kinds of dangerous trades. 

He insisted upon the adequate in- 
spection of mercantile establish- 
ments, so that the safety and pro- 
tection of women might be 
greater. 

He strengthened the regulations 
of employment agencies so that 
the New York law now offers the 
most adequate protection the un- 
employed have in any state. 

He initiated the movement for 
Workmen's Compensation. New 
York was the first state to adopt 
the principle of compulsory com- 
pensation. 

He protected the savings of the 
people by a thorough system of 
banking reform. He protected 
the youth of the state by the aboli- 
tion of race track gambling. 

In all these efforts Mr. Hughes 
was a pioneer, building solidly as 
he went. The stability of his 
social measures and their per- 
manent place in our national rec- 
ord are due to their combination 
of social idealism with sound 
legislative detail. 

GOVERNOR HUGHES FOR 
AMERICANISM. 

What America is discovering in 
1916 of the need for uniting 
America under one flag, New 
York under Governor Hughes in 
1910 knew, and set about to 
remedy. A Commission of Immi- 
gration was appointed and its 
findings led to the organization 
in the State Department of Labor 
of a Bureau of Immigration to 






deal with all the phases of the 
problem — education, citizenship, 
employment, home conditions, 
savings. 

This Bureau of Immigra- 
tion provided information 
centers, where the immi- 
grant could be started 
right, and also for a court 
of conciliation — the first 
in America — where the im- 
migrant could be set right 
in his relations to other 
men. It provided facilities 
for learning English and 
for qualifying for effective 
citizenship. 

New Jersey, Massachu- 
setts, Rhode Island and 
( 'alifornia have since ap- 
pointed commissions based 
upon the New York State 
policy. 

GOVERNOR HUGHES 
AND THE HOME. 

Failing to get legislative 
authority in 1910 for the 
appointment of a commis- 
sion to study congestion 
of population, Governor 
Hughes nevertheless named an 
unpaid commission, appointing 
to it such experts as Flor- 
ence Kelly, John Mitchell and 
Stephen Wise. 



that the anti-tuberculosis cru- 
sade was inaugurated and laws 
passed establishing county hos- 
pitals. 




Copyright 
Underwood 

d Underwood 



In his first message as Governor, 
he advocated a probation sys- 
tem which deals with offend- 
ers without commitment to insti- 
tutions. In the face of vigorous 



He signed bills 
curbing the "loan 
sharks," control- 
ling dance halls, re- 
stricting the sale of 
cocaine, guarantee- 
ing a safe milk 
supply, protecting 
sailors in New 
York harbors and 
in boarding houses. 
He stood against 
every attempt to 
weaken the law 
governing tene- 
ment houses. It 
was during his 
admin i strati on 



The National Hughes Alliance 

511 Fifth Avenue, New York City 



President. W. CAMERON FORBES . Man. 
Vice-President. PHILIP J. McCOOK. New York 
Treasurer, A. W. SHA\y Illinois 



Assist. Treat.. JOHN H. 1SELIN. New York 

Secretary. A. F. COSBY New York 

Asst. Secy. WM. J. NORTON, . . . Illinois 



antagonism, a law was finally 
passed creating a state commis- 
sion to supervise the reform of 
the probation system. Later, Gov- 
ernor Hughes secured 
other laws to extend the 
system and increase its 
efficiency. In the appoint- 
ment of probation officers, 
he was a staunch defender 
of the merit system. 

A law passed under his 
administration authoriz- 
ing the appointment in 
New York City of a board 
of inebriety contained the 
most modern ideas on the 
subject of the reformatory 
and curative treatment of 
drunkards. It included 
the protectionary over 
sight of those not under 
the care of institutions, 
and it provided a farm 
colony, a hospital and a 
parole plan for those com- 
mitted to institutions. 

Now, all this is practical 
Americanism. It insures 
a united America in the 
homes and industries of 
America. Every one of us who is 
interested in social progress 
wants to see such a programme 
translated into action on a na- 
tional scale, and we know that the 
man to do it is the 
one who made this 
record as Gover- 
nor of New York 
— C h a r 1 e s E. 



NATIONAL COUNCIL 



Theodore Roosevelt, New York 
William H.Taft, Conn. 
Charles Francis Adams, Mass. 
Henry W. Anderson, Va. 
Albert J. Beveridge, Ind. 
Theodore E. Burton. Ohio 
William Hamlin Childs, N. Y. 



George F. Edmunds, Cal. 
Mrs. H. Clay Evans, Tenn. 
Mrs. Wm. Dudley Foulke, In- 
diana 
Herbert S. Hadley, Mo. 



Herbert J. Hagerman, Ne\ 

Mexico 
Frederick R. Hazard, N. Y. 
Henry L. Higginson. Maas. 
Robert T. Lincoln, III. 
Franklin MacVeagh, 111. 
Trumart H. Newberry, Mich. 



Horace Porter, New York 
Raymond Robins, Illinois 
Elihu Root, New York 
Julius Rosenwald, III. 
Henry L. StimBon, N. Y. 
George Von L. Meyer, Mast*. 
Augustus E. Willson, Ky. 



Tear out and matt 

THE NATIONAL HUGHES ALLIANCE, 511 Fifth Avenue, New York City 

□ Gentlemen: _. Enro] , me as a member of The 

I. Enroll me in The Hughes Alliance I — I Hughes Alliance. I attach check 

as a voter who will support Mr. which you may use in your efforts 

Hughes in the coming election. towards Mr. Hughes' election. 



Nar, 



Address- 



In 1912 I voted for 



Hughes ! 



Enroll in The 

National Hughes 

Alliance! 

It is a union of men of 
all parties. 

The Hughes Alliance is 
not the Repuolican part.v : 
it is not a party at all. 

Whatever your politiial 
creed, you can join the Al 
liance without cutting loose 
from your own party. 

There are no dues ; no 
pledge to support any party 
platform or any candidate 
except Hughes. 

Women may enroll with 
the Woman's Committee 
through The National Alii 
ance. 




AN IMPORTANT AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY* 

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In a narrative having the progressive interest of a novel 
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Mrs. Fels relates how her husband's philanthropic endeavors, 
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Mr. Fels became a single taxer, not because he wanted to 
reform fiscal methods, but because he gradually learned to un- 
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By Mary Fels 
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f M _ JjNk 
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WOMAN 
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SOME CHRISTIAN CONVICTIONS 

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A complete descriptive catalogue will 
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YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



209 Elm Street 

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o 



CONTENTS for OCT. 7, 19 16 Tfo gist */ it 



VOL. XXXVII, NO. I 

FRONTISPIECE 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

Disturbing Conventions ------- jane addams 1 

Two Poems ; The Birthright, The Intrusion - - charles haven myers 5 
Doctors Courageous. Serbia, the battleground not only of the Balkan armies 

but of physicians and nurses ----- ernest p. bicknell 6 

Exporting the American Playground — IV. Dolores. Vendor of Snails 

C. VV. GOETHE 15 

Life's Clinic — VI. Magdalen edith houghton hooker 20 

National Stress. A stimulus to social action - percy alden, m. p. 23 

A Reproach Among Women - - louise Montgomery 26 

A Morning Prayer, a poem - - Frances beers 29 

THE COMMON WELFARE 

The Month ----- - 30 

Private Savings and Public Thrift - - 30 
Foods Blush Unseen Behind a Veil - - - -32 

When the Movies go in for Sociology - - -33 

Splitting the Expense of Community Centers - - - - 35 

Convicts Offer Reward - ---36 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES Inc. PUBLISHERS 

ROBERT W. de FOREST President 
ARTHUR P. KELLOGG Secretary FRANK TUCKER Treasurer 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICE 

112 East 19 Street, New York 2539 Michigan A\e., Chicago 



NATIONAL COUNCIL 



ROBERT W. de FOR 

JANE ADDAMS, Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL, Washington 

ROBERT S. BREWSTER, New York 

RICHARD C. CABOT, Boston 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS, St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE, New York 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, Boston 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND, Boulder, Colo. 

SAMUEL S. FELS. Philadelphia 

LEE K. FRANKEL, New York 

JOHN M. GLENN, New York 

C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, Calif. 



F.ST Chairman 

WILLIAM E. HARMON, New York 
WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego 
JOSEPH LEE, Boston 
JULIAN W. MACK, Chicago 
V. EVERIT MACY, New York 
CHARLES D. NORTON, New York 
SIMON N. PATTEN, Philadelphia 
JULIUS ROSENWALD, Chicago 
GRAHAM TAYLOR, Chicago 
FRANK TUCKER, New York 
LILLIAN D. WALD, New York 
ALFRED T. WHITE, Brooklyn 



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JANE ADDAMS finds the new chivalry 
of women for each other as well as a 
gentler attitude of society toward sex im- 
morality based in part on the personal ex- 
periences of women who have been forced 
to challenge the age-old conventions safe- 
guarding family life. Page 1. 

TYPHUS and famine have been more 
cruel invaders of Serbia than the Austrian 
armies. Between sanitation and food dis- 
tribution the Rockefeller War Relief Com- 
mission has been kept on the jump trying 
to patch together this broken Balkan state. 
Page 6. 



THE SAME old drama of man and wife 
and "'the other woman" enacted in a 
Slovak tenement house with a new motive 
and a new ending. Page 26. 

THREE red lottery tickets landed Dolores, 
the Spanish snail vendor, in jail. And the 
same mania to get something for nothing 
has landed Spain in a muddle of corrupt 
politics and false standards of work and 
play. Page 15. 



I'.ELLINI painted the Magdalen with sor- 
rowing clear eyes, white skin, wonderful 
long hair. But today realism would put 
on the canvas Violet Lanz, foul with dis- 
ease, wasted by drugs, ugly and filthy. 
Page 20. 



GOVERNMENT regulation of food 
prices, housing, the liquor traffic and em- 
ployment is evidence in England that the 
state is taking new interest in the citizens 
that serve it. If only the spirit of social 
reform can endure after this period of 
national stress, one member of the Eng- 
lish Parliament believes the terrible cost 
of war may be mitigated. Page 23. 

MILK may be worth its weight in molten 
gold in New York city by the end of this 
week. The newly organized Dairymen's 
League and the milk-selling companies are 
at loggerheads. Page 30. 

THRIFT in its larger social aspects was 
one of the chief topics discussed by the 
American Bankers' Association at a meet- 
ing marking the centennial of the first 
savings bank. Page 30. 



CHARITY? — with a question mark — and 
How Life Begins, two motion picture films 
in the social field, were privately exhibited 
last week. Page 33. 

FOOD in Philadelphia has been put under 
fly-netting, a first step, it is hoped, toward 
real regulation in the interest of the public 
health. Page 32. 




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VOLUME XXXVII, No. 1 




/ 
OCTOBER 7, 1916 



Disturbing Conventions 



By yane Addams 



IN sharp contrast to the function of memory as a 
reconciler to life, are those individual reminiscences 
which, because they force the possessor to challenge 
existing conventions, act as a reproach, even as a 
social disturber. When these reminiscences, founded upon 
the diverse experience of many people unknown to each 
other, point to one inevitable conclusion, they accumulate 
into a social protest, although not necessarily an effective 
one, against existing conventions, even against those which 
are most valuable and are securely founded upon cumu- 
lative human experience. But because no conventionalized 
tradition is perfect, however good its intent, most of them 
become challenged in course of time, unwittingly illustrat- 
ing the contention that great social changes are often 
brought about less by the thinkers than by "a certain native 
and independent rationalism operating in great masses of 
men and women." 

The statement is well founded that a convention is at 
its best, not when it is universally accepted, but just when 
it is being so challenged and broken that the conformists 
are obliged to defend it and to fight for it against those 
who would destroy it. Both the defenders of an old 
custom and its opponents are then driven to a searching of 
their own hearts. 

Such searching and sifting is taking place in the con- 
sciences of many women of this generation whose suffer- 
ings, although strikingly influencing conduct, are seldom 
expressed in words until they are told in the form of re- 
miniscence after the edges have been long since dulled. 
Such sufferings are never so poignant as when women have 
been forced by their personal experiences to challenge the 
valuable conventions safeguarding family life. 

A WOMAN whom I had known slightly for many 
years made an appointment with me one day and 
came to Hull House escorted by her little grandson. Her 
delicate features, which were rather hard and severe, soft- 
ened most charmingly as the little boy raised his cap in 
goodby from the vanishing automobile. In reply to my ad- 
miring comment upon the sturdy lad and his affectionate 
relation to her, she began the interview by saying abruptly : 
"You know he is really not my grandson. I have scarcely 



admitted the doubt but the time is coming when I must 
face it and decide his future. If you are kind enough to 
listen I want to tell you my experience in all its grim 
sorrow. 

"My husband was shot twenty-seven years ago, under 
very disgraceful circumstances, in a disreputable quarter 
of Paris. You may remember something of it in the news- 
papers, although they meant to be considerate. I was left 
with my little son and with such a horror of self-indulg- 
ence and its consequences that I determined to rear my 
child in strict sobriety, chastity and self-restraint, although 
all else was sacrificed to it. Through his school and college 
days, which I took care should be far from his father's 
friends and associations, I always lived with him, so bent 
on rectitude and so distressed by any lack of self-control 
that I see now how hard and rigorous his life must have 
been. I meant to sacrifice myself for my child; in reality 
I sacrificd him to my narrow code. 

"The very June that he took his master's degree, I my- 
self found him one beautiful morning lying dead in his 
own room, shot through the temple. No one had heard 
the report of the revolver, for the little house we had taken 
was so on the edge of the college town that the neighbors 
were rather remote, and it must have occurred while I sat 
alone in the moonlight on the garden bench after he had 
left me, my mind still filled with plans for his future. 

"I have gone over every word of our conversation that 
evening in the garden a thousand times. We were plan- 
ning to come to Chicago for his medical course, and I had 
expressed my exultant confidence in him to withstand 
whatever temptation a city might offer, my pride in his 
purity of thought, his rectitude of conduct. It was then 
he rose rather abruptly and went into the house. to write 
the letter to me which I found on his table next morning. 

"In that letter he told me that he was too vile to live 
any longer, that he had sinned not only against his own 
code of decency and honor, but against my lifelong stand- 
ards and teachings, and that he realized perfectly that 1 
could never forgive him. He evidently did not expect 
any understanding from me, either for himself or for 'the 
young and innocent girl' about to become the mother of 
his child ; and in his interpretation of my rigid morals he 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



was quite sure that I would never consent to see her, but 
he wrote me that he had told her to send the little thing 
to me as soon as it was born, obviously hoping that I might 
be tender to the innocent although I was so harsh and un- 
pitying to the guilty. I had apparently never given him a 
glimpse beyond my unbending sternness, and he had all un- 
wittingly pronounced me too self-righteous for forgive- 
ness ; at any rate, he faced death rather than my cold dis- 
approbation. 

"The girl is still leading the life she had led for two 
years before my son met her. She is glad to have her 
child cared for and hopes that I will make him my heir, 
but understands, of course, that his paternity could never 
be established in court. So here I am, old and hard, be- 
ginning again the perilous experiment of rearing a man 
child. 

"I suppose it was inevitable that I should hold the girl 
responsible for my son's downfall and for his death. She 
was one of the wretched young women who live in college 
towns for the express purpose of inveigling young men, and 
often deliberately direct their efforts toward those who are 
reputed to have money. I discovered all sorts of damag- 
ing facts about her, which enabled me to exonerate my son 
from intentional wrong-doing, and to think quite honestly 
that he had been lured and tempted beyond his strength. 

"The girl was obliged to leave the little town, which was 
filled with the horror and scandal of the occurrence, but 
even then, in that first unbridled public censure against 
the 'bad woman' who has been discovered in the midst of 
virtuous surroundings, there was a tendency to hold me ac- 
countable for my son's death, whatever the girl's earlier 
responsibility may have been. In my loathing of her I 
experienced all over again the harsh and bitter judg- 
ments through which I had lived in the first years after 
my husband's death. I had secretly held the unknown 
woman responsible for his end, but of course it never oc- 
curred to me to find out about her, and I certainly could 
never have brought myself to hear her name, much less to 
see her. I have at least been better than that in regard to 
the mother of my 'grandson', and Heaven knows I have 
tried in all humility and heartbreak to help her. 

"She fairly hated me, as she did anything that reminded 
her of my son — the entire episode had seemed to her so 
unnatural, so monstrous, so unnecessary — she considered 
me his murderer, and I never had the courage to tell her 
that I agreed with her. Perhaps if I had done that, really 
abased myself as I was willing she should be abased, we 
might have come into some sort of a genuine relation born 
of our companionship in tragedy. But I couldn't do that, 
possibly because the women of my generation cannot 
easily change from the traditional attitude towards what 
the bible calls 'the harlot'. At any rate, I didn't succeed in 
'saving' her. She so obviously dreaded seeing me, and ouf 
strained visits were so unsatisfactory and painful, that I 
finally gave it up and her son has apparently quite for- 
gotten her. I am sure she tries to forget him and all the 
tragic scenes associated with his earliest babyhood, when I 
insisted not only upon 'keeping mother and child together' 
but also in keeping them with me." 

After a moment's pause she resumed : "It would have 
been comparatively easy for me to die when my child was 
little, when I still had a right to believe that he would 
grow up to be a good and useful man, but I lived to see 
him driven to his death by my own stupidity. I have en- 
countered the full penalty for breaking the commandment 
to judge not. I passed sentence without hearing the evi- 



dence; I gave up the traditional role of the woman who 
loves and pities and tries to understand; I forgot that it 
was my mission to save and not to judge. 

"As I have gone back over my unmitigated failure 
again and again, I am sure at last that it was the sorry 
result of my implacable judgment of the woman I held re- 
sponsible for my husband's sin. I did not realize the 
danger nor the inevitable recoil of such a state of self- 
righteousness upon my child." 

AS she paused in the recital I rashly anticipated the con- 
clusion, that her bitter experiences had brought the 
whole question to that tribunal of personal conduct whose 
concrete findings stir us to our very marrow with shame 
and remorse ; that she had frantically striven, as we all 
do. to keep herself from falling into the pit where the 
demons of self-reproach dwell, by clinging to the conven- 
tional judgments of the world. I expected her to set them 
forth at great length in self- justification and perhaps, be- 
longing as she so obviously did, to an older school, she 
might even assure me that the wrong to those to whom it 
was now impossible to make reparation, had forever lifted 
her above committing another such injustice. 

I found, however, that I was absolutely mistaken and 
that whatever might be true of her, it still lay within me 
to commit a gross injustice, when she resumed with these 
words : "It is a long time since I ceased to urge in my own 
defense that I was but reflecting the attitude of society, 
for, in my efforts to get at the root of the matter I have 
been convinced that the conventional attitude cannot be 
defended, certainly not upon religious grounds." 

She stopped as if startled by her own reflections upon 
the subject of the social ostracism so long established and 
so harshly enforced, that women seem held to it as through 
an instinct of self-preservation. 

She was, perhaps, dimly conscious that the tradition that 
the unchaste woman should be an outcast from society- 
rests upon a solid basis of experience, upon the long 
struggle of a multitude of obscure woman who, from one 
generation to another, were frantically determined to es- 
tablish the paternity of their children and to force the 
father to a recognition of his obligations; and that the liv- 
ing representatives of these women instinctively rise up in 
honest rebellion against any attempt to loosen the social 
control which such efforts have established, bungling and 
cruel though such control may be. 

Further conversation showed that she also realized that 
these stern memories inherited from the remote past have 
an undoubted social value and that it is a perilous under- 
taking upon which certain women of this generation are 
bent in their efforts to deal a belated justice to the fallen 
woman. It involves a clash within the very mass of in- 
herited motives and impulses as well as a clash between old 
conventions and contemporary principles. On the other 
hand, it must have been obvious to her in her long effort 
to get at "the root of the matter" that the punishment and 
hatred of the bad woman has gone so far as to overreach 
its own purpose; it has become responsible for such hard- 
ness of heart on the part of "respectable" women towards 
the socalled "fallen" ones, that punishment is often in- 
flicted not only without regard to justice, but in order to' 
feed the spiritual pride, "I am holier than thou". Such 
pride erects veritable barricades across the path of human 
progress, deliberately shutting out sympathetic under- 
standing. 

The very fact that women remain closer to type than 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



men do and are more swayed by the past, makes it difficult 
for them to defy settled conventions. It adds to their 
difficulty that the individual women, driven to modify a 
harsh convention which has become unendurable to them,- 
are perforce those most sensitive to injustice. The sharp 
struggle for social advance, which is always a struggle be- 
tween ideas long before it becomes embodied in contend- 
ing social groups, may thus find its arena in the tender 
conscience of one woman who is pitilessly rent and pierced 
by her warring scruples and affections. Even such a 
tentative effort in the direction of social advance exacts 
the usual toll of blood and tears. 

FORTUNATELY the entir eburden of the attempt to 
modify a convention which has become unsupport- 
able, by no means rests solely upon such conscientious 
women. Their analytical efforts are steadily supplemented 
by instinctive conduct on the part of many others. A great 
mass of "variation from type" accelerating this social 
change, is contributed by simple mothers who have been 
impelled by a very primitive emotion. This is an over- 
whelming pity and sense of tender comprehension, doubt- 
less closely related to the compunction characteristic of all 
primitve people which, in the earliest stages of social de- 
velopment, long performed the first rude offices of a ssnse 
of justice. This early trait is still a factor in the social 
struggle, for as has often been pointed out, our social state 
is like a countryside of a complex geological structure with 
outcrops of strata of very diverse ages. 

Such compunction sometimes carries the grandmother 
of an illegitimate child to the point of caring for the child 
when she is still utterly unable to forgive her daughter, 
the child's mother. Even that is a step in advance from the 
time when such a daughter was driven from the house and 
her child, because a bastard, conscientiously treated as an 
outcast both by the family and by the community. 

SUCH an instance of compunction was recently brought 
to my attention when Hull House made an effort to 
place a subnormal little girl twelve years old in an institu- 
tion in order that she might be protected from certain de- 
signing men in the neighborhood. The grandmother, who 
had always taken care of her, savagely opposed the effort 
step by step. She had scrubbed the lavatories in a public 
building during the twenty-five years of her widowhood, 
and because she worked all day had been unable to pro- 
tect her own feebleminded daughter who, when she was 
barely fifteen years old, had become the mother of this 
child. When her granddaughter was finally placed in the 
institution, the old woman was absolutely desolated. She 
found it almost impossible to return home after her day's 
work because "it was too empty and lonesome, and nothing 
to come back for. You see," she explained, "my youngest 
boy wasn't right in his head either, and kept his bed for 
the last fifteen years of his life. During all that time T 
took care of him the way one does of a baby, and I 
hurried home every night with my heart in my mouth 
until I saw that he was all right. He died the year this 
little girl was born and she kind of took his place. I kept 
her in a day nursery while she was little, and when she 
was seven years old the ladies there sent her to school in 
one of the subnormal rooms and let her come back to the 
nursery for her meals. I thought she was getting along 
all right and I took care never to let her go near her 
mother." 

The old woman made it quite clear that, because her 



daughter was keeping house with a man to whom she was 
not married, she seldom went to see her. In her simple 
code, to go to such a house would be to connive at sin, 
while she was grateful that the man had established a con- 
trol over her daughter which she had never been able to 
obtain. She always referred to her daughter as "fallen", 
although no one knew better than she how unguarded the 
girl had been. 

As I saw how singularly free this mother was from self- 
reproach and how untouched by indecisions and remorses 
for the past, I was once more inpressed by the stout habits 
acquired by those who early become accustomed to fight 
off black despair. Such habits stand them in good stead 
in their old age, and at least protect them from those pen- 
sive regrets and inconsolable sorrows which inevitably 
tend to surround whatever has once made for early happi- 
ness as soon as it has ceased to exist. 

Many individual instances are found in which a woman 
hard pressed by life, includes within her tenderness the 
mother of an illegitimate child. A most striking example, 
of this came to me through a woman whom I kney years 
ago as she daily brought her three children to the Hull 
House day nursery, obliged to support them by her work in 
a neighboring laundry because her husband had deserted 
her. I recall her fatuous smile as she used to say that 
"Tommy is so pleased to see me at night that I can hear 
him shout 'Hello, ma' when I am a block away." I had 
known Tommy through many years, periods of adversity 
when his father was away and succeeding periods of fitful 
prosperity when his father returned from his wanderings 
with the circus with which "he could always find work" 
because he had once been a successful acrobat and later a 
clown, and "so could turn his hand to anything that was 
needed." 

Perhaps it was inevitable that Tommy should have made 
his best friends among the warm-hearted circus people 
who were very kind to him after his father's death, and 
that long before the child labor law permitted him to sing 
in Chicago saloons, he was doing a sucessful business sing- 
ing in the towns of a neighboring state. He was a droll 
little chap, "without any sense about taking care of him- 
self," and in those days his mother not only missed his 
cheerful companionship, but was constantly anxious about 
his health and morals. After he grew older and became 
a professional he sent his mother money occasionally, al- 
though never very much and never with any regularity; 
but she was always so pleased when it came that the two 
daughters supporting her with their steady wages were in- 
clined to resent her obvious gratification, as they did the 
killing of the fatted calf on those rare occasions when the 
prodigal returned "between seasons" to visit his family. 

It is possible that his mother thus early acquired the 
habit of defending him, the black sheep, against the stric- 
tures of the good children, who so easily become the self- 
righteous when they feel "put upon". However that may 
be, five years ago, after one daughter had been married to a 
skilled mechanic and the other, advanced to the position of 
a forewoman, was supporting her mother in the compara- 
tive idleness of keeping house for two in three rooms, a 
forlorn girl appeared with a note from Tommy, asking his 
mother "to help her out until the kid came and she could 
work again." 

The steady daughter would not permit "such a girl to 
cross the threshold" and the little household was finally 
broken up upon the issue. The daughter went to live with 
her married sister while the mother, having moved into 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



one room with "Tommy's girl," went back to the laundry 
in order to support herself and her guest. 

The daughters, having impressively told their mother 
that she could come to live with them whenever she "was 
willing to come alone," dropped the entire situation. In 
doing this, they were doubtless instinctively responding to 
a habit acquired through years of "keeping clear of the 
queer people father knew in the circus and the saloon, 
crowds always hanging around Tommy," in their secret 
hope to come to know respectable young men. Con- 
scious that they had back of them the opinion of all right- 
eous people, they could not understand why their mother, 
for the sake of a bad girl, had deserted them in this praise- 
worthy effort in which hitherto she had been the prime 
mover. 

Tommy had sent his "girl" to his mother on the eve of 
his departure for "a grand tour to the Klondike region" 
and since then, almost four years ago, she has heard noth- 
ing further from him. During the first half of the time 
the two women struggled on together as best they could, 
supporting themselves and the child, who was brought 
daily to the nursery by his grandmother. But the pretty 
little mother, gradually going back to her old occupation of 
dancing in the vaudeville, had more and more out-of-town 
engagements, and while she always divided her earnings 
with the baby, the grandmother suspected her of losing in- 
terest in him, a situation which was finally explained when 
she confessed that she was about to be married to a cabaret 
manager who "knew nothing of her past," and to beg that 
the baby might stay where he was. "Of course, I will pay 
board for him, but his father can be made to do something, 
too, if we can only get the law on him." 

IT was at this point that I had the following conversation 
with the grandmother, who was shrewd enough to see 
that the support of the baby was being left upon her hands, 
and that she could expect no help from either his father or 
mother, although she stoutly refused the advice that the 
whole matter be taken into the Court of Domestic Rela- 
tions. 

"If I could only see Tommy once I think I could get him 
to help, but I can't find out where he is, and he may not 
be alive for all I know ; he was always that careless about 
himself. If he put on a new red necktie he'd never know 
if his bare toes were pushing out of his shoes. He prob- 
ably didn't get proper clothes for 'the Klondike region' 
and he may have been frozen to death before this. But 
whatever has happened to him, I can't let his baby go. I 
suppose I've learned to think differently about some things 
after all my years of living with a light-minded husband. 
Maggie came to see me last week, for she means to be a 
good daughter. She said that Carrie and Joe were buying 
a house way out on the West Side, that they were going to 
move into it this month, and that she and I could have a 
nice big room together. She said, too, that Carrie would 
charge only half- rate board for me, and would be glad to 
have my help with the little children, for they both think 
that nobody has such a way with children as I have. The 
night before, when she and Carrie were playing with the 
little boy, they remembered some of the funny songs father 
used to teach Tommy, and how jolly we all were when he 
came home good-natured and would stand on his head to 
make the candy fall out of his pockets. 

"I know that the two girls really want me to come back, 
and that they are often homesick, but when I pointed to the 
bed where the baby was and asked, 'What about him?' 



Maggie turned as hard as nails and said as quick as a flash, 
'We're all agreed that you'll have to put him in an institu- 
tion. We'll never have any chance with the nice people in 
a swell neighborhood like ours if you bring the baby.' She 
looked real white then, and I felt sorry for her when she 
said, 'Why, they might even think he was my child, you 
never can tell,' although she was ashamed of that after- 
wards and cried a little before she left. 

"She told me that she and Carrie, when they were chil- 
dren, were always talking of what they would do when 
they got old enough to work; how they would take care 
of me and move to a part of the city where nobody would 
know anything about the outlandish way their father and 
Tommy used to carry on. Of course, it was almost telling 
me that they didn't want me to come to see them if I kept 
the baby." 

My old friend was quite unable to formulate the motives 
which underlay her determination, but she implied that 
clinging to this helpless child was part of her unwavering 
affection for her son when, without any preamble, she con- 
cluded the conversation with the remark, "It's the way I 
always felt about him," as if further explanation were un- 
necessary. 

Was it all a manifestation of Nature's anxious care — 
so determined upon survival and so indifferent to morals — 
that had induced her long devotion to her one child least 
equipped to take care of himself ; and for the same rea- 
son had the helpless little creature whose existence no one 
else was deeply concerned to preserve, become so entwined 
in her affections that separation was impossible? 

FKOM time to time a mother goes further than this, she 
fairly "drags memory aloft" with her in her determin- 
ation to deal justly with the unhappy situation in which her 
daughter is placed. When the mother of a so-called 
"fallen" girl is of that type of respectability which is se- 
curely founded upon narrow precepts inherited through 
generations of careful living, it requires genuine courage 
to ignore the social stigma in order to consider only the 
moral development of her child, although the result of such 
courage doubtless minimizes the chagrin and disgrace for 
the girl herself. 

In one such instance the parents of the girl, who had 
been prevented from marrying her lover because the 
families on both sides objected to differences of religion, 
have openly faced the situation and made the baby a be- 
loved member of the household. The pretty young mother 
arrogates to herself a hint of martyrdom for her faith's 
sake, but the discipline and responsibility are working 
wonders for her character. In her hope of earning money 
enough for two she has been stirred to new ambition, and 
is eagerly attending a business college. She suffers a cer- 
tain amount of social ostracism, but at the same time her 
steady courage excites genuine admiration. 

In another case a fearless mother exacts seven dollars 
a week in payment of the board for her daughter and the 
baby, although the girl earns but eight dollars a week in 
a cigar factory and buys such clothing for two as she can 
with the remaining dollar. She admits that it is "hard 
sledding," but that the baby is "mighty nice". Whatever 
her state of mind, she evidently has no notion of rebelling 
against her mother's authority, and is humbly grateful 
that she was not turned out-of-doors when the situation 
was discovered. It is possible that her mother's remorse 
at her failure to guard her daughter from wrong-doing en- 
ables her thus grimly to defy social standards which, al- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER j, 1916 



though they are based upon stern and narrow tenets, 
nevertheless epitomize the bitter wisdom of generations. 
Such mothers, overcoming that timidity which makes it so 
difficult to effect changes in daily living, make a genuine 
contribution to the solution of the vexed problem. 

IN spite of much obtuseness on the part of those bound 
by the iron fetters of convention, these individual cases 
suggest a practical method of procedure. For quite as pity 
and fierce maternal affection for their own children, drove 
mothers all over the world to ostracize and cruelly punish 
the "bad woman" who would destroy the home by taking 
away the breadwinner and the father, so it is possible that, 
under the changed conditions of modern life, this same 
pity for little children, this same concern that, even if they 
are the children of the outcast, they must still be nourished 
and properly reared, will make good the former wrongs. 
There has certainly been a great modification of the harsh 
judgments meted out in such cases as women all over the 
world have endeavored, through the old bungling method 
of trial and error, to deal justly with individual situations 

Each case has been quietly judged by reference to an 
altered moral standard, for while the ethical code as well 
as the legal code needs constant revision, the revision is 
always privately tacit and informal in marked contrast 
to the public and ceremonious acts of legislators and 
judges when the former is charged. 

Such measure of success as the organized woman's 
movements have attained in this direction, has come 
through an overwhelming desire to cherish both the illegiti- 
mate child and his unfortunate mother. In addition to 
that, the widespread effort of modern women to obtain a 
recognized legal status for themselves and their own chil- 
dren, has also been largely dependent upon it, at least in 
the beginnings of the movement. 

Women slowly had discovered that the severe attitude 
towards the harlot had not only become embodied in the 
statutory law concerning her, as thousands of court de- 
cisions every day bear testimony, but had become regis- 
tered in the laws and social customs pertaining to good 
women as well ; the Code Napoleon, which prohibited that 
search be made for the father of an illegitimate child, also 
denied the custody of her children to the married mother ; 
those same states in which the laws considered a little girl 



of ten years the seducer of a man of well-known immoral- 
ity, did not allow a married woman to hold her own prop- 
erty nor to retain her own wages. 

The enthusiasm responsible for the world wide woman's 
movement was generated in the revolt against such gross 
injustices. The most satisfactory achievements of the 
movements have been secured in the Scandinavian coun- 
tries where the splendid code of laws protecting all women 
and children have apparently been founded on the instinct 
lo defend the weakest, and upon a determination to lighten 
that social opprobrium which makes it so unreasonably 
difficult for a mother to support a child born out of wed- 
lock. In Germany, where the presence of over a million 
illegitimate children under the age of fourteen years made 
the situation acute, the best women of the nation, assert- 
ing that all the attempts to deal out social punishment 
upon the mothers resulted only in a multitude of ill- 
nourished and weakened children, founded the Mutter- 
schutz movement which, through its efforts to secure jus- 
tice and protection for these mothers, has come to be the 
great defender of the legal rights for all German women. 

In this contemporary modification of an age-old tradi- 
tion there are also evidences of that new chivalry of 
women for each other, expressing protection for those at 
the bottom of society. It suggests a return to that ideal- 
ized version of chivalry which was the consecration of 
strength to the defense of weakness, unlike the actual 
chivalry of the armed knight who served his lady with 
gentle courtesy while his fields were ploughed by peasant 
women misshapen through toil and hunger. There are 
many examples of this new chivalry such as the recent 
protest of the best women of Hungary who rose in pro- 
test against a proposed military regulation requiring that 
young women in domestic service who are living in the 
vicinity of barracks be examined each week by a medical 
officer in order to protect the soldiers from disease. The 
women spiritedly resented the assumption that these girls 
simply because they are the least protected of any class 
in the community, should be subjected to this insult. An 
incident of this sort once again illustrates that moral 
passion is the only solvent for prejudice, and that women 
have come to feel reproached and disturbed when they 
ignore the dynamic urgency of memories as fundamental 
as those upon which prohibitive conventions are based. 



TWO POEMS 

By Charles Haven Myers 



THE BIRTHRIGHT 

A CHILD is born. 'Tis God's divinest ray 
That sends, washed clean in heaven's etheric sea, 
This lovely, throbbing casket of sweet clay. 
The answer to a mother's holy plea. 
Today the hope of life mounts higher ; 
Here dimly burns the potent fire of one 
Ordained to rule or teach ; perchance his lyre 
Shall catch the music of the primal sun. 
What sacred venture waits this urgent soul 
To conquer fear and hate, to stem the tide 
Of sordid lust and still maintain control. 
O Love, enswathe with Truth and calmly guide 
Until he face the battles for the Right, 
Then dower the man with regnant will to fight. 



THE INTRUSION 

A CHILD is slain. Immortal plans are spoiled 
And swift the painful tremor runs until 
Each lonely star doth know God's will is foiled. 
Once more the laws of Moloch we fulfill. 
Shall nascent dreams of eager youth be wrecked, 
Shall lust for pelf, or deadly ignorance, 
Or our emasculated creeds neglect, — 
Nay, kill these tender buds of innocence? 
Where prison-mills shut out the fragrant air, 
Where poisoned alleys reek with fetid breath. 
Where speeds the wicker motor car to tear 
In crimsoned dust a crumpled form — grins Death. 
Awake ! Ye stupid men. Stain not with blood 
Of helpless babes the Galilean code. 



Doctors Courageous 

Serbia, the Battleground not only of the Balkan Armies but 

of Physicians and Nurses 




BURYING THE TYPHUS DEAD 



Copyright by International Netcs Service 



SIR THOMAS LIPTON visited Serbia at the 
height of the typhus epidemic. He brought 
physicians and nurses and hospital supplies in 
his yacht, "Erin," to the harbor of Saloniki, and 
transported them thence by rail into the, interior. On 
entering Serbia he called at the American Red Cross Hos- 
pital in Gevgheli, where he quickly established himself 
on terms of friendship. Two weeks later, returning 
through Gevgheli, Sir Thomas learned that his friend Dr. 
Donnelly was lying dead of typhus. Before the physician 
had passed into the period of delirium which character- 
izes the progress of typhus, he stated that in case the 
attack should prove fatal he wished to be buried with 
the American flag and the Red Cross flag wrapped about 
him. The hospital in Gevgheli possessed no flags large 
enough for this purpose. When this story was told Sir 
Thomas, he sent immediately to his yacht for large flags, 
which were hurried back to Gevgheli, and Dr. Donnelly's 
dying wish was granted. 

This is but one incident in the history of the Balkans 
during the last two years, one human episode perhaps a 
trifle more dramatic than others, which has marked the 
process through which sturdy and independent little Ser- 
bia has been beaten to earth by a series of crushing mis- 
fortunes, and throughout which help has been reached out 
to her stricken folk against unexampled odds, by physi- 
cians and nurses and friendly people of many nations. 

To what extent Serbia has been the author of her own 
miseries I know not, nor shall I here attempt to discuss 
that subject. A country of simple, primitive peasantry, 
Serbia had fought herself free from the yoke of the Turk, 



and had arisen erect and vigorous after four hundred 
years of galling subjection. Through a succession of in- 
ternal wars, won first by the leaders of one and then of 
another of two rival families, she had gradually brought 
herself into the forms of a stable government. 

A period had been reached some five years ago when 
Serbia seemed ready for industrial and commercial de- 
velopment. It was true that the individual pastoral life 
of the farmers and mountaineers had not equipped them 
for the more complex relations of such community life 
as accompany the upbuilding of industrial and commercial 
centers. Education was not extensively developed, but 
had not been neglected. A national university in Belgrade 
was attended by several hundred students. A statue had 
been erected in Belgrade to a famous educator who had 
simplified the language and had reformed the alphabet by 
eliminating four of its thirty-six letters. 

As Serbia, like her sister Balkan states, is without recog- 
nized caste or social stratification, she has no class of no- 
bility expect the members of the royal family : and as 
the royal line has shifted frequently from one 
dynasty to another, even the recognition of royalty itself 
has not led to the establishment of a permanent and 
hereditary royal line. Kings have been set up and re- 
moved so frequently by revolutionary movements, that 
the monarch is not hedged about by those traditions of 
sanctity or divine right which are to be found in older 
and more highly developed societies. No iron bonds of 
custom prevent Serbia's lowliest shepherd from aspiring 
to place or responsibility in the public service. The men 
of Serbia have universal suffrage. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



Serbia is a land of small estates. Great landholders are 
virtually unknown. As a rule the Serbian farmer or 
mountaineer lives upon his own small farm. He is as- 
sured of the permanency of his home by a wise law 
which provides that a certain minimum number of acres 
of land cannot be taken from him for taxes or debt. He 
cannot mortgage or otherwise encumber this land in such 
a manner as to make it possible for a creditor to deprive 
him of it. He is also entitled to retain, against all finan- 
cial obligations, a certain number of oxen and other farm 
animals and a certain equipment of implements. It has 
thus come about that Serbia is owned by a great number 
of small farmers who are absolutely secure in the pos- 
session of their homes. The result is that there are no 
large fortunes in Serbia and that there is a remarkably 
uniform and equitable distribution of land. This system 
makes for the development of a highly individualistic and 
independent people. The idea of combined effort or co- 
operation has made but little impress upon the Serbian 
mind. 

Lady Ralph Paget, who has lived much in Serbia, 
where her husband for some years was the British Min- 
ister, said to me that the loyalty of the Serbian is to his 
home rather than to his country. It was her opinion 
that the impelling force which drives the Serbian to join' 
the army and fight valiantly is the intense desire to save 
his home. Lady Paget was authority for the statement 
that in the course of the war which now prevails the 
Serbian soldier in some measure lost heart and determina- 
tion when the section in which his own home was situ- 
ated was overrun and captured by the enemy. 

Although Serbia has no titled nobility, a sharp and 
striking distinction exists between the peasants and the 
military leaders. The contrast between the simple, plod- 
ding peasant, in his primitive homespun garb, and the 
dapper, alert, elegant, and ultra-sophisticated army officer 
is constantly thrust upon the attention of the traveler. 
As a whole the people are hospitable and kindly, but the 
necessity for protecting themselves for centuries against 
the exactions of the Turks, and later against the aggress- 
ions of ambitious and lawless factional leaders among 
their own people, has made them cautious and suspicious. 
It is only fair to say of them that their troubles as a 
people have been due, so far as Serbia has been at fault, 
to the machinations of a few ambitious leaders. The 
people as a whole would be content to live quietly within 
their mountains and valleys, with little thought or knowl- 
edge of those questions whose solution leads to relations 
either of friendship or hostility with other nations. 

Simple, Independent and Home-Loving 

If I have accomplished my purpose, I have pictured the 
Serbian people as strong, simple, kindly, independent and 
home-loving. Although not yet developed by education 
and experience to a high order of ability in the organ- 
ization of complex public or private affairs, the nation 
seemed to have so freed itself from the handicap of 
oppressive governmental fetters as to be on .the threshold 
of a new epoch of prosperity and advancement. At this 
point Serbia's attention was diverted from the cultivation 
I and strengthening of her home affairs by the outbreak 
of the war with Turkey, in which Greece and Bulgaria 
were her allies. No sooner was this war carried to a suc- 
cessful issue than a controversy arose between Serbia 
and Bulgaria in the division of territory wrested from 
Turkey. This difficulty led on immediately to war, in 



which Serbia was the victor, with the result that a large 
section of Macedonia, which had been taken from Turkey 
and claimed by both Serbia and Bulgaria, was added to 
Serbian territory. 

Serbia now found herself saddled by a national debt 
of over two hundred million dollars. Her population 
was about four and a half million, of which one-third, 
living in the territory just taken from Turkey were 
unassimilated, unfriendly and a source of immediate ex- 
pense rather than help. She had lost approximately 
thirty-one thousand men by death through the wars of the 
two years preceding, and her recuperative power had been 
further reduced by the permanent disability of many thou- 
sand men who had been wounded. Here the system of 
small land holdings proved of great value, because it 
enabled the wives and children of the soldiers to success- 
fully continue the cultivation of the farms while the wars 
proceeded. The country, however, was much reduced in 
resources, which only years of effort could restore. 

Before the recuperation of the country could fairly be- 
gin the heir to the Austrian throne was assassinated by 
a Serbian, and Serbia was again plunged into war. Her 
lack of preparation for this contest was obvious and 
pathetic. However, she put her army, now composed 
largely of thoroughly tested veterans, into the field, 
equipped as well as possible under the circumstances. 
Then came the outbreak of an epidemic of typhus, be- 
lieved to have been more extensive and fatal than any 
similar outbreak of that disease of which any record ex- 
ists. Finally came the tremendous invasion by the Teu- 
tonic and Bulgarian forces, which swept the army, the 
court, and the entire governmental organization beyond 
the country's boundaries and left the little nation prostrate 
and helpless in the hands of the conqueror. 

Serbia's Multiplied Woes 

Famine followed quickly upon the subjugation of the 
country, and the people, especially those within the cities 
and towns, faced the threat of starvation. Thus, Serbia's 
woes have been multiplied and heaped mountain high dur- 
ing the last five years, these crowding calamities having 
fallen upon the country at the moment when her prospects 
for future prosperity and development seemed brightest. 

In the autumn and winter of 1914 Serbia was twice 
invaded by the Austro-Hungarian forces. Although in 
both instances the Serbian army drove the invaders out 
of the country, these invasions and counter military oper- 
ations resulted in great destruction of life and property in 
the northwestern part of the country, which is its most 
fertile and productive section. Five-sixths of Serbia con- 
sists of mountains, the remainder comprisng the level and 
well-cultivated plain adjoining the frontier of Austria to- 
gether with many narrow, winding valleys, which contain 
restricted agricultural areas. 

The military operations in the region invaded, there- 
fore devastated the most highly developed and densely 
populated portion of the country. The population of this 
region fled southward into the mountains or congregated 
in the cities and towns remote from the Austrian fron- 
tier. Of the population of Belgrade, the capital, amount- 
ing normally to approximately one hundred thousand, only 
fifteen thousand remained in the city when that place was 
taken by the Austrians. The flight of the refugees south- 
ward led to a serious congestion of population in the 
cities and towns of the interior. Without accumulated 
stocks of food supplies and with the richest farm lands in 



8 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



the hands of the enemy, Serbia saw her people brought 
suddenly face to face with famine. 

Fugitve reports of these conditions came to the atten- 
tion of the War Relief Commission of the Rockefeller 
Foundation, whose mission in Europe was to investigate 
the effect of the war upon civilian peoples and to assist 
in organizing measures for the relief of distress among 
non-combatants. Accordingly, the members of the Com- 
mission of which the writer was director, resolved to 
visit Serbia for the purpose of offering their services if 
an investigation confirmed the reports of suffering which 
were in circulation. As it was not possible at that time to 
cross the Austro-Serbian frontier, the commission traveled 
by way of the neutral countries of Roumania and Bul- 
garia (the latter not having declared war at that time), 
and entered Serbia from the east, reaching Nish, the tem- 
porary capital, in the middle of February, 1915. 

It was not until the commission had arrived at Nish 
that we learned of the actual extent of the epidemic of 
typhus, of which we had previously heard only incidental 
mention. For military and diplomatic reasons, it seems, 
the Serbian government and its allies had withheld the 
full facts from publication. Therefore it was with sur- 
prise that we found ourselves in the midst of conditions 
which were more menacing and deadly than the threat 
of armed invasion by the enemy's forces. 

Origin of the Typhus Epidemic 

Differences of opinion exist as to the origin of the 
epidemic. In Nish, we were informed by the Serbian 
authorities that the outbreak of typhus and its swift ex- 
tension to every part of the country were to be explained 
as follows : 

When the Austrian army invaded Serbian territory it 
brought with it this disease. Many Austrian soldiers died 
of typhus while with the army of occupation, and in this 
way Serbian houses, in which Austrians were quartered, 
became infected. Later, in an important battle in which 
the invading army was defeated, the Serbians captured 
about sixty thousand Austrian prisoners. The burden of 
maintaining and guarding these prisoners was so heavy 
that the Serbian government found it necessary to dis- 
tribute the load. Accordingly, detachments of prisoners 
were sent to all the important cities and towns in the 
country, where they were quartered in public buildings. 
In this way the seeds of typhus were widely scattered. 

Serbian soldiers, who guarded the prisoners, and civil- 
ian employes about the places of confinement, contracted 
the disease, and through them it spread into both homes 
and barracks. All the railway cars in the country were 
employed in the transportation of the prisoners, and the 
lice, which are the medium of the dissemination of typhus, 
were left in the cushions and upholstery and crevices of 
the cars. When civilians occupied the same cars later, 
they carried away some of the lice upon their bodies or 
clothing, and these dangerous insects were gradually dis- 
tributed among the private homes, the hotels, the soldiers' 
quarters, and even the cabs upon the city streets. A more 
effective means of introducing infectious disease into 
every section of a country and into every home cannot 
easily be imagined. It became quite impossible for any- 
one in Serbia, no matter how scrupulously he endeavored 
to safeguard himself, to avoid exposure to the disease. 

Later we were officialy informed by Austro-Hungarian 
authorities that their armies did not introduce typhus 
into Serbia, but that, on the contrary, their soldiers had 



found the epidemic when they entered the country and 
that it had been only by the application of the most drastic 
measures that the typhus had been prevented from caus- 
ing widespread havoc among the Austrian and Hungarian 
troops. 

No matter what had been its origin, the epidemic had 
reached appalling proportions when we entered Serbia. 
Absorbed in the prosecution of the war, without adequate 
resources to combat the spread of the disease, and with a 
'inge of fatalism which seemed to explain the absence 
of that fierce activity of resistance which similar condi- 
tions would evoke in a Western population, the helpless 
people were swept away by thousands. 

Typhus Conditions Described 

One day during our stay in Nish it was reported that 
the local cemetery contained the unburied bodies of two 
hundred and fifty typhus victims, the force of grave dig- 
gers being entirely unable to keep up with the work. In 
the city of Skoplje, with a population of probably about 
seventy thousand, including refugees and soldiers, we were 
informed on our visit there of more than two thousand 
cases. In the American Red Cross Hospital in Gevgheli, 
out of about fourteen hundred patients, one thousand 
were suffering from typhus. In the American Red Cross 
Hospital in Belgrade, where health conditions were better 
than at any other point in all Serbia, were 165 cases of 
typhus, with a much larger aggregate number in several 
other hospitals in the same city. 

In a camp near Nish containing two thousand Austrian 
prisoners, we found 666 cases. No facilities existed for 
segregating the sick from the well, but all together occu- 
pied long, unfloored buildings, where they lay upon loose 
straw placed upon the ground. The single medical at- 
tendant was an Austrian physician, himself a prisoner, 
but when we visited the camp this physician had himself 
fallen a victim to the disease. Serbian soldiers, guarding 
this camp, came and went freely between camp and city, 
and civilians also traveled back and forth frequently in 
connection with various kinds of employment. There can 
be little doubt that this camp served as a malignant center 
of infection for the city of Nish and the surrounding 
country. 

A military hospital in the outskirts of Nish was so 
crowded with patients that it had been necessary to fasten 
the narrow iron beds together in pairs and to place three 
patients crosswise upon each pair of beds. This expe- 
dient was still insufficient, and several hundred patients 
lay upon blankets on the floor between beds. Of the 
nine hundred patients in this hospital, about three hundred 
and fifty were suffering from typhus. 

In going about this hospital we came upon one elderly 
woman engaged in washing the hospital linen. She had 
had several companions, but all had died from typhus 
contracted by contact with the linen from the hospital 
beds. Other women refused to accept this dangerous em- 
ployment. The only washing of hospital linen for the 
nine hundred patients was therefore being done by this 
one woman, with the aid of the most primitive equipment. 

Doctors and Nurses Unprotected 

The physicians of Serbia could do little. We were told 
that in all Serbia, prior to the outbreak of the last war, 
there were only 367 physicians. During the first sixty 
days following the outbreak of the epidemic, ninety of 
these physicians had died of typhus, and before the epi- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER j, rgi6 



demic was terminated in midsummer fully one-third of all 
the native physicians had given up their lives. 

Many foreign physicans and nurses had gone to Serbia, 
following the outbreak of the war, to give their services in 
the care of the sick and wounded in military hospitals. The 
United States, France, England, Russia, Greece, Switzer- 
land and perhaps other countries were represented among 
these groups. When the typhus suddenly swept across the 
country, the foreign doctors and nurses were caught wholly 
unprepared to protect their patients or themselves against 
its approach. Wherever we went about Serbia stories 
were told us of the calm courage and the gallant fight 
which these foreigners had made against hopeless odds. 

In Skoplje, where eighteen English doctors and nurses, 
sent by the British Red Cross Society, were in charge of 
a hospital, only three of the number had escaped the 
disease at the date of our visit. Several had died, others 
had been invalided home, and others were at that time 
lying ill in the care of the three members of the unit who 
had not yet succumbed. 

Lady Ralph Paget, at the head of another unit of doc- 
tors and nurses, informed us that her people were being 
attacked by typhus one by one, and she stated, in a mat- 
ter of fact and entirely passionless way, that she had no 
doubt whatever that she herself would presently be at- 
tacked by the disease. About two weeks afterward, and 
just after we had left Serbia, we learned that Lady Paget 
was a victim of typhus and that her recovery was ex- 
tremely doubtful. Happily, however, she did recover, and 
resumed her work immune now and more capable of 
useful service than before. 

Six American Red Cross physicians and twelve Ameri- 
can Red Cross nurses were in charge of the military hos- 
pital at Gevgheli. This hospital was situated in an ancient 
tobacco warehouse, and was without any modern and 
adequate facilities for sanitation or disinfection. When 
the epidemic appeared among the patients, the physicans 
and nurses, without the means of self-protection, threw 
themselves with unselfish devotion into the attempt to 
check its spread. This they were unable to do, but as a 
result of their self-sacrifice, two of the physicians and 
nine of the nurses contracted the disease. Dr. James Don- 
nelly, head of the unit, died. Dr. Ernest MacGruder died. 
Fortunately, the others recovered. Throughout this bitter 
ordeal the little group of foreign men and women, far 
from home and friends, faced their terrible plight without 
panic, going steadily about their duties until one by one 
they were struck down. 

Even in Belgrade, where better conditions and facili- 
ties were to be found than elsewhere for combatting the 
spread of the disease, it continued for many weeks in the 
hospitals and among the civilian population. Several of 
the American Red Cross nurses contracted it but eventu- 
ally all recovered. Dr. Edward Ryan, director of the 
hospital, himself came down, but after his associates had 
despaired of his recovery, fought his way through, and 
at the end of weeks of slow convalescence resumed his 
duties. 

As an illustration of that calm strength and unswerving 
devotion to duty which characterized the services of the 
American physicians and nurses in Serbia, I may be par- 
doned for relating the following story : 

It was in the early winter of 1914 when the armies of 
Austria had forced their way into Serbia. The surrender of 
Belgrade, the capital, was imminent. Late at night a Serbian 
official hurried to the Red Cross Hospital, awakened Dr. 



Ryan and informed him that the Serbian army was evacu- 
ating Belgrade. He was urged to get his American doc- 
tors and nurses quickly together and accompany the evacu- 
ating forces. The Austrian army, it was said, was ex- 
pected to attack the city at any moment. 

Refused to Desert His Post 

Dr. Ryan declined to go. He said that his hospital was 
filled with sick and wounded men, and that it was the 
duty of himself and his associates to remain. He was 
strongly urged, and the dangers of remaining, while the 
victorious, conquering army entered and took possession 
of the city, were pointed out to him. He conferred with 
his associates, and steadfastly refused to leave. When 
the Serbian official found that it was impossible to per- 
suade the American Red Cross unit to tlee, he requested 
Dr. Ryan to take charge of several other hospitals in Bel- 
grade, filled with sick and wounded Serbians. This in- 
creased responsibility was accepted. The Serbian army 
withdrew ; the civil governmental officials, both national 
and municipal, also, and with them went most of the people 
of the city. 

After the evacuation, the Austrian forces did not at 
once come into the- city, and a number of days elapsed 
during which Belgrade had no government. Disorder- 
broke out among the lawless part of the population, rob- 
beries and murders were committed upon the streets, and 
a period of demoralization began. Dr. Ryan called a con- 
ference of such men of substance as could be found, and 
led in the formation of a committee of fifteen which set 
up a provisional government for the city. This govern- 
ment quickly restored order and maintained it until the 

Copyright by Underwood & Underwood 




VILLAGE SCENE IN SERBIA 

The ox-carts arc bringing water from the mountains. 



10 



THE SURl'liY I-' OR OCTOBER 



JQl6 



Austrian armies entered. Without authority, without 
citizenship, this young American doctor, by force of moral 
courage and determination, thus rendered an important 
service to a large number of helpless and leaderless people. 
When the Austrian army entered Belgrade and took 
possession of the city, an officer called on Dr. Ryan and 
notified him that the Austrian military authorities, being 
now in full possession of Belgrade, desired to take charge 
of the hospitals, and requested that Dr. Ryan and his unit 
withdraw. Dr. Ryan declined, stating, as he had previ- 
ously stated to the departing Serbians, that his duty to the 
great number of sick and wounded in his charge required 
him to remain. He added that he was ready to care for 
Austrians as well as Serbs. The Austrian officer's request 
changed to a demand, but without avail. Dr. Ryan then 
went to the headquarters of the commanding officer of 
the Austrian forces, explained his position and his sense 
of duty to the thousands of patients in his charge, and 
the commanding general thereupon yielded, consenting to 
allow the Americans to remain in control. 

Enmity Died Under Red Cross Flag 

Immediately the Austrians began sending their sick and 
wounded into the hospital, and soon the suffering soldiers 
of both Serbian and Austrian armies, enemies as they 
were, lay side by side, under the neutral flag of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross. Then appeared the great underlying fact 
that these men were not personal enemies at all. They 
fraternized in the hospital, and seemed for the time to 
forget the deadly warfare which existed between their 
countries. 

Two weeks after the Austrian armies marched victori- 
ously into Belgrade, the Serbian forces again drove them 
back across the border into their own country, and the 
Serbian people were once more in control of their capital. 
They found the Red Cross hospitals filled with patients, of 
whom now a majority were Austrian. Before the Austrian 
army departed, its commander expressed his strong ap- 
preciation of the stand which Dr. Ryan had taken, and of 
the devoted and skillful service which his group had 
given to the Austrian patients placed in their charge. He 
stated that his army was now about to leave, and he asked 
only that Dr. Ryan would look after the welfare of his 
Austrian patients, following the departure of the Aus- 
trian army, as bravely and faithfully as he had looked after 
the welfare of the Serbian patients following the en- 
trance of the Austrian army into the Serbian capital. 

This story cannot be complete until I have added that 
Dr. Ryan and his people remained peacefully and use- 
fully in Belgrade until the last invasion by the Austrian 
and German forces. When Belgrade was again taken the 
captors again found Dr. Ryan and his group in charge 
of the hospitals. This time, without question and with 
every evidence of confidence, they placed the care of their 
own sick and wounded men in his care. 

A Benevolent Regicide 

The Rockefeller Foundation War Relief Commission 
spent two weeks in traveling about Serbia, observ- 
ing conditions among the civil popualtion. conferring 
with government officials, the officers of the Serbian 
Red Cross, the National Serbian Relief Committee, and 
many local officers and committees Every facility for 
obtaining all necessary information was placed at our dis- 
posal, and an attache of the Foreign Office was detailed 
to travel with us in order to give us every possible assist- 



ance. In the city of Skoplje we received great help and 
many courtesies from the military commander in charge, 
who proved to be General Popovich, one of the leaders 
in the conspiracy which a few years before had caused the 
assassination of Serbia's King and Queen. The con- 
nection of General Popovich with this desperate enter- 
prise naturally led us to regard him with peculiar inter- 
est. Regard for fairness compels me to say that he is a 
man of benevolent appearance, with a kindly blue eye and 
gentle manner. He was thoughtful of our comfort and 
wishes, self-effacing and most courteous, possessing none 
of those outward characteristics which might be expected 
to mark a man who had been an active participant in so 
tragic and deplorable an event. 

As we went about the city of Skoplje, a member of our 
party observed in a shop window some ancient, brass- 
bound and richly ornamented weapons, and remarked that, 
when opportunity offered, he intended to return to the 
shop and purchase one or two as souvenirs. Later in the 
day an officer drove up to our hotel and left for us an 
armful of strange, picturesque and beautiful old pistols 
and yataghans. He also left a message from the com- 
manding general, who begged us to accept these memen- 
toes with his compliments. Afterward, when we again 
saw the general and protested against the acceptance of 
these rare weapons, he assured us with a shrug and a 
wave of the hand that in the recent war with Turkey 
the Serbians had captured vast quantities and had tons 
of them stored in a warehouse. 

We permitted ourselves to be persuaded to retain these 
gifts, and later packed them into a shipping case and 
entrusted them to an express company to be forwarded 
to New York. They eventually reached the Bulgarian 
port of Dedeagatch, where they were deposited on the 
dock and were awaiting the arrival of a steamer when the 
port was bombarded by British warships. The water- 
front is said to have been badly knocked to pieces, and 
we have heard no more of the fate of General Popovich's 
souvenirs. 

Serbia has but one line of standard guage railway 
This traverses a series of narrow and winding mountain 
valleys, southward from Belgrade through the country's 
greatest length, and terminates in the Greek port of 
Saloniki. At the city of Nish, about mid-way of this 
railway line, a branch line extends southeastward across 
the Bulgarian frontier and on through to Turkey to its 
terminus in Constantinople. Several short, narrow guage 
lines connect with the main line and lead back through the 
valleys into the interior. 

Because of its inadequate railways. Serbia experienced 
great difficulty in transporting her troops and military 
supplies. The facilities were taxed to the utmost. Pas- 
senger travel as a result, was extremely slow and incon- 
venient. All passenger trains were packed to the limit 
of their standing room with soldiers and civilians, and it 
was common to see scores of men perched on the tops 
of the cars. 

The members of the War Relief Commission traveled 
from Nish to Belgrade by a night train. At every station 
throngs struggled to get on board, and in each instance 
the train drew away leaving many angry and disappointed 
persons on the station platform. For our comfort there 
had been reserved for us a compartment, which the three 
of us occupied with our Serbian attache, a young man 
provided by the Foreign Office. 

As the train proceeded, passengers crowded solidly into 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER y, i 9 i6 



ii 



every available foot of space. The corridor outside our 
compartment was densely jammed with standing pas- 
sengers. But our door was locked and we were protected 
from invasion. The compartment was lighted by a candle, 
and through a crevice in the door, those standing in the 
corridor were able to see that we were traveling in 
comfort, with ample room. We were not quite conscience 
free concerning these conditions, and suggested to our 
guide that the door of the compartment be opened in order 
that some of those in the corridor might enter. 

The guide, however, had been expressly charged by his 
superiors to protect us, and he resolutely declined to open 
the door. As the hours passed, the men in the corridor 



The result of our observations in Serbia led to the 
conclusion that although a great deal of destitution existed 
throughout the country, the typhus epidemic so far over- 
shadowed all other problems at the moment, that first of 
all an attempt should be made to establish measures for 
its control. We thereupon sent a cable message to the 
Rockefeller Foundation explaining the conditions and urg- 
ing that a commission of American physicians and sani- 
tary engineers be sent to Serbia for that purpose. 

In response to this appeal the trustees of the Foundation 
conferred with the officers of the American National 
Red Cross, with the result that the Red Cross undertook 
the organization of a sanitary commission for Serbia, the 

Copyright by International News Service 




ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION WAR RELIEF COMMISSION 

Photographed soon after their arrival in Serbia. Mr. Bicknell stands at the left between 
two officials of the Serbian Foreign Office. At the right are Henry James and Collin Herre. 



became more weary and discontented, and began 
trying the lock. Finally at about three o'clock in the 
morning they threw themselves against the door with such 
a tremendous effort that it splintered to pieces and flew 
back with a crash. They crowded tumultuously into 
the small compartment, crushing themselves into the seats. 
crowding over and about us in a manner which at first 
seemed to promise serious trouble. They were young 
officers of the Serbian army, in uniform and wearing 
their swords. The candle was knocked from its socket 
in the scramble and we were all in the dark. When the 
outcries and confusion had subsided, and the candle 
was re-lighted the invaders learned that the occu- 
pants of the compartment were foreigners. They be- 
came quieter though they thrust our guide out into the 
corridor, learned our mission through one of their number 
who spoke French, and the remainder of the night was 
spent in discomfort — but quiet. 



expense of which was borne jointly by the two organiza- 
tions. 

Dr. Richard P. Strong, professor of tropical diseases in 
Harvard Medical School, was selected as head of the com- 
mission, and a staff of about fifty eminent physicians and 
competent sanitarians was rapidly brought together. The 
commission sailed from New York on April 3, 1915, and 
before the end of- that month had entered upon what to 
many seemed its hopeless task. 

While the sanitary commission was in process of organi- 
zation in the United States and was en route to Serbia, 
members of the War Relief Commission traveled from 
Serbia to England and France, where conferences were 
held with the heads of the medical service of the armies 
of those countries for the purpose of securing their co- 
operation with the American Commission. This effort 
was entirely successful, and a large number of English 
and French physicians joined with the Americans in com- 



12 



THE SURVEY E OR OCTOBER 



1916 



prehensive measures in Serbia. 

Upon the arrival of the American Commission in Serbia 
all cooperating agencies were combined under the name 
of "International Sanitary Commission of Serbia." The 
personnel of the governing board of this organization was 
as follows : President, the Crown Prince Alexander ; vice- 
president, Sir Ralph Paget ; medical director, Dr. Richard 
P. Strong ; other members, the chiefs of the British, French 
and Russian missions, the chiefs of the Serbian civil and 
military medical departments and a medical representative 
of the Serbian Parliament. 

Under the administration of this board the work went 
forward harmoniously and effectively. It was not thought 
advisable to place men of different nationality in the same 
community. The country was therefore divided into four- 
teen administrative districts, with the British, French and 
Russian groups in seven of these and the American group 
in seven. The combined effort received all requisite legal 
and moral support from the Serbian government. 

Typhus Vanished Swiftly 

The result of this united and comprehensive attack upon 
the epidemic was successful beyond the expectations of the 
most optimistic. Typhus is a winter disease, and always 
subsides in virulence with the coming of warm weather. 
The measures taken by the sanitary organization, re- 
enforced by the approach of summer, caused the epidemic 
to disappear with a rapidity scarcely less amazing than 
the swiftness with which it had enveloped the entire coun- 
try a few months earlier. By the middle of August it had 
almost vanished, and a few weeks later the main body of 
the Sanitary Commission withdrew, having completed its 
task and leaving Serbia wholly free from the presence 
of the scourge. 

As executive head of the work, Dr. Strong spent 
much time in traveling from district to district. For this 
purpose he was provided with a special train of three 
cars and a small automobile. Of the three cars, one was 
fitted up as office, bed room and bath room for Dr. Strong's 
personal use; one was occupied by his assistants, and the 
third was an open flat car for his automobile. In this 
primitive train Dr. Strong lived during the greater part 
of his stay of four months in Serbia. When it became 
necessary to visit places not reached by rail, the train was 
taken to the nearest railway point and set on a sidetrack- 
Then the automobile was called into service to carry trie 
party into the interior. 

Upon Dr. Strong's return to the United States he pre- 
pared for the Red Cross a brief report of the work of the 
Sanitary Commission. From this report the following 
quotation is taken: 

"House to house inspection for the discovery of case 
of typhus in the cities, with the removal of the patients 
to hospitals and wards devoted to the care of typhus 
cases; disinfection of such individuals, disinfection of the 
other inmates of houses in which cases of typhus had been 
discovered, as well as of their clothes, and finally disinfec- 
tion of the houses themselves, was systematically begun. 
Quarantine of individuals who had been in contact with 
typhus cases was undertaken after disinfection of their 
persons and clothing. In a number of such instances, these 
were cared for in tents sent by our Red Cross where 
houses were not available as detention camps. In sonic 
instances the districts were so badly infected that it was 
necessary to evacuate them en masse and to destroy, Im- 
partially tearing down and by fire, the majority of the 
dwellings. Dispensaries were established in the different 



cities where the people were treated free of charge. These 
proved a great aid in the finding of cases of infectious 
disease. 

Sanitary Trains Are Operated 

"As typhus is conveyed from man to man by vermin (the 
bite of the body louse) the bathing and disinfection of 
very large numbers of people and immediate disinfection 
of their clothing, became an important problem in com- 
batting the disease. For this purpose sanitary trains, con- 
sisting each of three converted railroad cars, were fitted 
up. One car contained a huge boiler which supplied the 
steam for disinfection of the clothing. In a second car 
fifteen shower baths were constructed. A third car was 
converted into a huge autoclave (disinfector), into which 
steam could be turned under atmospheric pressure. In 
this manner the vermin were immediately destroyed and 
the clothes thoroughly disinfected. 

"Large tents were erected beside the railroad sidings 
on which the cars were placed. The people were marched 
by the thousands to these tents, their hair was clipped, 
and a limited number undressed themselves, carried their 
clothes to the disinfecting car and then passed to the car 
containing the shower baths. After a thorough scrubbing 
with soap and water they were sprayed with petroleum 
as an extra precaution for destroying the vermin. They 
then received their disinfected clothing. In instances, in 
which the clothing was very badly soiled, fresh clothing 
was supplied. Many of these people stated that they had 
not bathed for ten months or longer. Their faces in some 
instances betrayed surprise and in others fear when the 
water touched their bodies. 

"In the larger cities and in those situated away from the 
railway, disinfecting and bathing plants were established 
and separate hours were arranged for bathing women and 
men in large numbers. 

"In many towns the clothes were disinfected by baking 
them in ovens, either specially constructed for this pur- 
pose or those which had been built previously for the 
baking of bricks, or other purposes. As all the hospitals 
were infected it was necessary systematically to disinfect 
them as well as their inmates. 

"The patients were removed from a ward, which was 
then thoroughly disinfected first by sulphur fumigation to 
kill the vermin. Reds were then removed and disinfected, 
mattresses, sheets, etc., being disinfected with steam or 
boiled. Walls, ceilings and floors were then scrubbed with 
solutions of bichloride of mercury or carbolic solutions. 
In many instances the interiors of hospitals were thorough- 
ly whitewashed. The patients were given a thorough bath 
by being scrubbed with soap and water and disinfectants 
They were then given clean clothing and placed in the dis- 
infected ward. Their old clothing was usually boiled. 

"During the last three weeks before my departure from 
Serbia we could not find a fresh case of typhus. The sani 
tary condition of the army and of the people was then 
excellent. I trust that the sanitary demonstrations, in 
the prevention of typhus, which have been given tin- 
Serbian people, and the construction of the various perman- 
ent disinfecting plants throughout the country will pre- 
vent the occurrence of another epidemic of typhus such 
as we have just witnessed and which dest roved between 
135,000 and 150,000 people." 

At the end of the summer of 1915, when the typhus 
had been driven out. Dr. Strong and most of his men 
withdrew, leaving, however, a party of twelve physician- 
and sanitary engineers. This remaining group was to de- 
vote six months to the completion of certain plans in- 
tended to permanently improve health conditions in Ser- 
bian towns. Problems of water supply, drainage, disin- 
fection and kindred subjects were to be studied and the 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



13 



most practical means of solving them pointed out to the 
proper authorities. 

Flight of the Serbians 

P>UT in the midst of this work the Teutonic Allies 
launched their overwhelming drive against Serbia, and 
all other interests were swept away. The Serbian army, 
fighting stubbornly, was driven southward into Greece and 
westward into the mountains of Albania. With the re- 
treating army fled the King and his entourage, the Skupts- 
china (parliament), most of the official body of the national 
and municipal civil governments, and scores of thousands 
of the civil population. 

This flight, through wild mountain passes in mid-winter, 
was marked by frightful sufferings from cold and hunger. 
Many thousands of the weaker refugees, the old, the chil- 
dren, the frailer women, succumbed to the hardships, and 
their bodies were left scattered along the trails over which 
the multitude had passed. It is to be regretted that no 
strong, commanding spirit arose to this emergency by call- 
ing upon the Serbian people to remain quietly in their 
homes. There was reason for this flight of the army and 
the court, because, if captured, they would have been im- 
prisoned and the hope of repairing the country's unhappy 
fortunes would have seemed to be destroyed. But so far 
as the common people were concerned, they would have 
been much better off at home, where, after temporary in- 
convenience and doubtless some hardship occasioned by 
the quartering of the enemy troops upon them, they would 
have settled down to approximately normal life. 

With the Teutonic invasion, the sanitary work of the 
American Red Cross Commission suddenly terminated. 
The members of the commission were instructed to turn 
their attention to the relief of the Serbian refugees, and 
for that purpose divided their forces, one group going 
to Saloniki, another to the Albanian coast and another to 
Corfu. 

From Sanitation to Relief Distribution 

After a few weeks, reports were received that much 
destitution existed in the interior of Serbia and Edward 
Stuart, director of the commission, was instructed to go to 
Sofia for the purpose of requesting permission of the 
Bulgarian government to establish a relief organization in 
southern Serbia, that section of the conquered territory 
having been taken over by Bulgaria. This permission was 
denied. Mr. Stuart then traveled to Vienna in the hope 
of obtaining permission to undertake relief operations in 
northern Serbia which had fallen to Austria. The Aus- 
trians were more responsive than the Bulgarians, and 
granted the requested permission in part. 

The Americans were authorized to set up an organiza- 
tion for the distribution of relief among the civil popu- 
lation of Belgrade, the Serbian capital, where about thirty 
thousand persons were in need of help. As supplies of 
food could not be obtained in Austria or Serbia, and could 
not be imported from America, because of the blockade 
which the entente Allies had thrown about the Central 
Powers, these supplies were purchased in Roumania, and 
transported by barges up the Danube river to Belgrade. 
Several months later the Austrian government so broad- 
ened its permission as to allow the extension of relief 
operations into the interior of northern Serbia, where a 
preliminary investigation had indicated that probably one 
hundred thousand persons were in extreme destitution. 

While Mr. Stuart continued to represent the Red Cross 



in negotiations and conferences with the Austrian govern- 
ment and the distribution of relief supplies in Belgrade, 
Dr. Edward Ryan was placed in charge of distribution in 
the interior. Both Mr. Stuart and Dr. Ryan, because of 
extended and varied experience in Serbia in the earlier 
part of the war, were particularly well equipped for the 
administration of relief among the Serbian people. Both 
had shown such discretion and such a sense of fairness 
that they had won the respect and confidence of Austrians 
and Serbians as well. Dr. Ryan had just completed the 
very unusual enterprise of transportnig a train of thirty 
car loads of food from Marseilles, through France, 
Switzerland and Austria to Belgrade, when Austria gave 
permission to extend the relief operations into the in- 
terior and was therefore immediately available for that 
service. 

Food Train Breaks the Embargo 

Dr. Ryan's accomplishment in the transportation of this 
train load of supplies was characteristic of the man. The 
American Red Cross had these supplies in a warehouse 
in Marseilles and was most anxious to have them moved to 
Serbia where they were much wanted. Because of the 
determination of the entente Allies that no food should 
be sent into conquered territory held by the Teutonic 
Allies ( with the exception of Belgium and northern 
France), it seemed sheer folly to expect that France would 
permit the shipment of these supplies in Marseilles, across 
Austria, to Serbia. Dr. Ryan was commissioned by the 
American Red Cross to see what could be done, and 
in the face of apparently insuperable obstacles, succeeded. 

Much traveling back and forth was necessary; active 
negotiations were carried on for many weeks with repre- 
sentatives of France, Switzerland and Austria; all sup- 
plies had to be unloaded and transhipped at each frontier, 
and miles of red tape had to be unwound. Repeatedly, 
when all arrangements seemed complete and the way 
opened for smooth progress, some new complication from 
an unsuspected quarter would threaten to defeat the en- 
tire project. Ryan would then dash off to Marseilles or 
Paris or Berne, or would set the telegraph lines humming, 
and presently the troubles would begin to disappear. About 
three months elapsed between the day he was sent his 
cable of instructions and the day on which his food train 
rolled triumphantly into the city of Belgrade. 

In the subsequent distribution of relief in Serbia, meth- 
ods have been adopted which, in some particulars, are a 
departure from those employed in similar work in the 
United States. These have been fitted to the unsual con- 
ditions and circumstances, and of necessity have been in 
accordance with the wishes of the Austrian military gov- 
ernment in Serbia. 

A quotation from one of Mr. Stuart's letters will give a 
vivid picture of the actual "days work" of distribution 
in Belgrade : 

"These people are all registered at the City Hall and are 
known by the Citizen's Committee to be in need of assist- 
ance. They are all supplied with a red card known as 
their 'legitimation.' The city of Belgrade is divided into 
fifteen 'reons' or districts. One Saturday, for example, it 
is decided that the first five reons are to receive their 
supply of corn meal or flour on Monday. A crier then 
goes through these five reons with a drum and announces 
to the people that they are to go to the American Red 
Cross on Monday. 

"On Monday, they appear at our depot with their legiti- 
mations, and are kept in line by gendarmes furnished bv 



H 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER j, 1916 



the military, and present their cards to the several women 
clerks furnished us by the Citizen's Committee, who have 
the registered lists before them. The name of each 
person is checked off and the amount of corn meal or 
flour and the date are entered. The person then passes 
to the counter, presents the card again, on which has 
now been marked the amount to be received, which is 
checked off, and the bag which has been brought is passed 
to a Russian prisoner who holds it under a funnel. Behind 
the counter is a large box of corn meal or flour. Several 
Russians fill small tins holding various quantities of meal 
or flour, 2, 4, and 6 kilos, or 2^4, 5, and 7>^ kilos, as the 
case may be, and dump the required amount into the fun- 
nel, thence into the sack. In this way the work goes very 
rapidly, and a large number can be handled in a day ; the 
record at present being 1,578 families in one day, or 
about 5,000 people. 

"Other classes of people are more difficult to register; 
first because some apply for help who are not in very great 
need, and secondly, there are many families in serious con- 
dition who are ashamed to ask for assistance. At first 
all applicants were required to go to the City Hall and 
there have their applications passed upon by the Citizen's 
Committee, but there were so many, the committee was 
rather overwhelmed by them, so that I was not entirely 
satisfied with the first list. 

"I therefore called a meeting of the committee and the 
representatives of the military government and insisted 
that a very careful examination of each applicant be made 
in order to eliminate all of those who have sufficient in- 
come to buy the bare necessities. At present, therefore, 
all applicants from any one reon must present themselves 
before the chief of the reon, who investigates the cases, 
usually knowing the applicants personally, and who then 
passes the list to the Citizen's Committee which revises it 
and returns it to the reon chief. It is again gone over by 
both, and then sent to us. We 
are trying to make it as fair 
as possible to all concerned, 
and we shall continually be at 
work upon the list rejecting 
names and adding new ones. 
The method of distribution to 
these people is the same as 
that above described. I am 
also requesting the reon 
chiefs to seek out those desti- 
tute families who are ashamed 
to ask for charity so that we 
may help them. 

"Recently I have again 
visited the orphanage and the 
old people's home ragarding 
which I have already reported 
to you ; and where the condi- 
tions which were existing at 



the time of our first visit have greatly improved. All the 
inmates have been moved into a large building situated in 
an open place ; and in which the hygienic conditions are 
far better than in the previously occupied buildings. They 
still have a large supply of condensed milk which we have 
sent to them, so that they are receiving milk twice a day. 
On account of the flour which we sent to them, they are 
enabled to have more bread and various kinds of food 
made from flour. With further and more assorted ship- 
ments arriving, we shall probably soon be able to supply 
them even better than at present." 

What the Future Holds 

Serbia's fate hangs in the balance. Her king and her 
leaders are in exile. The broken fragments of her army 
are in Greece under the control of the English and French 
officers who for nine months have been consolidating them 
and trying to convert them once more into an effective 
fighting unit. 

Those of her citizens who fled from the country before 
the invading armies and survived the horrors of the Al- 
banian mountains are scattered in remote places. Some 
are in Greece, some in Italy, many in Corsica, and others 
in southern France. They know not the fate of their 
kindred left behind nor do those kindred know who of the 
exiles still live nor where is their present abiding place. 

Austrian armies have been fortifying the mountain de- 
files of that share of Serbia which was apportioned to them 
and Bulgarian armies have been trying to make sure the 
possession of their share of the conquered territory. For 
the time Serbia as an integer among nations has van- 
ished. Her tragedy seems complete. 

Gathering ominously along the Mediterranean shore to 

the southward is a huge army 
of the allies of Serbia. Its 
movements are veiled, but 
its object is clear, — to drive 
northward in an effort to 
force the conquerors out of 
Serbia and sever the connect- 
ing link between Austria and 
Turkey. Whether that effort 
succeeds or fails, Serbia is 
again a battle ground. Her 
regeneration can come, if it 
is to come, only after another 
period of destruction and 
bloodshed during which her 
people once more will be 
trampled under the feet of 
war. 






Copyright ity Underwood & I'minwood 




STRICKEN SERBIAN SOLDIER 

The caption on the photograph describes him as seated on the 
doorstep of a deserted house, unable to find admission in one 
of the over-crowded hospitals at the early stages of the 

epidemic. 




Dolores, Vendor of Snails 

B C. W. Goethe 

[The fourth of a Series of Articles on 
"Exporting the American Playground"] 




DOLORES was a cliff-dweller. Not all cliff- 
dwellers lived only in by-gone days, or only 
in the painted desert country of Arizona 
with its faded blue, faded pink, faded yellow 
mesas. Our cliff-dweller, Dolores, was of our time and 
an Andalusian. With a bright red poppy in her black 
hair, with clicking castanets fluttering their red and yellow 
ribbons, with the guitar of Juan Baustista, her lover, tin- 
kling the sbftest of half-Moorish music, she used to dance 
on the bit of cactus-lined flat in front of her mother's 
cave-like home. 

Juan was a vendor of water. Recalling the Orient, big 
earthen jars imprisoned in thick basket-work, hung on 
either side of his tiny burro. These diminutive beasts of 
his country were, like his music, a legacy from Moorish 
days. 

On the road that ran from the row of cliff dwellings 
hung on the mountain side to the city below, was a little 
church. To this went Dolores and Juan one day, and 
there they were married. 

Marriage made little change in Juan's work. Month 
after month he continued mounting the sierra to the spring 
just below the snows for his "coldest of waters." Then 
through the hot hours, when the sun's rays fell like javel- 
ins into the burning streets, he would cry his plaintive 
"Agua! agua!" And on the way to the city, he would im- 
provise songs ; for every Andaluz is a born poet, a born 
musician. But all this was many days ago. 

One day he was treading the narrow path back to the 
thirsty and watching the broad green vega, or plain, spread 
out before him. The apricot trees were in blossom, night- 
ingales were pouring out their melodies ; everything, every- 
body seemed happy. Juan sang of Dolores and of their 
wee daughter, Chico, the little one; Chitquita, the very 
little, — yes, Chiquitita, most tiny of all. 

From the pink and green vega his eyes wandered to 
the little green valley indenting the jagged rock-mass of 
the mountain. Into the hollow of each dale nature had 
poured a flood of bright red poppies. In springtime, the 
Spanish vales always look as though each were filled with 
the blood of men who once had made the very name of 
Spaniard a terror throughout Europe, men now forever 
eliminated from the Spanish race by battle, some thinkers 
say, by the jungle, say others ; and yet others, by the In- 
quisition. The red poppies in the green valley would have 
been a token to Juan, had he but known. But Juan knew 
nothing of history; he could not even write his name. If, 
once in three years, he had need to send a letter, why, 
there was the public letter-writer under the tree in the 
plaza. Juan was merely drinking in the glory of the land- 
scape. 

Suddenly, a roar on the mountain above — a landslide 
plunged — a rock struck Juan's head — a little frightened 
burro hurried back along the mountain path, alone. 



That is why, from that time forward, the family in the 
house scooped out of the cliff, consisted only of Dolores, 
old Mercedes, her mother, and Chiquitita, tinest of all. 
And that is why Dolores, trying to support all three, had 
become a vendor of snails. 

One morning in the following spring, Dolores started 
down the road from the little house of one door and no 
windows. She met the usual wayfarers. Ahead of her 
walked some English folk, around whom clustered the 
usual beggar children calling, "A fat dog, sehor ! Just one 
fat dog. No? Ah! Then a little dog!" The children, 
like their elders, jokingly call the copper coins stamped 
with the lion of Spain "fat dogs," "little dogs." 

Hardly had they been driven away before a turn in the 
road brought another group. One child of these, Matteo, 
advanced, whining the doleful formula, "I have no mother ; 




AN ANDALUSIAN SNAIL VENDOR 



'5 



[6 



/ /// SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7. /0/6 



I have no lather; 1 have no loud. Just one tat dog, even 
a little dog, and God go with the stranger.*' One of the 
foreign folk tossed a copper to the youngster. Instantly 
all appearance of sorrow vanished from his shrewd little 
face. With a yell of delight, he darted down a side street. 
In a few moments as she passed thitherward, Dolores saw 
the child runnii g to a seller of dulces. She paused to 
watch what she knew would follow. 

Over large parts of Spain, it is the custom that no child 
may buy sweets or ices outright. He must gamble with 
the vendor. Matteo found his didcc woman, squatting by 
the gutter. Her stock-in-trade was wonderful. Her sweets 
were great brown sugar bubbles, blown into shapes of 
game-cocks, goats, chickens, burros. When a ragged little 
customer arrived with a perrito or "little dog" in his chubby 
ringers, out came her gambling wheel. Our little mendi- 
cant already had something for nothing; he would again 
increase his capital without work. 

The match between the seller of sweets and Matteo com- 
menced amid the usual excited crowd of children, with a 
few grown-ups, including Dolores. The wee youngster 
was successful. Soon half a dozen favorites in the admir- 
ing crowd gleefully munched the sugar animals. 

Dolores did not go far before she heard more shouts. 
Little Pedro had also begged a copper. Children came 
scurrying from everywhere to see the fun. Pedro re- 
sisted all the blandishments of a seller of green and pur- 
ple sea-urchins. He passed three, four dulec women, 
hardly daring to look at their colors, bright against the 
cloths spread on the flagstones. But he knew of a new 




A VENDOR OF IIEILOS 



The can to the left contains the tiny colored bricks found 
on sale wherever Spanish civilization has penetrated, 
even to Mexico and the Philippines. The cover of the 
freezer which has been lifted to the ground contains 
the inevitable "wheel of fortune" 





gambling device. At the 
farthest street corner stood a 
new trader in ices — white ices, 
and pink, and yellow. Do- 
lores, too, had heard of thiV 
man who had come down 
from Seville with his won- 
derful spiral and its bright 
colored marbles. 

Here was an adventure ! 
The Andaluz has always time 
for an adventure. So Dolores 
stopped again, this time to 
watch Pedro try his luck. 
He laid down his coin, con- 
sidered the different colored 
marbles, and selected the red 
one. Round it went along the 
curving path, slipped through 
the hole, hesitated as if it 
were human, and then finally 

dropped into the twenty! Perdo had hielos enough for 
all the children ; even one for his friend Dolores. 

The Sevillian pretended to grumble. The seller of sea- 
urchins winked, enviously whispering that the ice-seller 
had intentionally lost so as to advertise the new device. 

Dolores proceeded down the narrow winding streets 
The crowd thickened as she neared the bazaar F.ven in 
Spain, the bazaar is of the unchanging Orient Rut for 
the different dress of the people, one mighl be in India, in 
Java, in an oasis of the Sahara. One man was frying 
doughnuts, just as they do in Fez, Delhi, or Shanghai. 
The Moors were no longer there; the camels were no 
longer there. But so much that is Moorish, so much of 
the Moor wars had remained! Even the bazaar women 
crooned to babies wrapped in their black shawls. "The 
Moors will get you if you don't watch out." 

Reaching the bazaar. Dolores went to where stood 



THE ROAD FROM : 
OWELLINCS TO T 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



Miguel, the snail king. An old man, shrivelled, evil-eyed, 
he looked like the miser in the Chimes of Normandy. The 
bazaar women said his father had been a bandit in the 
good old days ; that Miguel, as a lad, had a hand in some 
of these affairs of the road ; that before sixteen he had 
killed his man. But whatever his earlier adventures, now 
he was unquestioned ruler of the snail market. None of 
his underlings got anything for nothing. 

He stood at the end of the row of stalls, surrounded by 
several dozen baskets, each covered with a rough bit of 
sack-cloth. In each were snails. One by one the snail 
women arrived and took their baskets. They squatted on 
the cold stones just outside the market walls and com- 
menced calling their long-drawn-out "Ca-ra-ca-les !" 

Like Dolores . these snail-sellers were practically all 
widows. Most of them were older, wrinkled, unkempt. 
Dolores' place was at the end of the line. Old Miguel 
had shrewdly noticed that she had not deadened, like those 
who had been long at the selling. She still had life enough 

to pick from the roadside a 
bright red poppy for her 
black hair. Coldly calculat- 
ing, he said to himself as he 
shrugged his shoulders, "In 
a year or two. she'll move up 
the line. Today she deserves 
the best place." 

Between the calls of her 
wares, she crooned softly to 
little Chiquitita who was un- 
usually restless. Babies are 
often restless in Spain, for 
among the resemblances of 
Spain to the Orient is the 
high infant death-rate. For 
several nights Dolores had 
not slept much. Chiquitita 
had been sick. There had 
been no money for a doctor. 




II 





A SELLER OF ICES 

/ he freeze) is beneath and the wheel an tap. The 
leather to the right shows how even this heavy load is 
carried by the seller. The man with the cane is a vendor 
of lottery tickets. The two are, frequently found to- 
•icther. The heilo man deals with the children while 
the ticket seller plies his trade among the adults 

none for medicine. Her week's commission had accumu- 
lated hardly enough to pay the few pesetas for the rent ol 
that hole in the cliff she called home. 

Miguel cared little for the sufferings of his salesfolk. 
Taking his station half way up the next block in the shade 
of some projecting red tiles, he watched the ebb and flow 
of the tide of- buying. 

Then the unusual occurred. The line of saleswomen 
suddenly noticed that something had happened to the 
snail king. The oldest woman in the line, the woman 
nearest his wefnted station, whispered to her next neighbor, 
and soon they all knew it. He had had an ugly misunder- 
standing with a muscular fisherman named Sanchez. 
Miguel had a mortgage on the fisherman's boat. The boat 
was all with which to eke out a living that Sanchez pos- 
sessed. The loan was a very small one at first, but Miguel 
had demanded a rate of interest that would have staggered 
a Hindu chetty. The fisherman was a big brawny fellow, 
with the quick temper characteristic of the dwellers upon 
the Mediterranean littoral. He was ablaze in a moment 
when Miguel told him that morning that the interest had 
consumed the boat. 

There was much chattering in the line of snail-women 
over the discomfiture of their taskmaster who had half 
run, half been driven by his irate debtor. 

Dolores' morning sales had been unusually good. A 
black-eyed Romeo, enough savage in his make up to be 
attracted by the red poppy in her hair, had purchased 
sufficient to treat a boat's crew of passing sailors. The 
other women craned their nerks. Though Dolores thought 



iS 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



only of her dead Juan, of the little Chiquitita, yet the snail 
wives gossiped of a new lover as they enviously stared at 
her growing pile of coppers. Three baskets of snails were 
already sold. She would have enough money to make up 
the rent. If she and Mercedes broke the hard crusts at 
home into smaller pieces, there would be sufficient for 
the man at the drugstore. Then little Chiquitita would 
have medicine. 

Dolores had already saved, first of all, the money for 
the baby's goat's milk. This she bought from another 
cliff-dweller, Manuelita. Manuelita charged more than 
Jesus Maria did, who drove the goats along the cliff- 
dweller's road; but the goat's milk at Manuelita's was 
pure. Jesus Maria had a rubber bag under his arm with 
a tube that came down his sleeve. Even while you 
watched him milk the goat, each pressure of his hand 
squirted water from the bag. The drugstore man said it 
was the bad water thus squirted into the milk-cup that 
had made Chiquitita sick. So Dolores pinched that there 
might be a little more money to buy from Manuelita in- 
stead of from crafty Jesus Maria. 

Then, even as Dolores was dreaming about that pile 
of coppers, something again happened. From up the street 
where Miguel and the fisherman had gone half fighting, 
half running, appeared one of those human vultures found 
all over Spain, and wherever Spain has colonized. A thin, 
bony fellow he was, puffing a cigarette and carrying a 
bundle of slips of paper. He bore the name of gentle 
St. Anthony of Padua, but was a peddler of lottery tickets. 
One glance showed Dolores to have the most empty bas- 
kets. He knew that here was the biggest prize, the great- 
est heap of coppers. 

He commenced to talk alluringly of winnings that had 
been made. Dolores, begging him to go, told of stale 
crusts, of overdue rent, and pointing to restless Chiqui- 
tita, spoke of higher cost of milk at Manuelita's. An- 
tonio's oily words flowed all the more rapidly. He ex- 
claimed, what a shame she should be in rags, sitting on 
cold stones; told of the things to be bought with a 
big winning — perhaps, down on the vega, a farm with an 
olive tree. What purpling figs, what blushing grapes, 
what bursting chestnuts, what reddening pimentos there 
would be ! She could have a fine dress ; of lace mantillas, 
there would be several black and one creamy white. Why, 
with a winning like one that had been made in Ronda last 
month, she might even have a carriage drawn by mules, 
like the bishop's. 

Dolores tried to resist. Psychologists tell how deeply 
habit paths are worn into our brains. Dolores' gambling 
habits had been there since almost infancy, cut while her 
child brain was yet plastic. The desire to get something 
for nothing had worn deep. She had so often joined a 
group of children spinning the dulce-woman's wheel. 

Before she knew it, her hand clutched three pieces of 
numbered bright colored paper, and Antonio sauntered 
down the street, jingling all her hard-earned coppers in 
his pocket. 

Just as Antonio turned the next corner, Miguel ap- 
peared. Far from handsome before, he was hideous now. 
His head smeared with blood and gravel, there was a 
nasty cut over one eye. Most of all to be feared was the 
rage within. With an oath he demanded his money from 
the trembling Dolores. She hopelessly showed him the 
tickets that were to bring mantillas, a little farm, a car- 
riage with mules. He grabbed the little Chiquitita, tossed 
her into the arms of the next woman, and dragged the 
sobbing Dolores to the bazaar officer. 



TEN minutes later the jail door clanged, and Dolores 
was moaning piteously behind the barred windows 
of her cell. 

Students claiming Spain as their Motherland, earnestly 
trying to solve her problems; wise men of other lands, 
who have unbounded faith in the recuperative powers of 
the Iberian race. — both advance theories about Spain's 
present loss of place among nations. Three reasons, each 
with some probable basis in fact, are generally given. This 
elimination of the best race strains they hold due to first, 
war ; second, excessive colonization ; third, the Inquisition. 
Is there not perhaps a fourth reason? Studying Spain 
from another angle, one becomes convinced that there is. 

This fourth reason is, that the play of Spain warps the 
future of many of her Dolores, her Pedros, her Matteos, 
even her shiftless lottery ticket-sellers, her Antonios. Into 
impressionable child brains, their play, steeped in custom, 
cuts deeply the habit paths of deceit, of begging, of gam- 
bling, of cruelty. At maturity, is else to be expected than 
that these children shall plot to get something for nothing? 
The river of national life cannot rise above its source 
— that source is the play of its children. If Trafalgar and 
Waterloo were really won on the fields of Eton and Rugby, 
may we not just as reasonably assert that Buenos Ay res 
and Lima, Manila and Santiago de Cuba were lost at the 
bull-ring, at the cock-pit, at the spinning of dulce-wheels ? 

New Spain, with yet other capitals as brilliant as these, 
once stretched thousands of miles from the wintry, gale- 
swept straits of Magellan, across the dark, dank silvas of 
the equator, to where, at the blockhouse of Russian- 
America's southern outpost, a yellow-haired Slav lieu- 
tenant flirted with Senorita Conception, black-eyed daugh- 
ter of the commandant of the nearby Presidio of San 
Francisco. 

The history of this downfall of New Spain is one full 
of tales of the conquistadores' recklessness with gold, of 
how Pizarro's men gamed with one another for their 
bloody booty from the gold-tiled Inca Temple of the Sun. 
The reckless gambling of their gains ; their avarice ; their 
desire to gain more gold, were exceeded only by a cruelty 
that unfeelingly decimated their unfortunate Indian vic- 
tims. Where has the law of cause and effect worked more 
clearly than with these men from a play environment like 
Matteo's and Pedro's? New Spain, founded by Dolores" 
ancestors, once the greatest of empires, has shrunk to the 
dimensions of a pricked bubble. 

In commerce, the results are similar. Many thinking 
Spaniards complain that so few of their countrymen ven- 
ture into trade, industry, mining, compared with the num- 
bers who scheme for even underpaid government positions. 
These students deplore their hopelessly corrupt politics. 
Nor are they alone in these thoughts. Foreigners with 
extensive business, mine, factory interests, speak bitterly 
of the bribe-taker's palm so frequently extended. "Some- 
thing for nothing" has become almost instinctive. 

At one Spanish port, the foreigners in shipping firms 
say that half the customs' duties "leak" on what should be 
the way to the royal treasury. These business men com- 
plain about the petty annoyances at the octroi stations 
located wherever a road enters an Andalusian town. Com- 
ing from the suburbs into town, workingmen each morn- 
ing are examined from crown of head to soles of shoes 
for smuggling. Imagine this tolerated in an American 
factory town ! 

Spain's octroi collectors often gather hardly enough for 
their starvation salaries ; yet they take pride in their "gov- 
ernment job." It is genteel. They are enjoying a kind of 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



19 




COCK-FIGHTING 

This demoralizing form of gambling like 
the bull-fight, has spread wherever Span- 
ish civilization has gone. One of the prob- 
lems American officials are working on 
nozv is the substitution of American base- 
ball for cock-fighting in the Philippines. 
Cock-fighting is a gambling game, largely 
sedentary; baseball, a game requiring skill 
as any boy zvho has learned to pitch a curve 

knows 
Moreover, baseball calls for the team- 
work necessary for that cooperation re- 
quisite to a healthy democracy. It gives 
expression to primal instincts such as strik- 
ing, using a stick, throwing, running and 
chasing. Just as a juvenile court judge 
stopped the breaking of Pullman car win- 
dows by offering the gang the substitute 
of a diamond with a bat, ball, mask and 
gloves, so baseball is a tremendous factor 
in educating the vigorous Philippine lads 
not only in the play they instinctively yearn 
for, but in the team-work which is needed 
to eliminate some of the unfortunate fea- 
tures of the older civilization 



PLAYING BEAR, OR COURTING IN SPAIN 

(In the picture at the right the setwrita has opened her 
barred windows to get a look at the photographer.) The 
whole system of courting in Spain seems to an American 
based upon suspicion instead of upon that confidence that 
relies upon honor among young people, which is found so 
valuable in playground work. This, like the bull-fight, was 
transplanted to Latin America 




"something for nothing" — a freedom from labor. One 
Spaniard exclaimed, in language like Caesar's description 
of Gaul, "All Spaniards are divided into three parts — 
the 'ins,' the 'outs,' and those who have neither brain nor 
'pull' ever to fill office, must as they desire it." 

Spanish everyday life is saturated with "something for 
nothing" politics. Is this not the fruit of the begging, and 
the gambling games of its Pedros? 

Spain's colonization history is characterized, too, with 
cruelty born of mock bull-fighting. The student from the 
American playground becomes profoundly convinced that 
the results of Spanish children's play may be traced 
through the history of not only Andalusia, but Mexico, 
Peru, the Philippines, Venezuela, Honduras. "Tell me 
what you eat and I will tell you what you are," may almost 
be paraphrased into, "Describe your children's play and 
your national history may be predicted." Cross the 
Pyrenees, and, with the exception of an occasional tame 
bull-fight as at Niemes, the sport sickens and dies. Nor 
does one there ever see children playing at mock bull- 
fighting. 

Spain had a great handicap over her northern Latin 
neighbor when the latter entered the races for colonial ex- 
pansion. Today the venturesome Spaniard has little more 
remaining than the Canaries and a bit of Morocco. His 
stay-at-home, Paris-loving Latin brother to the north 



knows his Tri-color floats from Algiers to the African 
equator over tens of thousands of square miles. The 
Spain that failed could ill afford long wars, excessive 
colonization, the Inquisition, vicious play. She has had 
to bear all four. And has this last, though unnoticed, been 
the least? 

Has America a substitute for a play system which has 
thus always made for laziness and for cruelty, which de- 
stroyed the affections of Spain's colonies, which para- 
lyzed the latter's politics, her commerce, and saturated 
both with a "get-everything-possible-for-nothing" stand- 
ard? Some social students believe most emphatically 
that America has. That remedy is the playground. 

In a previous article on bull-fighting, a Mexican gov- 
ernor was quoted upon the need of substituting in his 
country directed American play for the national game in- 
herited from Hispania. The same essay also described 
the substitution in the Philippines of baseball in place of 
the demoralizing cock-fighting, another legacy from the 
Conquistadores. Bull-fighting, cock-fighting, gambling for 
dulces, a false Castillian pride about the labor that should 
dignify — all these would melt away under directed educa- 
tion through play. More Matteos, more Pedros would 
learn the fun of playing the game squarely, of the joy of 
expending physical and mental energy, and there would 
be a continuallv lessened number of Dolores to sorrow. 



8 



LI FES CLINIC 

THE CONCLUDING SKETCH OF A 

SERIES WRITTEN FROM BETWEEN 

THE LINES OF SOME MEDICAL 

CASE HISTORIES 



MAGDALEN 

Edith Houghton Hooker 



A'RIEND of mine came to see me last week 
whom I had not seen before for nearly ten 
years. She was announced by the following 
letter written in a thin hand with many im- 
potent little flourishes and "personal" scribbled in pencil 
across the upper, left-hand corner of the envelope: 

Thursday ;, 1915. 
"Dear, dear Mrs. Edith: 

"Your little girl Violet Lantz of long ago is sending you 
these few lines asking if I may be permitted to see you 
once again before we pass to that great beyond. Just to 
see you once again, to see you and feel that you still have 
a warm spot in your heart for me. I have been very, very 
ill and lonely since the years of absence, and many times 
if I could have only seen you and felt you near, would 
have been happier. 

"Please do not regard this note with coldness, dear, 
dear Mrs. Edith. God knows I have lived a sad, lonely 
life since we parted. I know my life has been a sad fail- 
ure, but could it be otherwise? Dear Mrs. Edith, perhaps 
I he most beautiful years of my life have been wasted, but 
tonight I feel that I have tried to do my best, and should 
death claim me tonight I feel prepaired to meet my God! 

"Praying you will grant me this pleasure and see me. 
will sadly bring to close this missive, I remain, the same 
True, loveing little 

Violet Lantz, 
40 East Hamburg Street. 



P. S. 



AT LAST 

I come to thee at last, O Lord for rest 
With wasted years, with mind oppressed 
And now Thy promise is to me so sweet 
That I shall find forgiveness at Thy feet. 
Thy ever heart-broken little 

Violet. 



The letter came nearly a month ago and I replied 
promptly, urging Violet to come to see me the following 
Monday. The hour appointed came and went, but brought 
no Violet and no response to my letter. As the days wore 
on I decided that she had lost courage or had set forth 
upon some new adventure. 

Then one morning from an upper window 1 caught sight 
of someone coming slowly up the hill whom I knew at 
once must be Violet. She had the same delicate way of 
stepping, like a small bird, that I remembered so well, and 
her manner of wearing her hat and carrying her shoulders 
bent timidly forward a trifle was indescribably character- 
istic. There had been a violent ice storm the night before, 
and the hill on whose crest I live was sheeted with a coat 
of glass, making it impossible to get firm footing. 

Above the steep road the glistening trees shrieked and 
crackled, now and then letting fall small showers of melt- 



ing ice and water. Despite the heavy dripping, Violet had 
not raised her umbrella. She used it instead as a stick to 
lean on. Occasionally, she would stop as if exhausted 
and look curiously about her. For some moments I stood 
watching her, swift, vivid pictures of our past association 
coming into my mind. It was almost precisely ten years 
ago that I had come across her, standing irresolutely in 
the long, gray corridor of the maternity ward with her 
baby in her arms. 

"So you are leaving us, Violef," I had said, "you and 
your little Lucy." Then in an afterthought, "You will let 
me hear from you sometime, how you get on? Tell me 
now, where are you going?" 

She had lifted startled, deer-like, brown eyes to my 
face. 

"I don't know. That's just it," she had answered un- 
steadily, clasping the sleeping child more closely. "I don't 
know where we are going." 

It was after four o'clock on a January afternoon, and 
she was but eighteen years old, motherless and turned 
adrift by her family. Eight months later she had come to 
me again, a few days after my return from a six weeks' 
visit to England. She was dressed all in black, a great 
picture hat surmounted by flowing plumes setting off her 
pale little face to singular advantage. I had never before 
realized the possibilities of her beauty. 

"Lucy is dying," she had whispered brokenly. "Oh, I 
am a bad, bad girl ; it's my sin that's the cause of her 
dying." 

She had been turned off, it appeared, with a week's 
notice by the uptown woman in whose service I had left 
her. Then it was a room in Green street where the 
door had to be kept locked to ward off intrusive male 
visitors — for what respectable house would take in a girl 
with a baby? 

"I tried, oh. believe me, dear Mrs. Edith, I tried oh, so 
hard, but they paid only 15 cents a dozen for stitching 
the rompers. I lived on tea and dry bread for two weeks. 
and my milk dried up and I couldn't buy good milk for 
Lucy, and it was so hot and there was no air in my room. 
Then I took her to the hospital, and they sent her to the 
Thomas Wilson. It was because I was so lonesome, so 
sad, dear Mrs. Edith. I went out with him because I 
wanted to forget, and I was so hungry." 

As I watched her painfully picking her way across the 
frozen grass, I could feel her once more leaning half 
fainting in my arms as a few days later we followed the 
ding}' undertaker with the slim white casket under his arm 
to the edge of the small open grave in Hope Cemetery. 
Three ill-clad children, two little boys and a girl had been 
playing about the new grave waiting with lively interest 
for the spectacle of burial. 

^s the tinv casket, ironically inscribed "Our Darling" 



20 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 






was lowered into the clay, the young mother's grief broke 
and she flung herself face downward upon the ground, 
crying out in a very abandonment of despair, and striving 
with impotent arms to reclaim the dead child below her. 
The children, horrified, fled, and peeped at us fearfully 
from behind tombstones at a distance. 

Driving home afterward in the swaying hack, with the 
undertaker sitting aloft, cheerfully smoking beside the 
driver, I was again struck with the girl's fragile beauty. 
As she leaned back in the corner, outworn by her grief ; 
now and then she would close her eyes, letting the long 
lashes shade the softness of her cheek. There was noth- 
ing distinguished about the cut of her features, the charm 
lay in the exquisite texture of her skin, and in the tender 
youthiulness of her face and slim, small figure. Chiefly 
it was her eyes that came back to me out of the past, 
great, innocent, brown eyes, with the look of a wild fawn 
in them. 

HEARD a step crunching the ice on my veranda, and 
hastened downstairs to open the door. 

"Mrs. Edith, Oh, Holy Jesus!" The umbrella fell to 
the floor with a rattle. Two sticky black kid gloves with 
bare fingers protruding seized my hands. My greeting 
died on my lips. My very flesh recoiled in horror. I tried 
to turn my eyes away, but my glance seemed frozen. 

Could this be Violet? This livid creature with the long 
purple scar over the left temple, and with the crooked, 
bulbous nose? The right eye swollen almost shut and 
lodged in a discolored mass of flesh twitched incessantly 
as it leered up at me. The left eye, red rimmed, bare of 
brow and eye-lash, contained in its depths a hideous sug- 
gestion of the girl that I had known. 

With a cry, the dank, miserable figure flung itself head- 
long into my arms. "I can see it in your face, I have 
changed. I am no longer the same Violet." She pressed 
her face against my breast. I could feel the scalding tears. 
As I looked down at her bent head, I saw the nits of vermin 
on her scanty frizzled hair. 

"Child, child!" I soothed her, patting her shoulder, 
'we have both changed somewhat; remember, it is almost 
ten years." 

She lifted her tear-streaked face from which spots of 
paint had rubbed off on my blouse, and the scaly lips 
parted in a hungry smile. One of the front teeth was 
missing, leaving nothing but the blackened end of the 
root. 

"After all this time you love me still, Mrs. Edith?" 
She crushed my fingers with the old caressing sinuous 
movements. 

"I love you still," I answered mechanically ; then as the 
girl out of the past seemed to look at me from behind 
the sordid mask, I added with a certain inward passion, 
"Yes, more than ever," and my eyes were suddenly blinded 
by painful tears. 

I led Violet in beside the library fire and furtively sur- 
veyed her as she stood drawing off her dilapidated gloves 
and warming her swollen hands before the blaze. She 
had on a scant suit of black velvet from which the nap 
was almost wholly worn off. It was trimmed with wide 
bands of mangy white rabbits' fur, altogether bald in spots, 
and soiled with the foulness of city streets around the 
skirt at the back. On her head was a battered velvet hat, 
put together with pins and white cotton, and trimmed with 
an enormous red satin rose above which a crestfallen white 
feather stretched its ding}' length. Her left ankle, red. 



chapped and dirt-begrimed, showed through a hole in the 
stocking over the back of her run-down, high-heeled shoe. 

The crisp, clean winter sunlight danced cruelly over the 
tawdry figure ; the night glow of the city streets would 
have been more kind. When she stripped off her coat 
I could see through the flimsy waist great vivid scars on 
her breast and arms, unmistakable signs of neglected 
syphilis, and at the back of the low-cut waist brown spots 
around the neck gave further evidence of the disease. 
On the back of the right hand curiously enough was an- 
other deep round scar seeming to cry aloud the taint in 
her blood. 

As the warmth of the crackling fire permeated her 
damp clothes the room became filled with a nauseating 
odor of uncleanness and disease. I seemed to smell the 
reek of disinherited humanity thrust back beyond vision 
into ill-kept almshouses and foul jails. 

Suddenly she turned full toward me disclosing six ob- 
long bright red buttons as large as plums which pretended 
to clasp a foot wide girdle around her emaciated waist. 
Her bare little eyes were overflowing with tears. 

"I am so tired," she half whispered, "so tired of trying 
to please the men." 

With the quick impetuosity I remembered so well, she 
threw herself on the rug at my feet, hiding her face in 
my lap and bathing my hands with her tears. She had 
discarded her hat and I could detect round hairless spots 
on her scalp which she had vainly attempted to conceal 
with a false braid. So riddled did she seem with dis- 
ease that I dumbly wondered if even in her tears the pollu- 
tion could be carried. . 

"You believe I am still a good girl," she whispered, 
clasping and unclasping my fingers with her moist hands. 
The question wrung my heart. 

"I believe you have traveled a hard road," I answered, 
"that you have been unthinkably mishandled by men." 
I could feel a quiver run over her. She raised a hard, 
narrow-eyed face. 

"There aren't any good men in this world," she said, 
"anyone that thinks so hasn't seen them the way I have." 
She smiled wryly, trying to hide the missing tooth by 
pulling her lip down. "Married men, men with families, 
men with their collars buttoned down the back, judges as 
judges us, lawyers, doctors, policemen, army men, sailors, 
mothers' little boys with the down on their cheeks — they're 
all the same, rotten, rotten, rotten, through and through." 

Her voice rose shrilly. "And the best of them is the 
worst of them, for it's them as makes us believe 'em. It 
was a young doctor from the University Hospital who 
led me off before Lucy died. He kept sayin' it was just 
nature, that there could be nothing wrong in nature, and 
I believed him because he seemed clean and true. That's 
what they all tell girls like me, that it's right to live as 
you please according to nature, but I notice they don't 
say the same thing to their daughters or their wives or 
to the girls they're going to marry. 

"There are some men who say they don't know why girls 
go wrong, but they'd know if they'd look to their own 
conduct. Who is it that makes the street the easiest way 
for a girl to earn her living? I've earned as high as $125 
a week from men, but I couldn't earn $8 a week in a 
factory." 

She hid her face suddenly. "What'm I telling you r 
T didn't come to tell you all this. I wanted you to be- 
lieve in me. It was that, your believing in me that seemed 
to keep me up all those years, that kept me from being 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER ?, i 9 i6 



bad inside like some of the rest of 'em." She struggled 
to her feet with the evident intention of leaving. 

"You're good," she said dully, "good, and so you can't 
understand, and without understanding you can never 
forgive me." 

"I can forgive you," I answered with a curious sense 
of inadequacy, "when you prove that you no longer mean 
to live this life." 

She shook her head despondently. "It isn't that kind 
of forgiveness I want," she said. "Besides, you don't 
know what this life does to a girl. It ruins her in mind 
and body so she can't go back to honest work. The drugs, 
the drink, yes," she fairly hissed it at me, "the disease — 
they take the very life out of you. 

"Three years ago I went to the matron at the University 
Hospital and told her I wanted to study nursing. She 
said to come back in a few days. I believe she meant to 
accept me. But when the time came I couldn't go, my 
nerves were all shattered, I couldn't count on myself. 
After awhile I went and told her my sister had been sick 
and I couldn't come, but it wasn't my sister. It was me. 
Look at me!" She stretched out her arms shaking as if 
with a palsy. "Who would want me now? What steady 
work could I do?" 

"You can rest and get well and start over again." I as- 
sured her. 

She burst into uncontrolled tears. "Listen," she said, 
when she had regained some composure. "I know it's 
about the end for me. That's b one reason I came today. 
I won't live this life any longer, and there's nothing else 
I can do." 

I sketched out pleasant plans for the future. A long 
visit in the quiet country, adequate medical care. To all 
my suggestions she surrendered but a skeptical attention, 
she was fondling my hands and looking strangely into the 
fire. 

"If I could only tell the others," she said finally. "The 
good girls that are still young, that will come to take my 
place, then it wouldn't seem all so much wasted. For I 
know," she added quickly, "better than you, better than 
anyone who hasn't been through it, why it's wrong. When 
Lucy died, when I got the bad disease and it showed so 
I had to take up with drunken men or young boys who 
couldn't tell it on me, when I only could get a quarter or 
perhaps a drink, then I began to see why it was that girls 
should be straight and that men had no right to tempt 
them in the beginning. 

"I might be married now and have children. Oh, God — 
children! If I had known that it was life that I was 
selling, life that had been given me to protect. If you 
would tell them, the girls and the men, too, that what 
they're doing is to take their pleasure at the cost of their 
own helpless little children, then they wouldn't sell out 
so cheap just for a little fun. 

"I'm broken, I'm ruined," she went on wildly, "but I've 
learned my lesson. I learned it down there," indicating 
an abyss, "down in that hell. I would kill myself, I'd 
kill Lucy rather than to let her do what I have done. 
It's burned into me, it's branded, here and here and here," 
she touched the livid scars, "love and life must not be 
bought and sold." 

Abruptly she stood up and approached the fireplace with 
unsteady feet. Her eyes were consuming a beautiful 
colored print of Bellini's Mary Magdalen. "A man 



painted that," she said hoarsely, "I used to love it when 
I came to your house long ago, you remember, because 
I thought it true and beautiful. I used even to pray to it. 
but now I know it is a lie. Look at her wonderful gold- 
red hair, look at her white skin, her clear, pitiful eyes. 
See her lovely bosom, her fine delicate hands. Those are 
real pearls and rubies and emeralds that she wears. She 
looks like a queen, only more tender and more kind. But 
that wasn't the Mary that came to our Lord Jesus and 
threw herself at his feet, that wasn't the Mary he lifted 
up and forgave and told it'd be all right if she'd go and 
sin no more. 

"No," she went on, the tears rolling unheeded down 
her cheeks, "that Mary was a woman looked more like 
me. She was ugly and wasted and foul with disease, but 
her heart was broken like mine, and our Lord looked 
straight through and saw her soul purified. x\nd he loved 
her," she exclaimed, a great light of triumph coming into 
her face, "he loved her because she had learned." 

She threw herself passionately on the floor at my feet, 
hiding her face in her hands. "Oh, Holy Jesus." she 
sobbed, "that's the kind of forgiveness I mean." 

WHEN she left me it was all arranged that she should 
first stay at a nursing home and then go out into the 
country with some simple Quaker people whom I knew. 
Unconsciously I felt her lack of faith in the plan, so I was 
not especially surprised when they rang me up an hour 
or so later from a police station in a downtown quarter 
of the town. 

"There's a body here we want you to identify, a woman 
She may be almost any age. They got her in the water 
down near Long's pier. She looks like a woman who was 
not much good. In her pocket she had a letter signed by 
your name. Come, if you can, before the inquest. That 
will be at four o'clock. 

T was there still in the room where I had seen her. 
Near the hearth was a small pool of dirty water that had 
dripped from her miserable clothes. The sunlight had 
shifted slightly along the rug. The fire had ceased its 
ardent crackling, that was all. 

Meanwhile, there had been a struggle down there in 
the bitter wharf water and one of the many thousands 
had struck out for peace. A place was empty, as she had 
predicted, — to be filled by whom? There came upon me 
with appalling clearness the enormity of the thing. This 
was not just one case. It was the case of thousands. 
Today — tonight — tomorrow, the "young girls who would 
take her place" would be thrown into the mill to come out 
carrion. 

She was but twenty-eight years old, and yet her life 
was done. The lust of men had devoured her as fire guts 
a building. She had been left by her mother an innocent 
and tender child, full of sweet promise. Eleven years 
under the hands of men had made of her this abject thing, 
degraded beneath all other degredation. 

£C"V7"OU have sons, I have sons," an eminent lawyer. 
JL counsel to one of America's great railroads, said 
to me recently, "they cannot, in all probability, marry 
early. What would you have them do?" The shrug of his 
shoulders took prostitution for granted. 

Would he, I wondered, have the heart to repeat his 
words in the presence of this dead girl? 



National Stress 

A Stimulus to Social Action 
By Percy Alden, M. P. 



IT is extremely difficult while the shock of the earth- 
quake is still being felt to predict the shape, or the 
lack of shape, that earth will take after the con- 
vulsions which have affected it. The war in Europe 
has produced such profound emotion, such terrific 
changes in the contour of our national life that we can 
only prophesy in general terms. We do know that things 
can never be the same again. The belligerent countries 
have thrown everything they possess into the alembic of 
this war ; what will emerge from the fiery crucible is be- 
yond the knowledge of the ablest statesman and the most 
experienced social investigators. In the words of Thomas 
a Kempis : "It is one of those dark and hidden things, 
for ignorance of which we shall not be condemned in the 
day of judgment." 

This much, however, is certain that the slaughter and 
the carnage which we have witnessed and are witnessing 
will affect us for many generations yet to come. The 
booming of the guns in France and Flanders and on the 
eastern front will reverberate down the centuries. Our 
children's children will bear the marks of the wounds 
which are now being inflicted. Peace will come, but if we 
are not careful it will be the peace of exhaustion, and 
something more than that is required. When the men 
return from the trenches they will undoubtedly be tired 
and weary of war. 

The story of the bishop of Birmingham who, taking as 
his text the bestowal of the Victoria Cross upon a 
wounded soldier who was present, was suddenly inter- 
rupted by another man calling out, "Never mind about the 
Victoria Cross, give me the Victoria bus," typifies the 
spirit with which our soldiers will return. 

Nearly everyone who writes of the war points out that 
with all its evil there is a higher side to it, that it does 
produce certain heroic qualities which are only latent in 
the heart of men, that it does cause a vast output of 
moral and intellectual energy. For the time being class 
and caste disappear. Even our criminal population has 
disappeared. The national life is on the anvil and under 
the hammer of social stress caused by the war, petty jeal- 
ousies and petty differences disappear. The community 
feeling begins to emerge — the desire for a common ideal 
achieved through suffering and self-sacrifice. 

All this is true ; but it reminds me of what Balfour said 
of Winston Churchill who in a speech had made the state- 
ment that during his few weeks in the trenches his mind 
had been clarified with regard to the aims, objects and 
methods of the war. Mr. Balfour in his reply remarked 
that "it seemed a pity that it should require a European 
war to clarify the right honorable gentleman's mind." 
And in the same way I think that it is a pity that it should 
require a European war to enable us to discover how- 
great a calamity war must necessarily be. 

I don't think that we must disguise from ourselves the 
fact that war is always a disaster and that this war is an 
appalling disaster. Of course, there is truth in the saying 



of Shakespeare that "there is some soul of goodness in 
things evil," but I cannot think that the view which is 
sometimes taken of war as a "purgation of the passions," 
to quote Aristotle, in respect of the "play," is a correct 
one. It may purge some passions and it may evoke some 
good qualities very much as a famine or a pestilence 
would, but it brings to the surface the worst and most 
evil side of man and intensifies the brute in our nature. 

There may also be some truth in the saying that "this war 
will help to end war" ; that all the belligerent countries 
concerned will be more inclined to settle their differences 
by arbitration and conciliation. It is quite possible that 
just as the circumstances of the war have unified our feel- 
ing in Great Britain, so the reaction which this war will 
produce will subdue the passions even of the militarists 
in each country and thus enable those who are laboring 
to create an international mind, to achieve some measure 
of success. 

We must not, however, expect too much in this direc- 
tion. The war will not solve the problem of nationality, 
or produce natural frontiers just where we want them, 
or abolish all the differences created by creed and race. 
The war won't work a moral regeneration because we 
want it to. It will work a moral regeneration just in pro- 
portion as the democracies of the countries concerned 
awake to the fact that they have not been governing but 
governed. 

If this great catastrophe does produce a desire to 
think strenuously upon the causes of war, if it does pro- 
duce an effort to understand other nations and other 
races, then there is some hope for the future. The real 
tragedy will be if following on this war we waste the 
opportunities which are now offered of building up a new 
national life. These opportunities have been wasted in 
the past. 

One cannot say that either the Crimean war or the 
South African war, so far as England was concerned, did 
much good. The struggle against Napoleon did produce 
a sense of unity which was of value. Our own civil war 
of 260 years ago caused the figure of Oliver Cromwell 
to emerge and in a sense made modern England possible, 
but in every case we had a reaction. I well remember 
after the Boer war the chastened feeling that existed 
amongst our people. We were saying this was a foolish 
and bloody adventure. Let us now try to heal the wounds 
of South Africa, and let us also try to remedy the social 
evils which have too long been neglected in our own 
midst. An attempt was made, not altogether unsuccess- 
ful, by Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman, to reconstruct 
and rebuild our shattered ideal. 

What are we going to do when the period of national 
stress is over? Are we going to relapse into a stupid 
individualism? Are we going to relinquish our collective 
effort and once more leave everything to chance? I hope 
not, and it is that hope which enables social reformers to 
go on working in these dark days. 



23 



24 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, i 9 /6 



Let us for a moment look at the most immediate effects 
of the war in England. Amongst the best men there was 
a good deal of heart burning. They knew that the narrow 
individualism of the past had made it difficult for us to 
rise to the emergency. Educationalists saw that Ger- 
many at all events, whatever may have been her motive, 
had done much to prepare the nation for any crisis that 
might come. W'e did not at first even see what ought to 
be done to safeguard ourselves against a shock which 
threatened the stability of the nation itself. 

You will remember the measures that were devised to 
maintain our credit, how that all bankers and financiers 
of the country were called to the aid of the government. 
You will recall the steps that were taken to secure our 
food supply, and the large funds that were raised to help 
that section of the people which we felt would feel most 
of all the distress occasioned by the war. 

Those who anticipated a considerable amount of un- 
employment began at once to organize to meet what they 
conceived to be the probable need. There never was a 
time in the history of the United Kingdom when meas- 
ures, astounding in their magnitude, were devised and 
passed through the House of Commons in the space of 
.1 few days. All opposition to social legislation was swept 
away. Confronting a gigantic need, even the hide-bound 
Tory consented to a form of Socialism which would have 
horrified him at any other time. .Money was voted in 
millions, not only for specific purposes, but for all sorts 
of unspecified purposes contained in the various expenses 
arising out of the existence of a state of war, assisting 
the food supply, promoting the continuance of trade in- 
dustry and business communications, whether by means 
of insurance or indemnity against risk or otherwise, and 
for the relief of distress. Not only was this money voted, 
but the prime minister said that the moment it became 
apparent that more was required that moment he woidd 
not hesitate to ask for a further grant. 

England's Food and Drink 

A system of insurance for ships and cargoes was set 
up, the government assuming 80 per cent of the risk. 
Committees were appointed to deal with the question of 
food prices, and all the existing traders' organizations 
were mobilized to the assistance of the government. A 
method was devised for fixing prices both for food and 
all military supplies, and the unreasonable withholding of 
food supplies was made illegal. 

In fact, the Board of Trade had power if it wished to 
requisition all foodstuffs in the country, just as the war 
office or the admiralty requisitioned material for their 
own purposes. Every possible step was taken to prevent 
the big dealers from speculating in food, and in the case 
of sugar it was felt necessary that the government should 
create a sugar monopoly, which it has done by purchasing 
nearly "200,000,000 dollars' worth of sugar in the markets 
of the world. In that way the price of sugar has been 
controlled by the Board of Trade and although it has 
gone up in price the profit is partly an exchequer profit. 
The trade can be dealt with immediately simply because 
the actual price he pays to the government is known. 

Just at first the rich started the bad practice of buying 
large stocks of provisions and traders were told that if 
this practice were encouraged by them they would be 
dealt with as criminals. Since that time there has been 
no need even for such a threat. 

In connection with this question of food, it ought to 



be mentioned that the co-operative societies of England, 
owing to their promises not to make any extra profits by 
the rise in prices, have secured an enormous increase of 
membership and there is no doubt that co-operation from 
this time forth is destined to play a much larger part in 
our economic history than ever before. 

It is interesting to note that the government has pur- 
sued the same policy but on a still larger scale. It is now 
sole purchaser of practically all the meat consumed by the 
British and French and to some extent Italian armies. 

W hat is not required for the armies is sold to the dealers 
at the market price. This was not achieved without a 
great struggle. The railways had already been unified and 
placed under government control, but the shipping had 
not been fuly commandeered, although the government 
possess now nearly 70 per cent of all the mercantile 
marine. The shortage of meat owing to the enormous 
armies in the field made it possible for the foreign own- 
ers of cattle and of sheep to greatly increase their prices 
and this price would have become prohibitive had not the 
government commandeered or purchased all the cold 
storage space in the British mercantile marine and as much 
more as was obtainable. New Zealand and Australia com- 
mandeered this entire suply of mutton and beef. In this 
way it became quite impossible for the big meat producers 
in South America or anywhere else to charge exorbitant 
prices, because in that case the government simply re- 
fused to carry the goods. An attempt to monopolize the 
whole of the meat producing trade on the part of a few 
companies was thus broken down at its outset. 

Mr. Lloyd George was anxious to secure if possible a 
large measure of prohibition in connection with the liquor 
traffic, but this effort failed. Since then, however, choos- 
ing the line of least resistance, he has been able to place 
all the areas of the country that can in any way be con- 
sidered munition areas (and that, of course, means the 
greater part of the country) under a board of control 
which has almost unlimited powers. 

This board can, for example, in any munition area take 
over the whole of the public houses and saloons and close 
any that it chooses. It can run the rest itself, making 
them in effect government concerns. It can start can- 
teens of its own inside or outside the works. It can sell 
just what liquor it likes or if it chooses no liquor at all. 
By extending the area in each case, it has now succeeded 
in covering the thickly populated parts of England and 
Scotland, and the result will be seen in the diminished 
statistics of drunkenness and in the enormously increased 
output of the munition shops. 

Added to that there is a recent decision to take over 
all the spirit distilleries of the United Kingdom and run 
them all for munition purposes. Spirits can no longer 
therefore, be manufactured, and only existing supplies 
can be used. The price will no doubt be increased and 
it is hoped the quantity consumed will be seriously dimin- 
ished. 

Side by side with this campaign against the evils of 
the liquor traffic in time of war is a limitation of the 
hours in all camp and troop areas, during which saloon*- 
are entitled to be open. 

Organizing Employment 

M w I now return for a moment to the question of un- 
employment which seemed to many to threaten at the 
outbreak of the war? Herbert Samuel, who was then 
president of the local government board, urged all trader- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



25 



and manufacturers to keep their mills and factories going 
even at a loss. The road board which had some millions 
of money on hand was instructed to use any such funds 
for employing laborers in improving the condition of the 
roads, and the development commission was urged to 
take action in the same way. The development commis- 
sion had already made its plan for very big constructive 
and reclamation enterprises. 

Circulars were sent out to the municipalities and county 
councils urging that their undertakings should not be cur- 
tailed but rather increased, and the War Emergency 
Workers' Committee was appointed representing every 
section of labor. The business of this committee was to 
co-operate with government departments in the efforts 
that were being made to reduce the distress from want 
of employment and later to deal with all questions of 
labor disputes and labor conditions arising out of the war. 
Happily the unemployment measures proved unneces- 
sary, although they may be required after the war is over, 
but it is significant that such steps should have been taken 
and that a measure for building working class cottages in 
agricultural districts which had been suggested was put 
through both houses of Parliament in a few days. That 
measure, housing (No. 2) bill, appropriated $20,000,000 
for the building of houses and cottages for the working 
classes in the United Kingdom. 

It is desirable that some of that money should now be 
used in certain areas in order to provide accommodation 
for the working classes who have crowded into certain 
war districts. The government has, however, already 
spent a very large sum in places like Woolwich where 
large numbers of cottages have been built for the extra 
workers attracted to the arsenal. The number of legis- 
lative measures put through Parliament during the first 
six months of the war was beyond all belief. Many of 
them, of course, were purely military measures but at 
least half were designed to meet the emergencies of the 
moment. It must be admitted that many of these meas- 
ures have been successful and yet in the face of all this, I 
wish to urge that there is still a great opportunity which 
ought not to be wasted and it is with that thought I pro- 
pose to deal for a few minutes. 

Hundreds of thousands of my fellow countrymen are 
sacrificing their lives at what seems to them the call of 
duty. What is the business of those who remain? Surely 
it is a resolution not only to prevent the recurrence of 
such a war but to deal drastically with what we know 
must be the evil effects of the war after all this vast ex- 
penditure of blood and treasure. We need some clear 
thinking. We need a vivid sense of social duty. For the 
danger will be that after the war is over we shall fall back 
into the usual rut, content ourselves with the gospel of 
self-interest and allow that stupid individualism which has 
been our bane in the past to once more assert itself. In- 
dividualists fail to recognize that the highest degree of 
individual welfare can only be attained by considering the 
welfare of the whole community. 

The Britisher has been condemned as a money grubber, 
one who cares nothing about the state and nothing about 
the nation as a whole. We are beginning to see that he 
has another side to his nature — that he does respond to 
the call of self-sacrifice, that he can unite and that he 
can submit to discipline. But he lacks imagination ; he 
fails to see, for example, the importance of spending 
money on education. In America, there is far more real 
interest in the colleges and universities than there is in 



England. Rich men display a public spirit which is al- 
most unknown on our side. There is no hesitation in 
giving millions to help research work or to strengthen 
one side or another of university life. The great univer- 
sities of Oxford and Cambridge are suffering just now 
for lack both of men and money owing to the war. 

An Educated Democracy 

If wmex the war is over, combined with a great reform 
movement, there could be an increase in the funds avail- 
able for these and other universities it would help us to 
recover some of our lost ground in the educational world. 
But, there must be a real reform of educational method 
and our educational system must not leave out of account 
organized labor. Both the churches and the universities 
in the past have been far too apt to forget that after all 
the great mass of people are manual workers. I some- 
times say of the churches "the paucity of Christians is 
astonishing considering the number of them" and the 
churches have much leeway to make up if they are to be 
of use after the war. 

If we are to have a true democracy we must have an 
educated democracy, and I think I may be allowed to add 
a religious democracy, using "religion" in the broadest 
sense. The churches in England have perhaps failed to 
see the possibilities that lie in an organized movement 
throughout the whole community, in the direction of a 
better and truer education — an education which makes 
for citizenship. 

When Robert Lowe extended the franchise and cre- 
ated a democratic electorate, he said now we must "set 
to work to educate our masters." From that time to this, 
either we have made no attempt or the attempt has been 
abortive. The people as a whole do not understand the 
problems they are called upon to solve — problems of 
economics, of administration, and of international policy 
and for the matter of that many of our legislators are 
equally ignorant though they think they know. And then 
we complain that they make mistakes. Lord Bryce said 
to me in an interview which he gave me some time ago, 
"Nations respond to the appeal that is made to them in 
a time of great national emergency when they have been 
trained to love truth and honor, to cherish justice and 
liberty." 

Have we trained our people to respond to the call of 
such high principles? Have we not rather given them a 
mean and materialistic and selfish view of what England 
and the empire stand for? How can we expect the aver- 
age workingman to comprehend what is meant by the 
British empire or as I should prefer to call it the British 
commonwealth? How can we expect him to make sacri- 
fices for that comonwealth when he has no conception 
whatever of what it means and when his interest in his 
own country has so often been destroyed by the lack of 
elementary justice. Knowledge is all important. Clear 
thinking is invaluable, and after this war if the effect is 
to create a public spirit and increase our social energy, 
knowledge may enable us to deal with many questions 
which up to the present have been neglected in whole or 
in part. We must not drop our interest in the housing 
question, the question of unemployment, of old age, the 
drink question, the declining birth-rate, infant mortality, 
and the shocking frequency of disease amongst the school 
children of our land. 

These will be social duties, not mere matters of in- 
quiry and statistics. These will be moral duties, for every 



26 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7 , igi6 



well-ordered reform is the expression of the moral life 
of the community. Then again just see what a change the 
war has wrought in our outlook on the railways, the coal 
supply, the food supply, the question of shipping, the 
government control of the manufacture of munitions of 
war ! It is not improbable that after this war is over we 
shall continue to control all the railways of the country. 
It is just possible that we may control in the same way 
the shipping and the mines as being indispensible indus- 
tries, and meanwhile the state is in almost complete con- 
trol of thousands of munition works, the largest of which 
are state owned. 

Look at the question of the liquor traffic ! Why we have 
made more progress in one month on the drink question 
than we had made before for fifty years. It used to be 
said "better England free than England sober." There 
is no reason why it should not be both. Indeed, I am in- 
clined to think unless England is sober she will never be 
free. If the state controlled the whole of the liquor traf- 
fic it would give the people a chance to discover their 
true selves. 

This war is a terrible evil — so terrible that we are un- 
able to conceive all its innumerable horrors. Our imagi- 



nation boggles at the picture of starving millions and the 
vast armies of dead and wounded men. Can it fail to be 
a mighty education for the future? I hope that amongst 
the lessons we have learnt is the lesson that there must 
be far more democratic control of foreign policy and less 
secret diplomacy, but that is only possible if the democ- 
racy has knowledge and training. We are so pathetically 
ignorant in these matters. Ignorance is the enemy of all 
true progress. True education is the stepping stone to- 
ward every pure ideal. I prophecy that party divisions will 
have much less effect in the future than in the past, that 
foreign questions and social questions will be, if only we 
take the right steps, treated as scientific problems to be 
solved by all earnest thinking citizens, and finally we 
shall give to the working classes the fullest educational 
facilities so that democracy may be equipped for the 
responsible duties which have been committed to its 
charge. 

I don't suppose that I shall live to see more than the 
slender beginnings of this new republic, but I find mv 
comfort in the words of a great English poet 

"For us the day lives only for a little and is gone, 
Time and the fruitful hour are more than we." 



A Reproach Among Women 

By Louise Montgomery 



MARY SLOVENSKO laid the four round 
balls of hamburg steak on a pie-tin and 
placed the tin at the back of the stove next 
to the frying-pan. Then she unlocked the 
kitchen door which was the only means of entrance to her 
little three-room flat, and sat down on the unpainted 
wooden chair near the open window. 

It was half-past five by the little clock on the shelf over 
the sink. The supper-table with its spotless oil-cloth cover- 
ing and thick blue dishes was laid for two, and there was 
a basin of warm water in the sink within easy reach of a 
cake of yellow soap and a clean crash towel. For fifteen 
years Mary Slovensko had made the daily preparations 
for the evening meal and had sat down to wait by the 
window that looked out upon the littered and ill-smelling 
alley through which, during the same fifteen years, her 
husband had never failed to take the short cut from the 
the stockyards to the rear of the tenement house. 

Mary understood him well, this solid, stolid, hard- 
working husband. She had once given it as her reason for 
never leaving the flat at this hour that he always liked to 
hear "something frying" while he was climbing the two 
flights of stairs. It was a comforting sound to the man 
who ate his cold lunch in the sausage room where he 
worked ten hours a day on six days of the week, and 
Mary was wise enough to perceive it. In all the simple 
ways known to women she patiently tried to please her 
husband. His clothes were carefully washed and mended ; 
she never kept him waiting for his meals, and the three- 
room flat was always clean. Not that he was more diffi- 
cult to please than other men. Mary knew that from the 
beginning she had found favor in his sight and that he 
still loved her; yet the wife walked humbly before her 
husband and in the sight of the world, for Mary Slovensko 
was a childless woman. 



As she sat waiting by the open window, the daily con- 
scious sorrow of her married life oppressed her as it 
always did in her moments of idleness. With her fore- 
finger she gently worked the earth in the green box where 
each year she planted sweet peas that she might behold 
anew the miracle of the germinating seed. It was the 
middle of May and the cool warmth of a spring day 
stirred her heart. On a day like this ten years ago, after 
her five years of patient waiting for motherhood, her 
heart had cried out to her husband even as Rachel had 
cried unto Jacob more than three thousand years before. 
"Give me children, or else I die!" And like Jacob her 
husband had replied with an impulse of anger that he 
was not in the place of the God who sends or withholds 
the child. Then Mary had hung her head and sobbed, 
and from that day her passionate longing was buried in 
the secret chambers of her own heart. 

SHE turned from the green box and saw her husband 
coming up the alley. His left hand was carrying the 
empty dinner-pail and his right was holding the four cor- 
ners of an immigrant's bundle which he had thrown over 
one shoulder. A young girl followed about three feet 
behind him. Mary did not stop either to wonder or to 
look again. Even so unaccustomed a sight could not in- 
hibit the daily act of her married life at the appointed 
moment. The four round balls of hamburg steak were 
frying in hot fat when Jaroslov Slovensko reached the 
upper landing, pushed open his own hospitable door and 
motioned to the young girl to follow. 

Mary's soft blue eyes questioned her husband. 

"Julia Mlinik is her name," he replied. "She's no place 
to go. She's come over to work with her sister Annie 
and can't find her. Annie worked in the yards in the 
soap-house and lived by Burzinsky and his wife where 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



she paid for her room two dollars a month. Burzinsky 
says Annie didn't come back last night after work. They 
won't keep this girl who has nothing. She is Slovak like 
ourselves. You know Burzinsky is a Pole. He brought 
the girl to me. He says it is more just that we keep her 
•till Annie comes back." 

He spoke slowly in the Slovak tongue, according to 
the habit which fifteen years of life and work in Chicago 
had not changed, dropped the pail and the bundle on the 
floor and moved to the sink to wash in the basin of warm 
water. 

The mother-heart of Mary was touched as she looked 
at the fresh red-cheeked young girl in her peasant dress 
standing helpless and silent in their door-way. She laid 
a hand kindly on the girl's shoulder. 

"Put off the shawl and sit down. You shall eat with us 
tonight." 

Julia Mlinik spoke for the first time. 

"I had reason to come," she said, and pulled from a 
pocket deep in the folds of her full skirt a soiled letter 
from Annie bearing the address of the Burzinskys and 
setting forth the alluring wage of six dollars a week 
offered to all young girls who could work ten hours a day 
in the stockyards. 

"And now Annie is not here. My sister leaves me like 
this in a strange country." 

Her blue-grey eyes were full of tears, but she sat pas- 
sively holding the letter between the red palms of her 
large strong hands. 

Again Mary laid her caressing hand upon the young girl. 
A situation like this was not wholly new in the neighbor- 
hood. Mary remembered that she had come with her 
father and mother, but she knew that the past ten years 
had seen many young girls leaving their parents in the 
old country home and coming alone to meet brothers, 
sisters, or even village neighbors who had gone before 
them. Lost and mistaken addresses, unaccountable sepa- 
rations and mysterious disappearances were too often a 
part of this eager search for a new world, and many an 
aching heart made no outward cry. 

"How many years have you, my child?" she asked. 

"I have seventeen years today," replied Julia. 

Mary shook her head sadly and repeated her hospitable 
invitation. "Come, put off the shawl. Wash and we will 
eat. You shall stay by us till something comes." 

Jaroslov had his usual portion of meat but Mary 
shared hers with the newcomer. After the meal the two 
women washed the dishes while the man smoked his com- 
fortable pipe, pausing now and then to ask some question 
of the old country. Mary grieved over the poverty that 
did not allow her the possession of an extra featherbed, 
but she opened the full drawers of her small chest and 
drew out sheets and quilts and a pillow to make a bed for 
the girl on the floor of the front room. 

THE next morning Julia followed Jaroslov who show- 
ed her where to take her place in the line of women 
and girls waiting to be selected for the day's work. She 
returned at six o'clock with the joyful news that she had 
been one of the first to be chosen to pack the dried beef 
in the cans for one dollar a day as long as she worked 
well. Mary's heart yearned over the girl and Jaroslov 
silently figured that with this amount she could easily pay 
two dollars a month, which would be clear gain to them, 
for her lodging in the front room ; and as for the cost of 
food, she would pay for her portion according to the 



Slovak custom. It did not once occur to any one of the 
three that it might be possible to find Annie, for initiative 
and resourcefulness are not the characteristics of their 
race, and patient endurance has been for many generations 
the lot of this people without a national history. 

At the end of the first week Mary bought a small mat- 
tress to make the girl more comfortable and by the end of 
the month she had saved enough out of her husband's 
wage of nine dollars a week to pay for a single bed to 
place under it. Thus it came about that Julia Mlinik 
took up her unquestioned abode with Jaroslov Slovensko 
and his wife Mary. 

The summer months passed quickly. Julia had but few 
idle weeks even when work grew slack and she could 
report to Mary that many other girls were laid off, for 
her strong hands were controlled by a mind that placidly 
and obediently accepted the daily task. When the autumn 
days came with the frost in the evening air, Mary said 
to her husband : 

"Shall we also keep her through the winter? You 
must think. It will take more heat if the front room is 
open." 

Jaroslov remembered that it had been their custom dur- 
ing the cold months to close the door between the front 
room and the kitchen and seal the cracks with heavy 
brown paper from the butcher's shop, thereby cutting 
down the cost of fuel. To Mary he seemed to ponder the 
question long and unduly before replying. 

"I think we must keep her for the winter." 

SO Julia Mlinik stayed and worked and faithfully paid 
for her lodging and food. At Christmas she was ill 
without cause, so Mary said to Jaroslov, and the first week 
in January found her still unable to return to her work. 
Then Mary spent fifty cents of her carefully hoarded 
money for some dried herbs, which the corner druggist 
assured her he had secured from the southern slopes of 
her own Carpathian mountains, and from these she brewed 
an ill-tasting mixture that Julia obediently swallowed at 
intervals and in such quantities as the elder woman di- 
rected. Another fifty cents went for additional fuel be- 
cause Julia insisted on wearing her shawl in the house 
and complained of the cold draughts. Seven days dragged 
by and still the girl seemed to Mary's anxious eye to be 
spiritless, unhappy, unlike herself and loth to follow 
Jaroslov to the yards. 

It was half-past five by the little clock. Mary sat down 
in her accustomed seat and with her thumb and finger 
tried to scrape the frost from the window-pane that she 
might catch a glimpse of her husband coming up the alley 
through the falling snow. 

"The cold is heavy tonight," she said. "Julia, bring me 
the big knife." 

Julia walked heavily to the drawer in the kitchen table 
and Mary turned suddenly to look at her. In an instant 
the woman and the girl faced each other. 

"Julia Mlinik, put off the shawl that you must wear to 
hide your shame." 

The girl silently dropped the shawl from her shoulders 
to the floor. 

"Julia Mlinik, what disgrace do you bring to honest peo- 
ple who took you in and cared for you like a daughter. 
Is it true what my eyes now see for the first time? What 
man is father to the child that will come to you?" 

Mary's voice rose with each accusing question and her 
soft blue eyes grew steel grey and relentless. 



.'8 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, i 9 i6 



As Julia stood passive and silent. Mary took her fiercely 
by each shoulder and shook her. 

"You must speak! You must speak!" she repeated. 
Then in a gentler tone — 

"Tell me. You are after all but a child. If it is some 
foolish young fellow from our own country that made 
love to you, Jaroslov will find him and bring him here. 
The fellow shall marry you and give you a name for the 
child." 

The compelling power of the elder woman broke the 
stubborn silence. Julia lifted her head. 

"Your husband. Jaroslov." 

Mary unloosed her hands and shrank from the girl. 

"It is a lie you speak. Jaroslov — my husband — he has 
never been like that. I have cherished a viper in my bosom 
and now it rises up to strike at mv heart. Speak again. 
The truth !" 

Julia shrugged her shoulders. Mary, searching the 
young face thought she saw a look of scornful and con- 
scious superiority in the girl who was soon to fulfil the 
destiny of woman. She shrank before that look and 
clapped her hands to her ears as if to shut out Julia's 
next words. 

"Again I say. Jaroslov. Your husband." 

For the first time in all the uneventful years of his 
married life Jaroslov missed the comforting sound of fry- 
ing meat as he climbed the stairs. Instead he heard the 
unfamiliar, strained and high-pitched voice of his gentle 
Mary mingled with Julia's deeper, persistent, accusing 
tones, and knew that the crisis in their affairs had come. 
He pushed through the door and stood before the two 
women. Mary walked straight to him ; she brushed the 
light flakes of snow from his sleeves and straightened the 
narrow coat collar that he had turned up to protect his 
neck from the cold, while her beseeching eyes called for 
the truth. 

"It is a lie that she speaks, Jaroslov. I know it is a lie 
that she speaks." 

Jaroslov Slovensko drew a deep breath and waited, for 
his tongue was heavy in his mouth. 

"She speaks the truth. I want no words now. Get to 
work, one of you, and make the supper ready." 

Silenced before the authority of the man, unquestioned 
by women of their kind, Julia hastened with the inter- 
rupted preparations for the evening meal, but Mary stood 
idly by the frosty window. Yet when the three sat down 
together all things were as usual to the outward eye ex- 
cept that by the little clock on the shelf over the sink. 
supper was fifteen minutes late. 

Relieved of the heavy burden of secrecy Julia was 
soon sleeping soundly in the little bed Mary had bought 
for her. Then Jaroslov added fuel to the kitchen fire, 
opened the oven door to let more heat into the room, and 
drew two chairs together before the stove. 

"Sit down. Mary," he commanded. 

The wife drew her chair apart and obeyed. 

"Now we will talk," he said. 

But Mary's lips were firmly pressed together and a 
stubborn silence fell between them. 

"You are accusing me," he broke forth angrily, "you 
who could not give me a son to work for me in my old 
age and make my name live in America." 

Mary bowed her face in her strong hands and sobbed 
aloud. 

Jaroslov stood up, walked around her chair and back 
again, and sat down. She had not cried like that since 



the time when he had chided her for the' 6ufcfy that had 
burst from her after her five years of waiting for mother- 
hood. He rose up again and stood over her with a coarse 
and heavy hand awkwardly trying to caress the bowed 
head, while he struggled with his explanation in quick 
short sentences. 

"Listen, Mary; listen, I say. The boy shall be ours. 
He shall stay with us. You shall be his mother. Julia 
can soon go. The city is large. Nobody will know. There 
is plenty of work away from here. After a time some 
man will marry her, and we shall have a son — a son for 
our old age." 

Mary had listened. She arose and faced her husband, 
confusion and conflict in her simple mind. 

"Jaroslov, Jaroslov, did you think of — of me?" 

Again Jaroslov Slovensko drew a deep breath and 
waited. It was hard to speak many words before the look 
in Mary's face. 

"I have said it, Mary ; I have said it. Julia shall go ; the 
son shall stay by us." 

They grew calmer after these moments of unwonted in- 
tensity and Jaroslov retold the story of how he had lost 
his name in America ; of the time fifteen years before 
when, only half comprehending the questions put to him, 
he found that he had been registered in the stockyards- 
by the name of the district from which he came, Slovensko 1 . 
He did not know how to change this mistake and he had 
hoped for a son to restore the name. Then the talk 
turned on ways and means. They must keep Julia till- 
after the birth of the boy. She must be well fed and 
comfortable, for the only son must be strong. It would 
cost money, but Mary thought it would be possible for 
her to earn the price of a day's washing now and then 
and Julia might yet work a few weeks. 

DURING the two months of waiting that followed 
Mary was outwardly calm, practical and busy. 
There were little clothes to be made and a 
crocheted cap. She pondered long upon the size 
of the cap but decided that it must be of good 
size. Jaroslov was a well-built man and the son' 
would surely be like his father. As they could not afford 
a cradle, Jaroslov brought a soap-box from the grocery, 
whittled off the rough edges with a knife and put wheels 
under it. Then Mary padded the sides and lined it with 
bright-colored cloth, and from her own pillow took the 
feathers to make two tiny feather beds. Julia had nc 
part in these preparations. Without will or conscious pur- 
pose she had followed the primal instinct and now she 
passively accepted the protection granted to her. 

Jaroslov was secretly rejoiced that both women were 
behaving so well. He did not know that in the stillness 
of the night Mary would awake suddenly with the sense 
of bewilderment and fear that often comes when the mind 
has unconsciously carried the burden of the day into the 
sleeping hours. Then she would creep from their bed and 
sit by the frosty window and beat upon the tender flesh 
of her breasts till the force of a physical pain seemed to 
draw the ache from her heart and she could creep back 
to bed shivering and tearless. 

In the morning of the tenth day of March the child 
was born. Jaroslov was sitting by the stove near the 
box cradle, hat and dinner-pail in hand, waiting past the 
hour that had always found him on his way to the stock- 
yards. Mary brought the child wrapped in a little yellow 
blanket, knelt d©wn by the cradle- and! tenderly laid it: 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



29 



between the tiny feather beds. 

"It — it is a girl," she faltered, not daring to look at her 
husband. 

Jaroslov looked at his wife kneeling over the new-born 
child and found no words. This was a possibility his 
slow mind had not dwelt upon in his thought of the com- 
ing child. He paused at the threshold of his door a mo- 
ment, put on his hat and went down the stairway. Mary 
watched him from the window till he reached the end 
of the alley and turned into the street, and it seemed to 
her that his heavy shoulders were bent. 

FOR seven days the hungry heart of Mary fed upon a 
deep and holy joy that even the bitter disappointment 
of her husband could not withhold from her. Then a great 
fear entered her heart. Julia, the placid and passive girl, 
obeying like a child, was growing self-assertive, even com- 
manding. The two women strove in secret jealousy for 
the right to be first to minister to the wants of the child. 
Julia found fault with the clothes that Mary had made 
with so much care. The crocheted cap was too large and 
Julia audaciously demanded that Mary buy linen thread 
for another which she herself would make of the correct 
size. Then they quarreled over the christening, the name 
the child should bear, and which woman had the better 
right to carry her during this holy ceremony. 

"Would you show your shame to all the world?" asked 
Mary indignantly. "Jaroslov and I will bear the child. 
Did he not say the child should be mine?" 

"She is mine," retorted Julia, scornfully, "and Jaroslov 
Slovensko is her father. Does he deny it? He shall walk- 
by me and give a name to my child. Do you think to 
deceive any to believe that vour flat breasts are giving 
suck?" 

Mary turned white before this thrust, but she dared 
not tell Jaroslov. who as yet knew nothing of the strife 
between the two women silent and obedient before him. 
nor of the place Julia expected him to take at the christen- 
ing. 

The next day when Mary returned from the shop where 
she had gone to buy meat for the supper, Julia and the 
baby were gone. She could see that the baby's clothes, the 
tiny feather beds, and the little that Julia possessed of 



her own, had been taken in one of the bed quilts. Patient 
and helpless she sat in the wooden chair by the window 
to watch for her husband. A thousand fears were knock- 
ing for entrance to her brain. The baby had never been 
out of doors before. Julia had feared to be seen with her 
and Mary had been sure the child would catch a cold. 
A raw March wind was blowing. She was glad Julia 
had the feather beds. The girl had little sense. She 
would never be able to care for the child alone, and she 
had no money. 

But Jaroslov was coming up the alley. For the first 
time in her married life Mary ran down the two flights of 
stairs to meet him and pulled him within the doorway. 

"The baby" — she panted, "the baby has gone, and Julia 
has gone with her, and the clothes, and the feather-beds 1" 

Sobbing and clinging to him she told of their quarrels 
over the christening and the naming of the child. By the 
time they reached the kitchen door, the man comprehended. 
He looked at the empty box-cradle, the work of his hands. 

"Let them go," he said harshly. "After all, it is but 
another girl. There are already too many women in the 
world. They make trouble." 

He walked to the window and looked out uneasily upon 
{he familiar alley. Mary stood by the cradle, but her 
eyes followed her husband and clung to him. He also 
suffered ; and in that moment, from her yearning mother- 
heart there arose a great wave of compassion that en- 
veloped her husband and Julia, and their baby. They were 
all children in their claim upon her unself ed love ; even 
the strange and unknown purpose of the distant God who 
withheld her child must be forgiven. 

"She will go to some neighbor for the night." Jaroslov 
continued, "and perhaps tell a story against us. Who 
knows what she will do ? Yet it may be that we can speak 
to the police to look for her." 

But he did not speak to the police, nor did either one 
know how to make any effort to find Julia and her child. 
With the patient endurance of his race, Jaroslov accepted 
this next step in the tragedy of his life while he faithfully 
carried his daily burden of hard labor; but Mary lived 
with a new peace in her heart — a peace that had been born 
of the Spirit. 



A MORNING PRAYER 

By Frances Beers 



ROSY morn that floods the skies, 
Flood thou too my languid eyes 
Which reluctantly unclose, 
That the heart of the world's rose 
I may vision clear today, 
Not its calyx, dim and gray. 
Matin bells, so silver clear — 

Tune my ear that I may hear 
Not alone the birds that sing, 
But the song in everything ; 
Catch the rhythm in the beat 
Of the countless, ceaseless feet, 
Hurrying swift or trailing slow, 
As to labor forth they go ; 
Hear a music in the din 
Of the trains that past me spin, 



Underground and overhead, 
Through the labyrinthine spread 
Of the giant iron mesh 
That the town encompasseth ; 
In machinery's clanging blow 
Hear the gods who forge below, 
With such clamorous, fiery stress, 
Gifts, the sons of men to bless ; 
Hear that anvil chorus beat, 
Of the earth-song, swift and sweet. 

Touch my eyes that I may see, 

Fair as dream, reality; 

Let me in each waif's wan face 

Still the heavenly Christ-child trace ; 

Let me as a sister greet 

Every woman of the street, 



Know her kin to me no less 
Than the nun in stainless dress, 
Who behind her convent bars 
Holds communion with the stars. 

O, — and hardest task of all! — 

Let me keep no portion small 

Of myself back, as too fine; 

Hold too dear the heart's red wine, 

Still to serve and still to pour 

For the lowliest at my door; 

Let me know my best was meant 

But to share in sacrament 

Still with all humanity 

Seated at life's board with me. 

These things bring, and day shall close, 

As it dawned, in radiant rose. 








THE MONTH 

IN common parlance, New York 
should worry. Following the long 
garment strike with its relief prob- 
lem for thousands of families, the city 
was plagued all summer with infantile 
paralysis. It faced at one time the pos- 
sibility of a real food shortage, had the 
general railroad strike come off. The 
railroad brotherhoods placated by Presi- 
dent Wilson's eight-hour law, the city 
found itself without trolley service. 
Once settled, that dispute broke forth 
anew. And there was grave question 
whether the subway and elevated men 
would not follow the surface car men 
and, in fact, all organized labor join a 
sympathetic movement which would 
have given us the first general strike in 
the Americas. At the time of going to 
press that calamity seems to have been 
avoided by the unwillingness of men and 
women in other trades to strike in sym- 
pathy with the Interborough men who 
are not themselves on strike in any num- 
bers. 

One of the statements of the street- 
car men's leaders — that in the event of 
a general strike, milk for babies and in- 
valids would not be tied up — seems now 
to have been almost prophetic, for 300,- 
000 cows are on strike through the ac- 
tion of their legal guardians, the dairy- 
men. As the total number of cattle who 
supply New York is about 350,000, the 
situation is alarming and, by the time 
this issue of The Survey is distributed, 
may be critical. 

Milk-selling in New York city is. 
broadly speaking, pretty much in the 
hands of a few very large companies. 
Their organization is due in part to the 
increasing pressure, finally culminating 
in a rigid demand, of the health au- 
thorities for pure, clean milk. The com- 
panies, in turn, have passed on this pres- 
sure to the dairymen and farmers. Now 
they have organized into a league and 
demanded not only higher prices but 
that the city dealers shall buy only 
through the league. This the dealers 
Kave refused to do. The test was 
scheduled to come this week. 



Distant parts of New York state, 
other states and even Canada have been 
scoured by the companies for other 
sources of supply. But their plans seem 
pretty uncertain in the face of the De- 
partment of Health's statement that there 
will be no relaxing of the milk standards 
now in force and the general understand- 
ing that it is the striking dairymen who 
have the equipment and experience ne- 
cessary to meet those standards. And 
the dairymen, in turn, are probably pre- 
vented from suddenly going into retail- 
ing for the pasteurizing plants are owned 
by the companies. 

Milk and trolleys, on top of garments 
and railroads, have led to talk in many 
quarters of the need of the city's taking 
steps to control its own destiny, to make 
it impossible for a dispute between manu- 
facturers and workmen, farmers and 
merchants, to throw in the comfort, the 
transportation and even the food of five 
million people as one of the stakes of 
the conflict. 

It was after the beginning of this 
month that President Wilson signed the 
federal workmen's compensation bill, 
which has been described by a contribu- 
tor to The Survey as "the most scien- 
tific and the most liberal compensation 
act in any country." Although there had 
been no opposition to it, Congress was 
indifferent and, as in the case of the 
federal child labor law finally accom- 
plished in August, only strong pressure 
from the White House brought it to a 
vote. Apparently the year of a national 
election is a good time to press for so- 
cial legislation. 

Among the military appropriations 
was one of $2,000,000 for relief of mili- 
tiamen's families, which went through 
almost unnoticed, except, perhaps, by 
the War Department which is charged 
with administering it. 

Maine gave a hearty majority to the 
fifty-four-hour law for women and min- 
ors which came before the voters at the 
state election of September 10. — Infan- 
tile paralysis has declined greatly in 
New York city and the schools have 
finally opened with only a small falling 
off in attendance. 



PRIVATE SAVINGS AND PUB- 
LIC THRIFT 

THE American Bankers' Associa- 
tion laid emphasis upon rendering 
a public service as well as promoting 
the banking business in its commemora- 
tion of the first century of American 
savings banks. At the meeting in Kan- 
sas City, the historical review of the 
hundred years by Edward L. Robinson 
of Baltimore was broad enough not only 
to take account of the rise and progress 
of savings banking abroad and in 
America, but also to reckon with the 
economic and social conditions out of 
which the movement arose and upon 
which the thrift it promotes will ever 
have closer and more complicated bear- 
ings. 

The new campaign for thrift, upon 
which the association enters to inaugu- 
rate the second century of savings banks 
in this country, starts with a social vis- 
ion of the past. Mr. Robinson estab- 
lished a broad point of view for the 
banker and the publicist to take, by sym- 
pathetically portraying the humanitarian 
motives, social ideals and practical busi- 
ness methods which combined to pro- 
duce the first arguments and agencies 
for savings. 

Daniel Defoe was given the credit of 
being the forerunner of the movement 
in his visions of "a mutual marine insur- 
ance society," a government pension 
plan to provide for the old age of the 
working classes, the abolition of impris- 
onment for debt — all published in his 
two books entitled Essays and Projects, 
and Giving Alms No Charity and Em- 
ploying the Poor a Grievance to the Na- 
tion. Two hundred years after this vis- 
ionary pioneering, Germany established 
the first bank for savings in 1765, France 
another in 1790, and Switzerland follow- 
ed in 1792. 

But the first savings bank of the mod- 
ern self-sustaining type that was actual- 
ly put into operation is credited to the 
Rev. Henry Duncan, who. in 1810, es- 
tablished a "parish bank" to relieve and 
prevent the poverty of his parishioners 
at Ruthwell in Dumfrieshire, Scotland. 



3° 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1016 



3i 



The Edinburgh Society for the Suppres- 
sion of Mendicity was carried out on 
this local suggestion so successfully that 
in 1817, Parliament took under govern- 
ment regulation the rapidly multiplying 
savings banks in the United Kingdom. 

It was not until 1816 that Philadelphia 
established its Savings Fund Society. 
The Bank of Savings in the City of New 
York was projected in that year, but did 
not open for business until three years 
later. The agitation and education 
which its promoters advanced mean- 
while were worth the delay. For thus 
the new thrift by savings was shown to 
supplement or supercede such previous- 
ly existing agencies as the Society of 
Mechanics and Tradesmen for support- 
ing sick and injured members, the So- 
ciety for the Relief of Poor Widows, 
the lottery of 1803 for "public improve- 
ment and charitable purposes," and last 
but not least, the Society of Tammany 
or Columbian Order in the City of New 
York, chartered in 1805 for charitable 
purposes. 

The Address to the Public, issued by 
the trustees of New York's first sav- 
ings bank, together with their report 
of its first year's operation, were cited 
as suggestive of the motives, standards 
and ideals with which the savings banks 
of today might well start upon their sec- 
ond century's campaign for thrift. 

However savings banks may have re- 
verted to the promotion of an individual 
thrift regardless of its effect upon the 
group or the community, yet the rela- 
tion between "savings" and public wel- 
fare and control were steadily kept in 
view throughout the proceedings of the 
convention. An address by Graham Tay- 
lor, director of the Chicago Institute of 
Civics and Philanthropy, brought out 
the social aspects of thrift and will be 
published in an early issue of The Sur- 
vev. The bankers were warned from 
their own ranks that a nation-wide 
thrift campaign must seek more than de- 
posits and must be broadly educational 
if it would be effiicacious. Their atti- 
tude toward these broader views of their 
function was tested also by their dis- 
cussion of the relation of the govern- 
ment to the banks. 

The two critical points at which re- 
action might have been expected were 
with reference to postal savings and the 
federal reserve act. The discussion of 
Government and Private Institutions 
for Savings by Carter B. Keene, direc- 
tor of postal savings, evoked no dissent 
and was received with hearty applause. 
Unchallenged was his claim that "the 
verdict today is almost unanimous that 
postal savings have filled a neglected 
niche in our social and economic sys- 
tems ;" that "postal savings banks have 
brought $90,000,000 from unprofitable 
and insecure hiding places ;" and that 
"the well-defined policy of the postal 
system is not to interfere with the ac- 
tivities of sound private savings insti- 




When Nature Turns Outlaw 

''Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks! rage! blow!— 
You cataracts and hurricanoes, spout 



Thus King Lear, in Shakespeare's 
tragedy, defies the elements. But 
man, even today, cannot challenge 
nature with impunity. 

The unsinkable ship goes down 
like a rock from the impact of an 
iceberg. The fireproof building is 
burned. The monument, built for 
unborn generations, is riven by light- 
ning or shaken down by an earth- 
quake. 

There are storms which make 
train service impossible, which de- 
lay the mails and which close the 
public highways to the usual traffic. 
Even in the cities there are times 
when the street cars do not run, and 
neither automobiles or horse-drawn 
vehicles can be driven through floods 
or high-piled snowdrifts. 



Such conditions increase the de- 
pendence on telephone wires, which 
themselves are not exempt from the 
same natural hazards. Fortunately, 
however, the Bell System has faced 
these dangers and well-nigh over- 
come them. Masses of wires are 
buried underground and lonely pole 
lines, even the most stoutly built, are 
practically paralleled by other lines 
to which their business can be trans- 
ferred. 

Each year the lines are stronger 
and the guardians of the wires are 
prepared to make repairs more 
quickly. So each year increasing 
millions of subscribers find their tele- 
phones more dependable and, within 
the limits of human power, they 
count upon their use in storm as 
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32 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 





An Inspiration to Social Workers 

THE 

CHURCH 

IN THE 

CITY 



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portunities, spiritual, financial, and otherwise." 
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"The whole work is pervaded with a fine 
sense of the needs of the mass of urban human- 
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Net, $1.00, postpaid. 

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tutions." 

He declared that "postal savings bear 
the same relations to the banks as the 
Salvation Army does to the church." 
He claimed the government had "kept in 
full view the important fact that the 
postal savings system is a government 
institution for the promotion of the gen- 
eral welfare and that it would be an un- 
pardonable abuse of power were it to 
swell its figures at the expense of legiti- 
mate private savings institutions." The 
increase of postal deposits within three 
years from $34,000,000 to $100,000,000 
and the growth in the number of deposi- 
tors from 331.000 to 625,000 had been 
achieved with scrupulous care "not to 
press publicity at a time and place where 
it might aggravate disburbed local con- 
ditions." Yet "postal savings would 
continue to increase if not another word 
were spoken or printed about it." 

The director gave expression to his 
own social vision in declaring that "the 
most striking and gratifying story of 
postal savings is disclosed in the fact 
that 375,000 or 60 per cent of the total 
number of depositors, were born outside 
of the United States, and that this provi- 
dent army owns $75,000,000, or three- 
quarters, of all the deposits." 

"How much," he exclaimed, "these mute 
figures mean ! What a tribute of con- 
fidence the foreign-born have paid to the 
nation of their choice and adoption. 
The story of postal savings when told 
in figures is a simple one. But if you 
want to see the real service that it is, 
go into the post offices in industrial and 
mining centers and witness the patient 
line of barefoot children, toiling women 
and begrimed laborers, as they entrust 
their humble savings to Uncle Sam. 
Then come with me to the post office de- 
partment and delve into the confiding 
letters that report better and happier 
lives." 

The federal reserve act aroused far 
more discussion and criticism. The 
country bankers, who constituted three- 
quarters of the 3,575 registered dele- 
gates, were agitated over their loss of 
the exchange on checks, from which 
they had derived a considerable share of 
their steady profits prior to the passage 
of the act. It was further criticized for 
not discriminating between the gold re- 
serves of the central banks and the op- 
erating hank reserves in the medium ac- 
ceptable to the people. The influx of 
gold had not automatically brought 
about a corresponding reduction in the 
volume of paper money, as other critics 
thought the act should have done. But 
there seemed to be no sentiment favor- 
ing the repeal of the federal reserve act, 
and indeed its critics spoke less of the 
need of amending it than of their de- 
sire to "develop" it. Paul M. Warburg, 
member of the Federal Reserve Board. 
compared it with European systems and 
declared himself an enthusiastic sup- 
porter of the federal reserve system. 



"Its fundamental principles are sound ; 
its benefits to the country have been im- 
mense and will become more apparent 
with each succeeding year," he said. 

Perhaps the most striking expression 
of the bankers' responsibility to the pub- 
lic and the international obligation and 
opportunity of banking was made by 
John Skelton Williams, comptroller of 
the currency. 

"We have outgrown responsibility to our 
country and generation," he said. "We 
have become responsible to the whole 
world, because we have become the su- 
preme world power, especially in that 
vital department reaching to the root 
and core of all things which we here 
represent — the financial. It is for you, 
controlling the powerful banking inter- 
ests of this supreme country, to deter- 
mine whether these dollars of ours shall 
prey on our country and the world with 
teeth and claws, or shall have souls put 
into them to upbuild, to help, to heal the 
scars of war." It "we hold a mortgage 
on the world's physical assets," then he 
concluded, "the world holds a mortgage 
on our soul, on our good will and broad 
nobility of purpose." 

FOODS BLUSH UNSEEN 
BEHIND A VEIL 

THE month of September saw the 
food supply of Philadelphia go un- 
der fly netting — the outward and visible 
sign of the inward conviction that some- 
thing ought to be done to protect citi- 
zens from food dangers. Of course, 
Philadelphia had pondered on these mat- 
ters before, but she had given but feeble 
expression to her thoughts. 

In the Bureau of Health there had 
been for a number of years two divisions 
whose function was to guard the milk 
and the meat supply of the city. A 
working force of 13 milk inspectors and 
7 meat inspectors tried to cover a city 
in excess of a million and a half, with 
10,000 stores handling meat or milk, 69 
abattoirs. 88 preparing plants (meat 
products), 160 dairy farms, 129 pas- 
teurizing and bottling plants, 4 ferries. 
1 1 railroad platforms, 7 trolley plat- 
forms, 23 market houses, 42 wholesale 
meat houses and 2 stockyards. Their 
efforts were somewhat more effective 
than might be assumed. The milk sup- 
ply has been pasteurized since July, 1914, 
and Philadelphia's infant mortality has 
shown a commendable decline within the 
last few years. The results attained, 
have, however, but glimpsed the possi- 
bilities. 

In order to make clear and generally 
known the food conditions which actu- 
ally prevailed throughout the city, the 
Henry Phipps Institute for the Study, 
Treatment and Prevention of Tubercu- 
losis and the Philadelphia Bureau of 
Municipal Research undertook an in- 
vestigation. The former looked into the 
sanitary and other conditions actually 
found where foods were stored and of- 



THE SURREY FOR OCTOBER j, 1916 



33 



fered for sale and the latter studied the 
problem of food inspection as a govern- 
mental activity. 

Janice S. Reed Lit, under whose direc- 
tion the examination of 1,000 stores and 
200 pushcarts was carried on, reported 
that conditions were far from ideal or 
even safe; legislation was more in evi- 
dence than execution. Violations were 
not only common, they were blatant. 
Outrageous conditions were found un- 
der the city's own roof, so to speak. In 
the municipal market-houses, under the 
administration of the bureau of city 
property in the Department of Public 
Works, foods were offered for sale un- 
der the most revolting and disgusting 
conditions. With no protection against 
flies, with stray animals roaming at will, 
with spitting prevalent, with dirty ven- 
dors and dirty customers handling the 
meats, the bread, the cakes and other 
things offered for sale, disease held 
carnival as far as food is concerned. 

Since 1911, the Bureau of Health has 
refused to license the 400 stalls in the 
markets, but business has gone on quite 
uninterrupted. 

The report of the Bureau of Muni- 
cipal Research showed that, as a city, 
Philadelphia has made but the rarest 
beginning in safeguarding the food sup- 
ply and could, without being at all rash 
or unusually paternal, do about five times 
more than it is now doing. The per 
capita municipal expenditure for food 
inspection is .015 cents in Philadelphia, 
.099 cents in Pittsburgh which, of 
course, has the same assistance from 
state and federal agencies, .05 in Balti- 
more, .0S l /> in Chicago, and .07 in Bos- 
ton. 

A further development of the consoli- 
dation of the milk and meat divisions, 
initiated by Alexander M. Wilson during 
his short term as acting director of the 
Department of Health and Charities, 
was recommended and the organization 
of a division of food inspection which 
should safeguard the entire food supply, 
was urged. 

The report was made public August 
27. Coming, as it did, when the infan- 
tile paralysis epidemic seemed most 
threatening, it received instant and ef- 
fective publicity. The newspapers gave 
columns of news space, reproduced 
photographs and helped along the cause 
with editorials. 

\nd then it was that all Philadelphia 
went completely under fly netting, rather 
exceeding the requirements of the law 
which cover only milk and its fluid de- 
rivatives, and poultry, fish and meat, 
and meat products. Everything from 
the aristocratic casaba melon in front of 
the high-priced shop opposite the Union 
League to the humblest herring in the 
ghetto, wears its veil in public. Even 
the municipal markets are getting into 
line. One has been screened against 
flies; the other has protected the meats 
against handling by the customers. 



State and city authorities have carried 
on a feverish campaign of prosecutions 
which looks dangerously like .1 series of 
raids. 

But the ambitious reformers are not 
yet satisfied. They refuse to pin their 
faith to fly netting. They, like the 
Evening Bulletin, strangely think that 
fly netting "is little protection against 
dust" and they are somewhat skeptical 
of the permanent results of spasmodic 
endeavors. They have set their hearts 
on having a real inspection service which 
will be on the job all the time ; which 
will lead, not follow; which will study, 
educate, persuade, in addition to making 
routine investigations and prosecutions. 

Whether or not these crusading folk 
will realize their dream now depends 
upon whether Mayor Smith and Direc- 
tor Krusen of the Bureau of Health and 
Charities, plan for such a development 
and ask City Councils for the where- 
withal to run it, and whether councils 
will see the relative value of this kind 
of service in comparison with other ac- 
tivities of the municipality — official en- 
tertaining and junketing, for instance. 

WHEN THE MOVIES GO IN 
FOR SOCIOLOGY 

MIXED feelings were the portion 
of those social workers who saw 
private exhibits of two new motion pic- 
ture films in New York city last week. 

Three years ago The Survey took a 
party of educators and other persons to 
the laboratories of Thomas A. Edison 
at West Orange, N. J., to see at first 
hand what was being vaguely talked 
about as a revolutionary experiment in 
the method of imparting facts to the 
young. These people wrote about wh?t 
they had seen in The Survey for Sep- 
tember 6, 1913, and so for the first time 
the outside public had an opportunity to 
know what persons of authority in the 
pedagogical field thought about the edu- 
cational moving picture film when ap- 
plied to subjects of the school curricu- 
lum, such as chemistry, physics, nature 
study and half a dozen others. 

At that time biology was among the 
subjects listed by Mr. Edison for future 
production. Meanwhile, a biological 
film, aiming to set forth the story of its 
title, How Life Begins, has been put to- 
gether on the other side of the continent. 
It is intended primarily as a lesson in 
sex-education for boys and girls of high 
school age, and even for older people 
and mothers, and was privately exhibited 
last week by the American Social Hy- 
giene Association in the Russell Sage 
Foundation building, New York city. 
Previously it had been shown to students 
of the University of California, the 
Pasadena High School, and the Univer- 
sity of Kansas. 

In showing how new plants and ani- 
mals come into existence, the film be- 
gins with the simplest forms, protozoans 




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THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 



1916 



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Special chapters are devoted to the much discussed question of maternity insur- 
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An appendix by Prof. J. P. Chamberlain is devoted to the question of constitution- 
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The author is at present executive secretary of the "Social Insurance Committee" of 
the American Medical Association, has been connected as actuary for five years 
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and yeast, and concludes with mammals, 
such as rats and kittens. The develop- 
ment of the pea is shown from the 
earliest union of pollen with the ovule, 
and the fertilization of the egg of a sea- 
urchin is pictured. The hatching of the 
swallow-tail butterfly is described from 
the moment the female lays her eggs (al- 
ready fertilized, as the caption informs 
you) on the leaves of the sweet anise. 
So, too, with the hen's egg. Copulation 
is nowhere shown. 

After the pictures have made it clear 
that in each case of a flowering plant 
and a higher animal "life begins in a 
fertilized egg cell," the film declares that 
it is "by the same processes of growth 
and development that the human being 
comes into life," and the final scene is 
that of a smiling child creeping about on 
the floor. 

The film has been produced by George 
E. Stone, of Berkeley, Calif., in collabo- 
ration with Prof. J. A. Long, assistant 
professor of embryology in the Univer- 
sity of California. Mr. Stone has 
brought it east in an effort to introduce 
it into educational institutions. 

While Governor Whitman is awaiting 
the report of his special commissioner. 
Charles H. Strong, on the administra- 
tion of the New York charities law and 
conditions in private child-caring insti- 
tutions, the Frank Powell Productions. 
Inc., are giving their report to the peo- 
ple of the United States. The govern- 
or's report will doubtless be a long and 
effective document in words not all of 
one syllable; the people's report is a 
graphic motion picture play or — take it 
from the prospectus — a "sociological 
photo-drama," entitled "Charity?" and 
depicting in lurid detail actual and im- 
aginary evils in what is apparently con- 
ceived as the prevailing type of orphan 
asylum in this country. 

Making due allowance for the artistic 
approach to reality and for the Dicken- 
sian method in scenario writing, "Char- 
ity?" seemed an egregious exaggeration 
to the audience of a thousand persons 
to whom it was "privately" exhibited in 
a New York theater last week. A sem- 
blance of reality is given to the condi- 
tions portrayed by generous quotations 
on the screen from the testimony before 
the Strong commission of William J. 
Doherty. second deputy in the New York 
city Department of Public Charities and 
minute-man in the whole institution con- 
troversy. The common tooth-brush and 
the weekly bath, the rising at five and 
the day of rough treatment and child- 
labor. the "stew" that stews the stom- 
ach, the "nit." the command to silence 
with the cryptic comment. "Tomorrow 
is a holiday, you can talk then." the lack 
of any trace of schooling, the inevitable 
reference to Oliver Twist, the grotesque 
ruling by fear instead of love — all these 
are vividly done. 

There are features of another sort. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7 , i 9 i6 



35 



however. Such is the "graft" enjoyed 
by the superintendent, who lives in lux- 
ury and never goes near the orphanage. 
This benign individual sells the most at- 
tractive of his girl charges to houses 
of prostitution, and even selects occa- 
sional ones for his own enjoyment. His 
weekly profits average $400 the year 
round. He buys the silence of any who 
threaten to complain, and when exposure 
finally overtakes him he finds escape in 
self-inflicted death. Matter of this sort, 
when linked up to so much that is true 
and presented as typical, seemed to the 
audience unspeakable. 

An effort to give both sides is made 
toward the end, where scenes are pre- 
sented of an "ideal" institution, which 
happened, by the way, to be taken at the 
New York Orphanage, Hastings-on- 
Hudson. Since this institution, however, 
is represented as having been built by 
characters in the play, as a result of 
their own bitter experience in childhood, 
the justice dealt to orphanages as a 
whole seemed doubtful. 

In justice it should be said that con- 
siderable changes are promised before 
the film is shown commercially. The 
white slavery note is to be stricken out, 
and other deletions made. If made to 
conform substantially to facts, it was 
felt the play might help in securing ne- 
cessary reforms in child care the coun- 
try over. 

SPLITTING THE EXPENSE OF 
COMMUNITY CENTERS 

A HALF-WAY stand between the 
cities which make their school so- 
cial centers free to the people and those 
who would make the people pay all the 
cost for use of the buildings outside of 
school hours, is taken by Cleveland. 
This fall sees the commencement of the 
first full season of operating sixteen com- 
munity centers in the schools. Small 
membership fees are charged, with the 
purpose of reducing as far as possible 
the expense to the Board of Education. 

The use of the schools for community 
centers on a definitely organized basis 
followed last winter's report on the com- 
munity use of the schools by Clarence 
A. Perry of the Russell Sage Founda- 
tion. The report was one of the series 
published on various phases of the 
school work by the Survey Committee 
of the Cleveland Foundation. Recom- 
mendations of the report were followed 
in the main details. 

John W. Barkley, a young lawyer 
with social experience, was appoint- 
ed to the position of director of com- 
munity centers after the Board of Edu- 
cation had voted $15,000 to carry out 
the experiment. Light and heat are to 
be furnished extra. Thirteen of the six- 
teen community centers selected were 
opened on February 1, 1916; all are open 
this fall. In most of the schools, un- 
organized use of the buildings had been 



A New Printing of 

WORK-ACCIDENTS AND THE LAW 



By CRYSTAL EASTMAN 



FROM THE EDITOR'S FOREWORD TO THE NEW EDITION:— "During 
the six years since this book was brought from the press there have been 
greater and more revolutionary changes in our American laws with respect to 
work accidents than during the six years preceding. An appendix has been 
added to this second edition, compiled by the American Association for Labor Legis- 
lation, showing the spread of the compensation movement in thirty-rour states and 
territories. This new body of statute law has been cumulative. It is not complete, 
in the sense that we have thrown its protection over every man or woman employed 
in industry in America. It is not free from ragged injustices, as comparisons based 
upon this table of standards reveal. The struggle of ths next six years will be to make 
these laws inclusive, make them sure, and make them ample .... But in the 
second stage of the compensation movement, no less than in the first, this volume 
affords a base-line from which to calculate. It remains the standard, as it was the 
first, inductive investigation of what accidental injury and death have meant to 
American wage-earners under the old common law. In the next six years of con- 
structive advance, its findings will continue to have force and application in showing 
the need for new law and the need to make the new law four-square with justice." 

CONTENTS 



Editor's Foreword. 



The Problem Staled. 



Part I. TH.E CAUSES OF WORK-ACGI- 
DENTS.— Pittsburgh's Yearly Loss in Killed and 
Injured; The Railroaders; The Soft-coal Miners; 
The Steel Workers ; Other Workers ; Personal 
Factor in Industrial Accidents; Suggestions for 
Prevention. 

Part II. ECONOMIC COST OF WORK- 
ACCIDENTS. -- Distribution of the Burden of 
Income Loss; The -Effect of Industrial Fatalities 
Upon the Home; Problems oY the Injured Work- 
man; Policy of Certain Companies, Conclusion, 
Parts I and II. 

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Legislation. 

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30 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 7, 1916 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates ares Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartmenis, Tours and Travel, Real Estate, twenty 
cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various head- 
ings "Situations Wanted." "Help Wanted," etc., five 
cents each word or initial, including the address, 
for each insertion. Address Advertising Depart- 
ment, The Survey, iu East 19th St., New York City. 



FOR THE HOME 



HELP WANTED 



WANTED— Man Asst. Physical Di- 
rector. College man with experience and 
all-around athlete, preferred. Make appli- 
cation in writing, stating education, ex- 
perience and minimum salary to Mr. 
Phillip L. Seman, supt, Chicago Hebrew 
Institute, 1258 W. Taylor st, Chicago. 

VISITING HOUSEKEEPER, woman 
with training in Domestic Science and ex- 
perience in family rehhabilitation. Salary 
75.00. State age, training, and experience, 
and give references. Associated Charities, 
Erie, Pa. 



WANTED — For work in county educa- 
tional campaigns a social worker or so- 
cially trained nurse by the Indiana Society 
for the Prevention of Tuberculosis, 147 
E. Market St., Indianapolis, Ind. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



WANTED — Position by experienced 
teacher of sewing and dress-making or 
millinery; whole or part time; day or eve- 
ning. Address 2386, Survey. 



GRADUATE School of Philanthropy, 
experienced, club work, case work, research, 
now engaged, wants non-residential posi- 
tion n or near New York. Address 2390, 
Survey. 

HOUSEKEEPER'S position wanted by 
thoroughly experienced and capable woman 
with highest credentials. Address 2391. 
Survey. 

ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE, School of 
Philanthropy graduate and candidate for 
Ph.D. in social and political science at Co- 
lumbia University with experience in news- 
paper work, business, settlement work, in- 
vestigations (governmental, industrial, phil- 
anthropic), recreations (athletics, play- 
grounds, camps, boys' clubs) and charities 
adminisration, seeks assistantship to execu- 
tive engaged in organizing, propaganda, re- 
search or general welfare work. Address 
2392. Survey. 

COLLEGE graduate, young man desires 
change. Organization engaged in preventive 
or legislative work preferred. Five years' 
investigational experience. School of Phil- 
anthropy certificate. Address 2393, Survey. 

"PUBLIC HEALTH or laboratory posi- 
tion. Educated and experienced in medical 
research, biological manufacturing and 
public health." Address 2394 Survey. 

"SECRETARIAL position with public 
health organization. Educated and experi- 
enced in preventive medicine, hygiene and 
bacteriology." Address 2395 Survey. 

COLLEGE MAN, a doctor, wishes 
change of position. Twelve years' admin- 
istrative experience in institutions gives 
practical knowledge of questions of crime 
insanity and poverty. Address A. Lowell. 
740 Adams St., Dorchester, Mass. 



RITI I ETIWQ . "Five-Cent Meals," 10c; "Food 
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ing," 10c; "The Up-To-Date Home, Labor Saving Ap- 
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Home Study, Domestic Science Courses, 100 pp. free. 
American School of Home Economics, 519 West 69th St. .Chicago 

PUBLICATIONS 
The Van Leuven Browne National 

Magazine is the fastest growing national 
monthly publication devoted to constructive 
philanthropy and charity. Each issue is worth the 
price of a year's subscription. Special paid 
articles solicited. No free sample copies. Trial 
offer: 3 different issues, 25 cts. ; one year $1.00. 
Order today. Address : 33 Kenilworth, Detroit. 

FEEBLE -MINDEDNESS AND INSANITY 

A handbook, taken from the proceedings of the National 
Conference of Charities and Correction. Papers by re- 
cognized authorities. Outline of public policy : relation 
to other social problems- types of buildings for insti- 
tutions — farm colonies — dangers in classification of 
border-line cases — oversights in present plan of treat- 
ment—state plan for the insane. 100 pages heavy paper 
cover. Index and bibliography. 25 cents. Address, 
National Conference of Charities and Correction, 

3 1 5 Plymouth Court, Chicago. 

FINANCIAL 

A SOUND INVESTMENT 

Cur Annuity Blue Book explains a sure income ranging from 

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who wish their money at last to help Christianize America. 
Forty years' experience. Write for our booklet. 

CHARLES L. WHITE 

The American Baptist Home Mission Society 

Department H, 23 East 26lh Street, New York 

BOOKS 



THREE VOLUMES 

By Edward T. Devine 
THE NORMAL LIFE 

A careful description, a close-knit argument 
for the best things to be had— and how to get 
them — in childhood, in adolescence, in youth, 
in maturity, in old age. Price $1 ; by mail $ 1 .07. 

THE SPIRIT OF SOCIAL WORK 

Nine of Mr. Devine's addresses, delivered 
at various times and places, full of the author's 
inspiring conviction that "ancient wrongs shall 
be righted." Price, postpaid, $1.00. 

SOCIAL FORCES 

Twenty-five editorials from THE SURVEY 
in which Mr. Devine focuses on American prob- 
lems the world-wide experience of social work 
and theory gathered intc the news columns of 
the magazine from week to week. Price, post- 
paid, $1.00. 



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112 East 19 Street New York, N. Y. 



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allowed groups of citizens pledging re- 
sponsibility. The cost was $6 a night. 

Last winter's brief experience demon- 
strated distinctly the social utility of the 
community centers. Supervisors ap- 
pointed in each school worked with local 
committees to such good effect that the 
average attendance per night was in- 
creased over 200 per cent. The use of 
the buildings was extended beyond the 
gymnasiums and swimming pools, whicli 
previously had been used, into auditori 
urns and class rooms where clubs, classe.- 
and community meetings of many kinds 
were held. Use of such facilities as the 
gymnasiums was made more equable 
through allowing certain hours rather 
than whole evenings for group use, and 
organizing classes instead of featuring; 
contests between picked teams, many of 
which were backed by business firms. It 
is considered by Mr. Barkley important 
to note that the supervisors have worked 
rather as secretaries of the local com- 
mittees, making school facilities avail- 
able, instead of definitely pushing the use 
of the schools. This system is thought 
to have made use of the facilities mon 
spontaneous and lasting, in the long run. 
Expenses were much reduced through 
payment of membership fees. 

This year will see the development of 
the centers along the same social lines, 
with a further attempt to make the cen- 
ters more nearly self-supporting than 
was possible on last year's partial basis. 
A charge of 25 cents a month for mem- 
bers, and of $1 a night for a match 
game in the gymnasium, will, it is 
thought, go a long way toward this end 
if enough users of the centers can be 
enrolled. Particular stress will be laid 
on the development of one night each 
week as community night. 

During last summer, two of the cen- 
ters were opened one night a week for 
dancing at a charge of five cents an 
evening. Attendance averaged close to 
200, with about a quarter of the couples 
young married people. 

CONVICTS OFFER REWARD 

THE inmates of the Wyoming state 
penitentiary issue a monthly maga 
zine called Jabs. It is owned, printed 
and edited by the inmates of that insti- 
tution. Wyoming uses her convicts in 
constructing good roads through the 
State, particularly those used for auto- 
mobiles. It is considered an honor for 
a prisoner to be detailed to this service. 
This fact is well illustrated by a page 
ad appearing in the May number • 
Jabs as follows : 

You Must Make Good 
The inmates will give $25 for the ap- 
prehension of any man who runs away 
from the road camps this summer U 
you can't make good stay here. 

The Majority 
of inmates W S P 
List of contributors 
on file in Cell 60. 




si 



WARDEN OSBORNE RESIGNS 
FROM SING SING 

NOT even the presence of German 
submarines ten miles off the At- 
lantic coast could keep from the front 
pages of the newspapers on Monday the 
announcement that Thomas Mott Os- 
borne had resigned the wardenship of 
Sing Sing. 

Mr. Osborne's letter of resignation at- 
tacking Supt. of State Prisons James M. 
Carter and Governor Whitman, made 
clear that the reasons that brought 
him to this step were the same that have 
caused almost constant friction between 
him and his superior officers from the 
beginning of his wardenship. He be- 
lieved that he was being interfered with 
in his conduct of the prison and that 
unfriendliness to his great reform mani- 
fested itself in official orders. 

One of the first acts of Superintendent 
Carter to receive an unfavorable inter- 
pretation by Mr. Osborne after the 
latter's return to the prison as warden 
last July was an official refusal to allow 
the transfer of certain prisoners from 
other state prisons to Sing Sing. These 
prisoners were to act or had acted as 
witnesses for Mr. Osborne in his effort 
to expose the conspiracy that he be- 
lieved to be responsible for the recent 
indictments against him. He believed 
that trouble might be made for them by 
his enemies if they were allowed to re- 
main in other prisons and asked for their 
transfer. This was refused on the 
ground that frequent transfers caused a 
disturbance in the department. 

Another order displeasing to Mr. Os- 
borne condemned the "practice of fea- 
turing convicts and indiscriminate prison 
advertising", and urged all wardens in 
the state to exercise greater care in the 
matter of publicity. Mr. Osborne char- 
acterized the order as emanating from a 
policy of secrecy. 

A third order, which called attention 
to an -increase of escapes from Auburn 
and Sing Sing, the two prisons where 
the Mutual Welfare League is in opera- 
tion, declared: "I have now come to a 
definite conclusion that either the new 
ideas are not workable or that lax meth- 
ods are employed in their development." 



The order promised "decisive action" 
unless ample precautions were taken 
against escapes. Mr. Osborne believed 
that the Mutual Welfare League was in 
no wise responsible for the increase in 
escapes, but that they were due to un- 
wise selections in prisoners to be trusted. 

Finally, on October 3 came the order 
that brought to a head Mr. Osborne's 
decision to resign. This decreed that 
"lifers" and prisoners having long terms 
to serve be confined within the walls of 
the institutions. The walls of Sing Sing 
do not surround the warden's house and 
the administrative offices, though both 
are attached to the prison proper. As a 
consequence, a great number of prison- 
ers used by Mr. Osborne as assistants, 
clerks, "spotters" for drugs and other 
contraband, and in other capacities, had 
to give up their jobs and go inside the 
walls. This, Mr. Osborne said, made it 
virtually impossible for him to run the 
prison with the free hand necessary to 
the success of his experiments. 

Concerning Governor Whitman's part 
in the alleged opposition to him, Mr. Os- 
borne said: 

"The governor who appointed you 
[Superintendent Carter] is antagonistic 
to the system that is being carried on at 
Auburn and Sing Sing prisons; he has 
tried to use you and your office for po- 
litical purposes; he is a believer in the 
old system of retaliation and brutality. 
. . . As for the dealings with me per- 
sonally, I believed originally in Charles 
S. Whitman's friendship and sincerity; 
but he broke every promise he ever made 
to me, both before and after he took 
office ; and I have been finally and re- 
luctantly forced to a realization that 
without his acquiescence the shameful 
attacks made upon me in Westchester 
county would never have been initiated 
or gained headway." 

What his future would be or what 
part he expected to continue to play in 
prison reform Mr. Osborne would not 
say following his resignation, which is 
to take effect October 16. He intimated 
that he might participate in the political 
campaign in behalf of Governor Whit- 
man's Democratic opponent, Judge Sam- 
uel Seabury. No successor to Mr. Os- 
borne has yet been announced. 



MASSACHUSETTS NEW 
PRISON DIRECTOR 

MASSACHUSETTS has abolished 
its Prison Commission and substi- 
tuted a single director of prisons with 
an unpaid advisory board. The new di- 
rector of prisons is Col. Cyrus B. Adams 
who has had wide administrative train- 
ing and special experience in the man- 
agement of penal institutions. . Born in 
Ohio in 1864, he was educated in Ohio 
Wesleyan University. As a young man 
he was engaged in railroading and com- 
mercial occupations in the Northwest 
and in Ohio. He was treasurer of Dela- 
ware county from 1892 to 1897. At that 
time he was in the Ohio National Guard 
and attained the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. 

In the Spanish War he served as lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the Fourth Ohio In- 
fantry and went through the Porto Rican 
campaign. After the war, as provost- 
marshal of Guyama, Colonel Adams had 
a difficult problem as military and civilian 
chief of police of this district in Porto 
Rico. In 1901 he was assistant adju- 
tant-general of Ohio and professor of 
military science at Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity. 

In 1902, his administrative work be- 
came entirely civilian. His interest in 
work for boys led him to undertake the 
superintendency of the Boys' Industrial 
School at Lancaster, Ohio, the largest in- 
stitution in the country for delinquent 
boys between sixteen and twenty-one 
years of age and an institution which, 
with 1,200 boys, was conducted on the 
cottage plan. As superintendent of the 
St. Charles School for Boys in St. 
Charles, 111., from 1909 to 1915, Colonel 
Adams developed a farm colony plan, 
placing on each farm twelve to fifteen 
boys under the charge of a man and 
wife. In 1915 he became superintendent 
of the Reformatory for Boys at Concord, 
Mass., and while in this position Gover- 
nor McCall chose him to be director of 
prisons. 

Colonel Adams is one of the board of 
directors of the American Prison Con- 
gress, a director also of the National 
Conference of Compulsory Education and 



37 



38 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



ex-president of the National Conference 
on Delinquent Boys. 

Massachusetts prison affairs in past 
years have not, in the opinion of many, 
kept pace with the general march of 
progress. A movement has been gain- 
ing strength in favor of state control of 
all jails and houses of correction; great 
activity is now manifest toward placing 
the prisoner out on the land; the proba- 
tion system is developing rapidly under a 
courageous commission. The appoint- 
ment of Colonel Adams is held to be a 
fortunate combination of the man and 
the hour. 

SEVEN-DAY LABOR BECAUSE 
OF PROSPERITY 

SEVEN-day labor with its accompani- 
ment of the weekly "long shift" of 
twenty-four hours continuous labor will 
again become the rule in the continuous 
industries of New York if the State In- 
dustrial Commission grants the applica- 
tion of the Lackawanna Steel Company 
for exemption from the operation of the 
law passed in 1913 requiring one day of 
rest in seven. 

The application is based upon the con- 
tention that steel companies in other 
states, with which the Lackawanna Steel 
Company must compete, are requiring 
their employes to work seven days a 
week. This is a time of great prosperity 
in the steel industry. The Lackawanna 
company along with the others is making 
money as never before, and seven-day 
labor is being justified on the ground that 
every advantage should be taken of what 
may be short-lived prosperity. 

At a hearing on the application before 
the Industrial Commission on October 6, 
the attorney for the steel company asked 
for an adjournment and invited the com- 
mission and those appearing in opposition 
to the application to visit the steel plant, 
which is near Buffalo. Accordingly the 
commission decided to spend October 27 
inspecting the plant and to hold a public 
hearing in Buffalo on October 28. Chair- 
man John Mitchell of the commission an- 
nounced that a further hearing would be 
held in New York city if there were a 
demand for one. 

The United States Steel Corporation 
is named in the application as one of the 
companies that is running on the seven- 
day basis, although announcement was 
made by this company several years ago 
that it had put into operation a plan re- 
quiring every man to have a day of rest 
even in the continuous processes. 

The Lackawanna Steel Company was 
supposed to have adopted a similar plan 
at the time. Indeed, the plan itself was 
worked out in 1911 by the Welfare Com- 
mittee of the American Iron and Steel 
Institute, of which Judge E. H. Gary, of 
the Steel Corporation, was chairman and 
E. A. S. Clarke, president of the Lacka- 
wanna Steel Company, was a member. 
Other members of the committee were : 
George Gordon Crawford, president of 



the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company ; 
W. B. Schiller, president of the National 
Tube Company; James A. Campbell, 
president of the Youngstown Sheet and 
Tube Company ; and Frederick W. Wood, 
president of the Maryland Steel Com- 
pany. 

At one of the "Gary dinners" held May 
4, 1911, members of this committee spoke 
on the relation of employer and employe. 
Judge Gary was quoted in the Iron Age 
for May 11, 1911, as saying: "We must 
put and keep ourselves on a platform so 
fair, so high, so reasonable, that we will 
attract the attention and invite and se- 
cure the approval of all who know what 
we are doing." President Clarke of the 
Lackawanna company, following Judge 
Gary, was reported in the Iron Age as 
saying: 

"We believe that the first thing we all 
must do is, so to speak, to set our own 
house in order; to have our dealings with 
our employes and conditions under which 
they work in our mills and factories, 
such as are beyond reproach. 
The committee feels that it has tackled 
a very large problem ; but it has a great 
deal of hope and courage. . . . We 
believe, with his leadership and example 
[Judge Gary's], through this institute, we 
are going to be the means of accom- 
plishing another great reform, another 
great benefit, for the industry." 

CHASTENING THE CHARITY 
FILM 

WHETHER the chastening that has 
been administered to the subject 
matter of the photo-play, Charity?, will 
cause a withdrawal of the opposition that 
has been directed against the film re- 
mains to be seen. The Survey told last 
week of the exaggeration that character- 
ized parts of this attempt to portray 
typical conditions in private child-caring 
institutions. 

The disposal of girl orphans to houses 
of prostitution has been eliminated from 
the revised version of the play. So has 
the reference to profits enjoyed by the 
grafting superintendent. The element of 
graft itself has not been entirely re- 
moved, however. The conditions in the 
orphanage remain practically unchanged 
but there is a clearer indication at the 
end that not one but many orphanages 
of a better kind exist. 

As stated last week, this film is to 
some extent predicated on conditions re- 
vealed in the Strong inquiry in New 
York last spring. No sooner had the 
first private exhibition of the film come 
to an end than persons prominent in that 
inquiry and the controversies that fol- 
lowed it, attacked the film. "The whole 
presentation is a noxious and slimy story 
which will outrage the decent instincts 
of the public," declared Mgr. J. J. Dunn, 
chancellor of the Catholic archdiocese 
of New York, adding that Catholics 
would be warned not to view the pro- 
duction. "Was ever a more damnable 
lie put before an intelligent public?" 



asked the Rev. William B. Farrell, signer 
of the famous Farrell pamphlets. 

"Monsignor Dunn came to us at the 
end of the first performance," said Kil- 
bourn Gordon, of the Frank Powell Pro- 
ductions, Inc., which is producing the 
film, "and threatened to stop its exhibi- 
tion. He said that he knew who was 
backing the film and would see that this 
individual withdrew his support." 

Monsignor Dunn was as good as his 
word. Frank G. Doelger, vice-president 
and treasurer of the Powell concern, and 
chief backer of the film, has not only 
withdrawn his support, but has resigned 
from all connection with the company. 
Mr. Doelger is a Catholic. 

Meanwhile the National Board of 
Censorship has passed the amended film 
and the commissioner of licenses has 
been induced to view it. The producing 
company promises its exhibition through- 
out the country shortly. 

SAFEGUARDING BANKING 
FOR IMMIGRANTS 

THE failure of private bankers 
among the immigrants in Chicago, 
through incompetence even more than 
dishonesty, has so emphasized the need 
of the public regulation of private banks 
that both political parties in Illinois have 
pledged the enactment of such a measure. 
Judge Julian W. Mack adds the impor- 
tant suggestion that the transmission of 
money abroad should also be under state 
supervision. In arguing the point he 
says: 

"The remittances that travel from the 
United States to Europe represent much 
sacrifice and family devotion. One of 
the tragedies that has come with the war 
is the fact that it has often been im- 
possible to reach those who for years 
have entirely depended on their relatives 
in America. The immigrant rarely comes 
to the United States quite free from all 
responsibilities and obligations toward 
those he has left behind. 

"While much is said about the desir- 
ability of family immigration, it still re- 
mains true that the careful husband and 
father will usually precede his wife and 
family, find whether he can 'make a go 
of it,' and have some place to take them 
upon their arrival. Until the family 
reaches the United States some part of 
the weekly wage, however small, must 
be sent to it in Europe, and something 
must be saved for the purchase of the 
steamship tickets which will bring the 
family to America. 

"The temptation to dishonesty is par- 
ticularly great in transmitting money to 
foreign countries. Because only the 
name of the banker appears on the re- 
ceipt given for money sent abroad 
through reputable banks, express com- 
panies and foreign exchanges, which 
agencies never assume any responsibility 
until the money is paid them by the im- 
migrant banker, the temptation to dis- 
honesty is particularly great. For their 
blanks are placed in the hands of bank- 
ers without requiring bonds, although 
some inquiry is usually made as to the 
honestv of the banker. If he absconds, 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



39 



and it is discovered that he has failed 
to transmit money given him to send 
abroad, and has taken with him the small 
savings of the newly arrived immigrant, 
there is no practical legal redress when, 
as often happens, no resources beyond a 
little office furniture are found." 

Judge Mack's remedy for this laxity is : 

"The requirement of a license or cer- 
tificate of authority before engagement 
in the business of transmitting money to 
foreign countries. The requirement of 
a deposit of money or securities and a 
bond by all applicants for such licenses, 
the bond to be conditional upon the faith- 
ful transmission of all moneys received 
by the licensee for that purpose. Re- 
quirement that money received for trans- 
mission be sent within a definite short 
period of time, such as five days from its 
receipt, the initial burden of proof of 
the transmission of the money to be 
upon the licensee. Requirement that 
proper books of record be kept by the 
licensee." 

A state control of the steamship ticket 
offices is also suggested as possibly neces- 
sary to control conditions such as are 
discovered by the Immigrants' Protec- 
tive League, of which Judge Mack is 
president. 

UNIVERSITY HELP IN CIVIC 
AWAKENING 

COLORADO gives tokens of an 
awakening civic spirit all the more 
noteworthy because shown by the 
smaller cities and larger towns of 
different type. Citizens of Sterling, 
Gunnison and Grand Junction prompt- 
ed the state university to add to 
its extension division the Bureau 
of Common Welfare the establish- 
ment of which was reported in The 
Survey for July 29. It was the uni- 
versity's response to the claims for help 
which these and other communities made 
to solve their local problems. 

According to the report of its initial 
year's work by its secretary, A. E. Gil- 
man, the bureau succeeded equally well 
in rallying and interesting cooperation 
and follow-up effort in the smaller rural, 
mining and commercial centers. At Fort 
Morgan the active participation of over 
100 people in a rural population of 4,000 
was secured ' in the welfare conference 
and the exhibits devoted to public health, 
child welfare and civic improvement. 
As a result the services of a community 
nurse were secured and the plan for im- 
proving the highways is being carried 
out by the cooperation of the county com- 
missioners and the voluntary contribu- 
tions of private citizens ana corporations. 

At Louisville, a typical coal mining 
town of about 1,800 population with a 
large foreign element, the problem was 
to get together the citizens who had been 
badly divided by labor difficulties. After 
patiently waiting and working, people of 
differing nationalities, faiths and labor 
interests were gotten to work harmoni- 
ously together. A street sprinkler, the 



October in the Beet Fields 



By Edward N. Clopper 

NATIONAL CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE 



Photos by Hine. 




PULLING AND PILING BEETS BY HAND 

rHE sugar-beets have matured and the harvest is on. Throughout the 
country where this important crop is raised, the workers are in the 
fields "pulling." A sort of plow known as a "puller" is run between 
the rows to loosen the soil. The workers who follow the puller, draw out a 
beet with each hand, knock the two together to dislodge the clinging soil, 
throw them in piles, and stoop for the next pair. 

Although this is generally called "piling," most of the work is in the 
pulling, for a child must often exert his full strength, especially when the 
ground is caked, or very moist and sticky. After having been fulled, the 
larger beets were found to weigh, with the tops and attached soil, about twelve 
pounds each, the average weight of the beet alone being five pounds. Instances 
were found of children working from 5 a.m. to 7 p.m. in the rush season, 
their average -workday being from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. 

In the picture above the children are eight, ten, thirteen and fifteen years 
old, and are shown pulling and piling on a farm in Colorado. There arc ten 
members of the family cultivating this land. 

In addition to being hard work, this field labor keeps the children from 
school. Although the rural schools of Colorado open early in September, 
the compulsory attendance laze is not enforced in the beet districts, and 
thousands of children are kept away so that they may help, and thereby make 
it unnecessary to hire "hands." One Parent declared to a school principal 
that his boy was worth $1,000 for -work during the beet season, but if he -went 
to school he was nothing but an expense. An eleven-year-old girl was found 
-who, -with her sister of seven, is kept out of school to -work in the beet fields, 
although her family boasted that they made $10,000 last year from their farm. 

In a study made of school attendance in the beet regions of Colorado 
last autumn, it was found that each beet-working child missed on the average 
nearly t-wo -whole months of schooling in the harvest season, -while the non- 
beet-working children each missed only about ten days of school. This pro- 
longed absence keeps the children back-ward in their studies, and although 
the teachers say the beet workers could do just as well as the others in school 
if they attended regularly, -we find that about 54 per cent of them are retarded 
as against only 20 per cent of the non-beet-workers. 




EACH BEET, WITH THE SOIL CLINGING TO IT, WEIGHS ABOUT TWELVE POUNDS 



40 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, ipi6 



solution of the water problem, boys' and 
girls' agricultural clubs, are among the 
results which followed. 

La Junta, a railway center with 7,000 
people, many of them Mexicans, pre- 
sented a difficult task because of the in- 
difference to community conditions and 
problems. The milk and foods exhibit 
prompted a chemistry class to inspect the 
dairies surrounding the town and re- 
port its findings in the local paper. The 
local trades and churches were also 
stirred to new activities by the confer- 
ence. 

At Holly, a farming community of 
only 900 population, strong factional 
feeling over politics was diverted toward 
the promotion of a better community 
spirit and efficiency. Special dairy post- 
ers were distributed in a thousand coun- 
try homes, with invitations from the mer- 
chants to attend the conferences. A 
fly campaign and a babies' health con- 
ference were thus promoted. 

FOR A CIVIC-RELIGIOUS 
BUREAU 

THE SOCIAL SERVICE Commis- 
sion of the Episcopal diocese of 
Chicago has initiated a movement which 
bids fair to bring most of the religious 
bodies of Chicago into active cooperation 
with the Central Council of Social 
Agencies in maintaining a clearing house 
of information for the use of the con- 
stituent organizations, and the public 
through them. 

Last year the commission began to 
submit to the various religious bodies of 
the city, Jewish, Protestant and Roman 
Catholic, the proposal to establish this 
Civic-Religious Bureau, "devoted to the 
collection and dissemination among its 
constituent bodies, and throughout the 
community, of accurate information on 
moral questions of civic import, particu- 
larly those affected by public administra- 
tion." The need of such an agency was 
urged "to guide in the redemption of the 
city from the many ills from which we 
now suffer because of the failure to get 
the civic situation before the people and 
thus to arouse them to united, intelligent 
action." 

It is planned "to act as the connecting 
link between the skilled and active social 
service of the community, as represented 
by the Central Council of Social 
Agencies with its affiliated bodies, and 
the religious people of Chicago." Inde- 
pendent investigations are not contem- 
plated, except in so far as it may be 
necessary to supplement those of other 
agencies in order to make them more 
serviceable to the churches. It is hoped 
to issue a bulletin as occasion may re- 
quire, like that by which the Chamber 
of Commerce of the United States keeps 
its constituency of business men inform- 
ed of facts, movements and tendencies. 
Out of such cooperation it is believed a 
comprehensive, coordinating social pro- 
gram and a far more united community 
action would evolve. 



The Central Council of Social Agen- 
cies hospitably entertains the proposi- 
tion and has appointed a committee con- 
sisting of James Mullenbach, chairman, 
W. T. Cross, Eugene T. Lies and Gra- 
ham Taylor to represent it in cooperat- 
ing with the religious bodies. 

William C. Graves, formerly secretary 
of the State Board of Charities, has most 
actively promoted this movement, acting 
officially as the chairman of the Epis- 
copal Social Service Commission. In a 
forcible address on Cooperation vs. Com- 
petition in Social Service, at the diocesan 
convention dinner, he urged that the 
moral and educational readjustment 
within the churches, of which the social 
service movement is a part, requires 
"united goodness, united virtue, united 
well-doing." Only by such united action 
as will be "state-wide and religion-wide," 
he thought, "the central essence of our 
Christianity can be maintained." 

While conceding that "since profes- 
sional work has entered into the social 
field the church has largely withdrawn 
and the sacred service of ministering to 
human hearts and souls in the social 
sense has become to a great extent secu- 
lar and professional," Mr. Graves main- 
tained that "there must be more than 
skill in all human ministry, there must 
be love, there must be religion, because 
social 'cases' are broken spirits, per- 
plexed souls, despairing hearts." Al- 
though many kinds of treatment are 
necessary, "without one ingredient there 
can be no cure, and that is love and 
faith." "Religious people as such," he 
claimed, "must unite with the social ex- 
perts and put more friendship and spirit- 
uality into social ministry. A new moral- 
ity, a new social education, a new united 
action, a new infusing of religious faith 
and love into a society insufficient unto 
itself — that is the heart of the social 
service movement." 

Such a spontaneous local initiative as 
this encourages and justifies the country- 
wide "federated movements" effort in- 
stituted by the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America, under 
the leadership of Fred B. Smith and 
Roy B. Guild, who is now with a col- 
league crossing the continent to rally 
religious bodies and social agencies in 
cooperative efforts for the advancement 
of their respective communities. 

NOT SHRAPNEL— BUT A 
LITTLE SYMPATHY 

WHEN the Vera Cruz incident was 
at its height, Congressman Will- 
iam Kent of California made a ringing 
speech in the House, in which as an 
American investor, with one or two mil- 
lions tied up in Mexican properties, he 
stood out against war or intervention; 
claiming that he and his fellow investors 
took the risk for themselves, when they 
put their money into foreign properties, 
and that he did not want to send his 
own sons or anybody else's sons in af- 
ter his. 



Now comes another large California 
investor, Colonel "Dan" M. Burns, in an 
interview in the San Francisco Bulletin. 
Colonel Burns went to Mexico thirty- 
three years ago with a capital of $100, 
and his rise to wealth is described by the 
Bulletin as one of the picturesque ro- 
mances of enterprise with which the whole 
Pacific coast is familiar. He is identified 
with large mining interests in Durango 
and Sinaloa, and has extensive holdings 
of timber land, a hydro-electric plant, 
etc. 

"I do not wish to see Mexico blotted 
out in blood by this nation because it is 
the stronger," says Col. Burns, "or to 
have tens of thousands of my own fel- 
low countrymen slaughtered because I 
chance to have some dollars invested 
there." At the outbreak of the revolu- 
tion, he points out, there were not less 
than 125,000 Americans in Mexico. A 
large proportion of them were scattered 
among lonely ranches, or engaged in 
prospecting. Out of this large number, 
less than 200, as far as he can learn, 
have lost their lives through lawlessness, 
and these mostly in the turbulent states 
of the northern border. 

"That is just 200 too many," he adds, 
"but while judging distracted Mexico it 
is only fair to take a retrospect of our 
own history," and especially the period 
following the Civil War in such border 
states as Tennessee, Missouri and Ken- 
tucky. During the last six years in 
Mexico, every revolutionary faction that 
has rocked the country has taken pos- 
session of the San Dimas district, where 
he operates a number of active mines. 
Nobody has been killed or injured, nor 
have the wheels stopped running for an 
instant. He explains it this way: 

"What has really played havoc with 
Mexican investments far more than in- 
ternal disorder has been the difficulty in 
shipping in indispensible supplies. . . . 
In our case, long before the revolution, 
having some seven thousand men, women 
and children to feed and clothe, in a 
mountainous, non-producing region, we 
made it a rule to keep two years' supplies 
on hand. This has been our salvation. 
Owning several hundred pack animals, 
with a large balance against the future, 
we have been able to supply the neces- 
sities of our people and of our business 
without interruption." 

Colonel Burns points to an increase in 
imports and exports between the United 
States and Mexico of from $88,000,000 
to $119,000,000, as the best evidence not 
only of an extraordinary revival of in- 
ternational commerce, but an indication 
"beyond all question of a country rapid- 
ly returninc: to good order and indus- 
trial peace." This California mine-own- 
er makes the same challenge that Dr. 
Washington Gladden made in his note- 
worthy sermon last June. He says : 

"What Mexico needs from the United 
States is not invading armies or shrap- 
nel, but a little sympathy — a little active 
help. We have sriven both without stint 
to the war-stricken people of Europe. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, ipi6 



4i 



Why not to the people of our nearest 
neighbor? While things are mending 
there is still profound distress in many 
parts of Mexico with the poorer classes. 
Among the many fine traits of these peo- 
ple is a. deep and abiding sense of grati- 
tude. Just a little work of the practical 
kind would end at once the feeling of 
distrust against this country for which 
recent events have given only too good 
cause. From the bare standpoint of 
selfishness, no investment could bring 
better fruit." 

A STATE HOUSE CLINIC ON 
HEALTH INSURANCE 

THE MASSACHUSETTS Commis- 
sion on Social Insurance held its 
first public hearing on October 3, in the 
largest audience room in the State 
House, twice moving to accommodate 
the interested people who thronged in, 
several hundred, in all, and remained 
until after 11 o'clock at night when the 
discussion closed. 

The commission gave its undivided at- 
tention to the subject of health insur- 
ance, postponing for future consideration 
the other two parts of its program indi- 
cated by Governor McCall, insurance for 
old-age and for unemployment. Said 
Caroll W. Doten, a member of the 
social insurance committee of the Ameri- 
can Association of Labor Legislation, in 
concluding his discussion of the proposed 
measure: 

"I was a member of the Massachusetts 
commission to prepare workman's com- 
pensation bills five years ago; and al- 
though there had been several years of 
spirited discussion of the accident prob- 
lem, we never had so large a hearing 
indicative of keen public interest as is 
shown in this on health insurance. The 
opposition to health insurance is also 
milder than that to workman's compen- 
sation." 

Prominent representatives of hospitals, 
dispensaries, visiting nurse organiza- 
tions, labor organizations and practicing 
physicians as well as social workers were 
present and spoke at the hearing. A few 
employers talked about paternalism and 
pauperism; a few physicians seemed to 
fear that their practice would be inter- 
fered with if such a law as the compul- 
sory insurance law were passed, and 
others thought that the efficiency of 
present hospitals and dispensaries would 
be lessened. But the majority of the 
audience realized that the present equip- 
ment for health protection of Massa- 
chusetts was entirely inadequate, and 
saw in the new movement possibilities of 
great value. At its recent convention 
the Massachusetts Federation of Labor, 
in common with several other prominent 
labor organizations, instructed its legis- 
lative committee to support the health 
insurance campaign. 

The hearings were reported fully in 
the press all over the state, many papers 
commenting editorially upon the pro- 
posed insurance plan, and indicating 
cordial approval. 





rroma 

Skilled 
Workman 

toa 

Blind 
Beggar 



HE TOOK A CHANCE! 

Largely because bolh employers 

and workmen take chances 

there are nearby 

20O.O00ACCIDENT5TOEYES 

in United States industries 
every year 

In one county in Ohio 
one e.ye is lost every eleven days 

Dojou know the methods 
for reducing hazards in 

your Industry oryour trade? 
Are you using them? 



nal Committee I r ilv Prcv. 



"n of Blindness 



Q NE of five panels in a new exhibit 
on industrial hazards to the eye, 
prepared by the National Committee 
for the Prevention of Blindness for 
use at gatherings of employers and 
employes. Miniature reproductions 
and half-tone plates for publication 
may be had of the committee at 130 
East 22 street, New York city. North 
Carolina, and then Minnesota, are to 
have state-wide educational campaigns 
in charge of the committee's field sec- 
retary, Gordon L. Berry. The new 
secretary of both the national and 
New York state committees is Wini- 
fred Hathaway. 



CHILDREN WHO ARE NEED- 
LESSLY BLIND 

THE National Committee for the 
Prevention of Blindness has re- 
cently completed a census of the causes 
of blindness that are responsible for the 
enrollment of 3,858 children in 31 state 
schools for the blind and 4 classes for 
blind children in public school systems, 
during the year 1915-16. 

Foremost among the causes discovered 
is ophthalmia neonatorum, or "babies 
sore eyes," an inflammation of the mem- 
brane covering eyelids and eyeballs, ap- 
pearing a few days after birth, and fre- 
quently (though not always) indicating 
a syphilitic infection. It has been one of 
the most prolific and needless sources of 
blindness in the United States. 

The first such census was taken in 1910 
by the New York Committee for the Pre- 
vention of Blindness, and the number of 
pupils then blind from ophthalmia neona- 
torum out of the total of 2,018 in the 16 



schools reporting, was 521, or 25.8 per 
cent. Since that year there has been a 
gradual decrease recorded until the fig- 
ures for the year just ended show out of 
the total enrollment of 3,858, 843 
(21.8 per cent) blind from this disease. 
As to the outlook, Gordon L. Berry 
writes: 

"Of the 666 pupils newly enrolled for 
the year 1915-16, there were _ 127 (19 
per cent) blind from ophthalmia neona- 
torum. This is the lowest percentage re- 
ported during the past nine years with 
the exception of that in the school year 
1914-15, 15.1 per cent. This gratifying 
annual decrease is undoubtedly attribut- 
able to a more general understanding of 
the dangers from inflammation of the 
eyes of the new born, and the adoption of 
preventive measures." 

The census reports the highest per- 
centages of pupils blind from this disease 
to be in Vermont, 50 per cent ; Colorado, 
38.6 per cent, and New Mexico, 37.3 per 
cent. In Vermont and New Mexico there 
are almost no legislative provisions for 
prevention of blindness from this cause. 

Among pupils newly admitted, the 
highest percentage for the past year is 
shown in the figures from Nebraska — 50 
per cent, with Maryland a close second — 
40 per cent. 

Causes other than ophthalmia neona- 
torum found to account for pupils' blind- 
ness were: accident, 306; progressive 
near-sightedness, 77; trachoma, 56; inter- 
stitial keratitis, 146; decay of optic nerve, 
340; congenital defects, 824; wood al- 
cohol poisoning, 5. 

That in addition to wide publicity, legal 
provisions are necessary, the committee 
urges strongly. Its "Leaflet No. 9" just 
issued, gives a tabulation of laws on this 
subject in the different states, summariz- 
ing the information as follows: 

The reporting of babies' sore 
eyes to the local health officer, 
or to a physician is compulsory 
in 37 states 

The reporting law is printed 
on the birth certificate in 7 

Local health officers are au- 
thorized and required to se- 
cure medical attention for un- 
cared-for cases, or to warn par- 
ents of the dangers and advise 
immediate treatment in 21 

Births are reported early 
enough to be of assistance in 
prevention of blindness work in 11 

The question as to whether 
or not precautions were taken 
against ophthalmia neonatorum 
is included on the birth certifi- 
cate in 14 

Free prophylactic outfits are 
distributed to physicians and 
midwives in 16 

The use of a prophylactic 
(specified by the State Board 
of Health) as a routine, is com- 
pulsory in • - 15 

and strongly recommended in 
an additional 5 

Popular educational leaflets, 
relating in whole or in part to 



42 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



prevention of infantile blind- 
ness, are distributed by State 
Departments of Health in 29 states 

FEDERAL HELP TO A 
STRICKEN CITY 

THE advantages of having the fed- 
eral Public Health Service mount 
guard over New York's maritime quar- 
antine were pointed out by The Survey 
last winter (see The Survey for Jan- 
uary 8, 1916). Recently the value of the 
service has been further demonstrated, 
this time in domestic interstate quaran- 
tine in connection with the epidemic of 
poliomyelitis. 

Since the first of July nearly 50 officers 
of the service have been in the city, one 
group engaged in epidemiological work; 
the other, stationed at ferries and other 
points of departure from the city, issuing, 
under proper credentials, certificates that, 
as far as can be known, no infection has 
existed in the homes of those about to 
travel. In view of the decrease in the 
number of cases of poliomyelitis in New 
York, and therefore the lessening danger 
that people who leave the city may carry 
infection with them, this quarantine divi- 
sion, under the leadership of Dr. Charles 
E. Banks, will presently withdraw from 
the city. 

Certain definite results of permanent 
value for public health work have fol- 
lowed this certification, and these results 
have been estimated for The Survey by 
Dr. Banks himself. 

First, the stabilization of public opinion 
through the influence of regular officers 
of the service, trained in the manage- 
ment of epidemics, who were assigned to 
duty in this city. It will be recalled that 
(see The Survey for August 5) when 
the Service officers first appeared, man) 
people were alarmed by their khaki uni- 
form, and fearing that they were soldiers, 
thought that conditions were very seri- 
ous and that this meant military control. 
This panic, however, soon gave way to 
confidence and satisfaction. 

A second result was the standardiza- 
tion of methods adopted by local quaran- 
tine officers in other states, who had been 
inclined to adopt harsh restrictive meas- 
ures in the absence of accurate knowl- 
edge of the extent of the epidemic. When 
heavy headlines first announced the 
spread of the epidemic, "shot-gun quar- 
antines" were promptly established, rang- 
ing from an isolation period of two 
weeks to one of eight weeks, or even de- 
manding total exclusion of travelers from 
New York. The uniformity 'of quaran- 
tine, which to some degree at least has 
been worked out, has meant a better 
understanding of exact conditions and 
an intelligent application of scientific 
principles. 

Third, the certification has guaranteed 
travel as reasonably safe. Identification 
cards were accepted by outside communi- 
ties, because they were issued after ex- 



amination by trained officials who were 
not influenced by local sentiment. With 
the memory still in mind of other epi- 
demics of various kinds, officials in other 
states naturally looked with suspicion on 
any certificate issued by local authorities 
of New York, as coming from those in- 
terested. 

Finally, the work of the Public Health 
Service officers has been a demonstration 
of the value of a centralized authority 
with power to deal with interstate prob- 
lems of disease transmitted by common 
carriers, and with the backing of con- 
gressional statute. Such backing is pro- 
vided for the Service officers by the quar- 
antine law of 1893. 

COUNTY BOARDS OF PUBLIC 
WELFARE 

A COMPLETE sketch of the recom- 
mendations of the Missouri Chil- 
dren's Code Commission is embodied in 
a preliminary report recently formulated. 
The report is being used as a basis of 
criticism and suggestion, and will be fol- 
lowed immediately by the drafting of 
the entire code. The report covers all 
classes of children. It develops new and 
radical standards, and discusses methods 
of carrying out the provisions of the 
code. 

The chief recommendation for admin- 
istrative purposes is the creation of a 
county board of public welfare in each 
county, composed of the three judges 
of the county court, the judge of the 
circuit court and the school superintend- 
ent. This board of five is to employ as 
superintendent a trained social worker 
who must hold a certificate of fitness 
from the State Board of Charities. The 
commission is also advocating placing 
the county health officer under the board 
of public welfare so as to bring all the 
health and social work of the county 
under one directing head. 

Only two new state agencies are recom- 
mended, an industrial commission to take 
over the work of five or six separate de- 
partments dealing with industry, and a 
state board of medical examiners to 
license medical practitioners. 

An active educational campaign will 
be conducted throughout the state be- 
fore submitting the report to the legis- 
lature in January. The work is being 
done under the direction of Judge 
Rhodes E. Cave, chairman. 

A MUNICIPAL PLAYGROUND 
CAMP 

MORE than 1,300 people, among 
them day laborers and ministers, 
doctors and clerks, have enjoyed an in- 
expensive vacation this year at the Los 
Angeles Playground Camp. 

Started in 1911 this municipal camp 
has steadily grown more popular. The 
first year it was located at a beach re- 
sort, the next two in the San Gabriel 
Canyon, but since 1914 it has been situ- 



ated on leased government land in the 
San Bernardino Mountains at an altitude 
of 4,500 feet and approximately 76 miles 
from Los Angeles. 

As a camping spot the place. is ideal. 
There is opportunity for long hikes in 
the forests, for swimming and fishing 
in the mountain brooks, for tennis, base- 
ball and organized play at the camp it- 
self. This year some forty-six cabins 
have been constructed as well as a build- 
ing combining kitchen, store room and 
cook's headquarters, an open-air dining- 
room capable of seating 300 people, two 
modern toilet buildings, a bath house 
with tubs and showers, a concrete plunge 
30 by 65 feet and a graded athletic field. 
At present a lodge is being completed 
which will contain an office, reading 
rooms and a large entertainment hall. 

Outings are conducted for boys and 
men in two groups and for women and 
girls who also go in two groups. The 
entire expense covering transportation, 
food and housing is $7.50 for two weeks 
or $5.50 for one week. Campers are re- 
quired to furnish their own bedding, 
towels and other personal effects. 

Not only does this simple wholesome 
vacation react upon Los Angeles in 
building up a strong and healthy popu- 
lation but in stirring community responsi- 
bility and consciousness. People are glad 
that they are citizens of Los Angeles 
when they feel that city officials take 
some interest in their welfare. As one 
of the city councilmen has put it: "More 
civic pride is developed around the camp 
fire in five minutes than in the city in 
one year." 

POOLROOMS IN COLUMBUS, 
OHIO 

A RECENT study of poolrooms in 
Columbus, Ohio, conducted by the 
committee on program and surveys of 
the Central Philanthropic Council, re- 
vealed that 112 rooms had no connection 
with saloons, 100 were inside bar-rooms, 
and 31 were connected with bar-rooms 
by doors. Only one out of every three 
had an unobstructed view from the 
street. 

Of every three men found in pool- 
rooms, one was playing and two were 
loafing. Of every four high school boys, 
three knew how to play pool. Many 
learn to play at the age of twelve, though 
the greater number learn between four- 
teen and sixteen. More learn to play 
in a poolroom than in any other one 
place — and poolrooms are widely recog- 
nized as having a direct relationship to 
juvenile delinquency — though home, club 
and Y. M. C. A. teach a considerable 
number. 

Columbus at the present time has no 
ordinance governing poolrooms. The 
Central Philanthropic Council urges that 
the city superintendent of public welfare 
exercise control of the inspection and 
supervision of public poolrooms. 




The Lighthouse for Blinded Soldiers 

By Winifred Holt 

FOUNDER OF THE NEW YORK ASSOCIATION FOR THE BLIND 



FOR many years the good Abbe 
Moureau had directed a little 
group of industrial blind workers. 
His quarters were situated in part of 
an old church in Bordeaux. In fair 
weather the blind workers caned chairs 
in the cloister. In the midst of the 
cloister was a patch of wild garden 
where a white donkey had a foretaste 
of heaven. 

Suddenly the war came, blasting this 
peaceful scene. Although there were 
more blind men than ever before to be 
cared for, the resources of the abbe 
dwindled and dwindled until he even sold 
his wonderful collection of butterflies to 
keep his blind patients busy. 

I had just landed in Bordeaux and 
helped by letters from the French am- 
bassador and the Red Cross started at 
once to see how the Committee for Men 
Blinded in Battle could supplement the 
government's efforts in behalf of blind 
soldiers. I discovered the abbe, heard 
about his struggle, and immediately 
realized that here was our first oppor- 
tunity for helpfulness. With funds re- 
mitted from my committee in New York, 
it did not take long to persuade the abbe 
to take over the re-education of men 
blinded in battle who were sent to the 
Bordeaux hospitals. His "Comite" was 



reorganized to help locally while we as- 
sisted by giving them games, writing 
tools, materials, and the like. Now it 
has bought a charming old chateau 
where there are forty beds for con- 
valescent blind as well as classrooms, 
workshops, and living rooms. There are 
beautful grounds with yew trees and old 
rose bushes about the chateau. In the 
midst of the flowers stands a statue of 
Jeanne d'Arc, holding her standard. 
The blind men say that she, their patron 
saint, will lead them through their battle 
in the dark to victory and light. The 
abbe even changed the name of his 
hostel from Les Travailleurs du Sud- 
Ouest (workers of the southwest) to 
Le Phare de Bordeaux (the Bordeaux 
lighthouse). 

Our flame of hope for the blind sol- 
diers of France thus kindled at Bordeaux 



/N the first row of the picture 
above, a young French lieuten- 
ant, blinded in battle, holds the seal 
of the French lighthouse, pat- 
terned on its famous predecessor 
in New York city. Miss Holt 
stands in the second rozv, next to 
the soldier holding the flag. 



has spread rapidly. Shortly, we estab- 
lished our home teaching and classes 
for re-education at the Hotel de Crillon 
in Paris where we started a census bu- 
reau and had the privilege of giving 
over 30,000 francs to other organizations 
working for the blind, good proof that 
the keystone of our labors is always co- 
operation. We have also given away 
over 4,000 gifts, including a radiograph, 
machines, tools, games, delicacies, etc. 

When the work increased, the govern- 
ment offered us a beautiful palace for 
headquarters, but when it came to sign- 
ing the last papers we found that the 
property which has been requisitioned 
from an Austrian prince might be taken 
from us at short notice. 

We therefore rented our present build- 
ing 14 Rue Daru, Paris, from the pope. 
The only stipulation is that we accept 
English and Belgian as well as French 
soldiers. Since the former are provid- 
ed for excellently at St. Dunstan's we 
probably will have none among our 
pensioners. But on the continent, we 
are as far as we know, the only college 
for the re-education of the blind. The 
work is under the High Patronage of the 
President of the Republic, the American 
Ambassador and the Ministers of War, 
Marine, Interior and Public Instruction. 



43 



4! 



THE SURVEY TOR OCTOBER 14, i 9 i6 



We arc dependent on the Department of 
the Interior and the Ministry of War 
who subsidize us. 

I fere at the. Phare de France the de- 
mand for our hospitality is great. 
Among our guests we have a command- 
ant; two captains, four lieutenants, sev- 
eral adjutants and regular soldiers. We 
accept ' here, however, only soldiers of 
superior intelligence and of sufficient 
education to profit by the opportunities 
we offer. It is our plan to give a soldier, 
who has acquired "ten eyes on his finger 
tips" and enough knowledge to make 
him reasonably independent, the neces- 
sary tools and materials to follow his 
calling at home or to send him into other 
centers of work where he, in turn, can 
teach his unfortunate comrades. 

Thus, we have one captain who, we 
might say, belongs to our correspondence 
school. We have given him a typewriter 
and while he is now studying by him- 
self, we expect soon to have him with 
us for a short course at the French 
lighthouse. Another pupil, a lieutenant 
who stayed two months with us, was 
recently married. We gave him an 
Underwood typewriter for a wedding 
present. He is now on his wedding trip, 
but expects to return to the pharc for 
a sorl.of "post-graduate course."... 

In addition to our residents' we have 
day-pensioners who take their meals at 
the lighthouse and follow the entire 
day's program, and also men who merely 
attend special classes. 

Among the subjects taught at the 
phare, of course, Braille, typewriting 
and stenography are the most popular 
as well as the most necessary since this 
is the knowledge that will unite the 
blind with the world of their fellows. 
Indeed, our special commercial course is 
such a success that the men would rather 
miss the theater than that hour. 

The arts and crafts school is also 
popular. Many of the men feel thai 
it is a great advantage for them to 
have industrial as well as intellectual 
equipment. We have reconstructed a 
former stable, making it into an excel 
lent workshop where the men weave, 
operate knitting machines, or busy them- 
selves with the printing-press which has 
just been installed. Modeling, too, is 
popular and a great help in educating 
the sense of touch. 

Still another method of making touch 
more sensitive is through a small museum 
containing statues, practical machinery, 
tools and appliances which the men may 
study at their leisure. A recent exhibit 
of the work done by mutilated soldiers 
included our exhibit of very beautiful 
pottery, weaving, statues and other ob- 
jects of art. It was the best possible 
demonstration of the intelligence, perse- 
verence and enthusiasm of these new 
recruits of light through work. 

I'm all work and no play makes blind 
Tack a dull boy too. Every morning the 
men have gymnastics and sports of which 



they are very fond and which they say 
puts them in good condition for "real 
work." Fencing is one of their chief 
sports and their professor, who is 
one of the most renowned fencing 
masters in Paris, brings to his work 
an enthusiasm which enables him to 
obtain astonishing results. 

We have organized a blind man's club. 
of which Pierre Yilley, the famous blind 
professor at Caen, is an honorary presi- 
dent. Various entertainments are given, 
the Theatre Francais puts good seats at 
our disposal every week and we have a 
box at the Opera. In fact it is often 
through games and amusements that the 
man's confidence is won and Ids interest 
in life reawakened. 

For example, I was recently taken by 
an American Ambulance doctor to a 
patient from Verdun. He had lost his 
sight, his right arm and was other- 
wise wounded. All I could do was 
to talk to him at the doctor's re- 
quest and to give him an idea of light 
through work. 

On my second visit I introduced him 
to an American checker-board adapted 
for the blind. He consented to play and 
finally beat me in a game of checkers. 
He was so pleased at his success that all 
his boyish sense of fun returned and he 
giggled with glee until the nurse was 
afraid he would reopen his wounds. He 
is now learning Braille ; nd other simple 
things and is a regular pupil of our home 
teacher. 

The lighthouse staff is admirable. It 
s headed by a French lady, with a 
writer of some distinction, as director. 
We have five professors who are them- 
selves blind — two, refugees from Arras 
and organists of note. The remainder 
of our teaching staff is sighted. At 
present, we have no Americans, except- 
ing among the volunteers. In its small 
clinic the lighthouse has the benefit of 




.-/ blind Swede learning to model at 
the French lighthouse. Although lie 
lias lost both eyes in a Tear which did 
not involve his country, he said with 
a bright smile'. "I should have at 
least done that for France." lie has 
been decorated with the Croix de 
Guerre and the \fedaille Militaire. 



the advice and constant aid of two well- 
known French physicians, and, as visit- 
ing physician, of Dr. Scarlett, director 
of the American Hospital at Neuilly and 
director of the ophthalmological depart- 
ment of the American Ambulance. 

In addition we have home teachers 
who give instruction in the hospitals and 
in the homes of the reforme soldiers. 
The home teachers' duties are by no 
means restricted to teaching, however. 
To give in hospitals and home the first 
consolation and knowledge of a possible 
horizon of light for the blind is perhaps 
the most important task of these emis- 
saries. 

A doctor telephones that a new 7 man 
has come from the fiont, blind, hope- 
less, and in need of light. The home 
teacher goes to him and shows him a 
new horizon in blindness. 

Often the cases are so pathetic that 
words seem useless. A Zouave, 
strong . and handsome before the 
war, came back, carried like a little child, 
with no eyes, no legs and only one arm. 
Hut when he discovered that he could 
read with his left arm he was eager to 
come to Paris and learn how to be blind. 
He actually laughed aloud with the idea 
of his being able to be a wage-earner 
again and to marry the little girl who 
was his fiancee and still remained faith- 
ful to him. 

Another man with no eyes or arms we 
were able to help principally through his 
wife, a valiant soul, from whom we have 
offered to buy all the vegetables she 
raises. We are in hope, too, that we 
may discover some simple occupation for 
the man when articulated arms are fitted 
to him. 

Several of our pupils are already self- 
supporting. One. in six months, re- 
turned to his retail business which he 
conducts with such entire success, writ- 
ing all letters and keeping accounts, that 
be has been forced recently to remove 
to larger quarters. 

Another man in two months, was edu- 
cated to write excellent typewritten 
letters and keep hi- accounts. He be- 
came a machine knitter and turns out 
such excellent work that he has more 
orders than he can fill. 

So it goes on. this work of mould- 
ing these heroic men into self-helpful 
citizens. To weigh its worth one only 
has to see the look of hope that conies 
back to their faces and to bear their 
words of gratitude. 

"I would like to be a poet to sing to 
you of my rebirth." wrote one soldier 
to me. "but alas! 1 am neither poet nor 
writer, only a peasant. . Thanks 

to you, and to the good teachers about 
you, I can say without exaggeration 
that I feel glowing within me a light 
that throws its rays into the closed 
chamber of a spirit which I believed 
would forever live in darkness, \t the 
Lighthouse of France 1 have found the 
1 ight." 



Food, Shelter, and Clothing 

By Emma A, JVinslow 

HOME ECONOMIST NFW YORK CHARI I V OUC.AN1ZATION S )CIE I V 



THE high cost of living to the 
contrary, it is a privilege to 
have to buy food and clothing 
and to pay the landlord. There is a great 
deal more involved in a visit to the mar- 
ket than merely the obtaining of some- 
thing to eat. The round steak and 
hashed-brown potatoes which have just 
been placed upon the dinner table contain 
a phychological as well as a nutritive 
benefit. They include an educational fac- 
tor as important as the public school 
system. They stand for the principle 
of barter, a principle that the housewife 
unconsciously affirms each time she asks 
her neighbor. "With what butcher do 
you trade?" 

Similarly, living in an apartment has 
a greater significance than the mere fact 
of being sheltered from the rain. Each 
time a five dollar bill is taken from the 
weekly pay envelope and tucked in the 
second bureau drawer over against the 
monthly call of the rent collector, an- 
other great educational principle has 
been observed — the principle of foresight 
and thrift. 

Xor is the value of clothing limited to 
protection against the weather. Cloth- 
ing, indeed, is an art that is more uni- 
versal than poetry or sculpture or music. 
It is the great vehicle for self-expression, 
great because it is a vehicle that every- 
body can use. 

This is r.ot to say that the homes we 
live in and the food we eat are not op- 
portunities for self-expression any more 
than it is to say that clothing is not a 
means for developing foresight. Our 
thesis is simply that each one of these 
three necessities of life has its dominant 
psychological factor ; that of food being 
barter, that of rent being foresight, and 
that of clothing being self-expression. 

The poorer a family is the more im- 
portant a place in its life do these psy- 
chological factors take. For the house- 
hold that is circumscribed by poverty 
and correspondingly limited in its oppor- 
tunities for culture and recreation, it is 
impossible to estimate the educational im- 
portance of the business of buying wisely 
and economically. The dealing with dif- 
ferent people, the visiting of difreren' 
stores, the search for the bargain, and 
the administering of a two-dollar-a-day 
income develop shrewdness, judgment 
and taste and. in addition, increase the 
acquaintance of the family and the var- 
iety of its contacts with the world. 

Deprive a person of the function of 
spending and you make that person poor 
indeed. 

Witness, for example, the experience 
of Mrs. Czech. For three vears after 



her husband's death she was not obliged 
to use money in an)- way. .\ charitable 
society paid her rent and insurance and 
supplied her and her six children with 
food and clothing. Mrs. Czech's only 
economic responsibility was the use of 
provisions and commodities after they 
had been delivered to her home. 

Theoretically the family was receiving 
perfect care. And yet Mrs. Czech did 
not seem to be making the best of her 
opportunities. Apparently she bad no 
interest in the appearance of her home 
or of her children. She exerted herself 
only to the point of fulfilling the re- 
quirements of the organization that was 
helping her. She seldom mended the 
children's clothing, obtaining instead 
other garments from the society. Even 
the health of the family began to de- 
teriorate. The faces of the children be- 
came sallow and pasty. Evidently their 
food was not agreeing with them ; nor 
was this surprising, for the mother was 
not at all particular about the way it was 
cooked. 

Three Cents for Sauerkraut 

Recognizing its failure, the society de- 
cided to see how. Mrs. Czech would react 
to a different plan of treatment. Accord- 
ingly, a weekly allowance was given to 
her and she was told to do her own buy- 
ing. Her first expenditure was three 
cents for sauerkraut. She had been ac- 
customed to this delicacy from child- 
hood and for three years she had longed 
for it while packages of macaroni, in 
which she was not at all interested, lay 
unused upon her shelves. 

Housekeeping soon became a delight, 
the visit to the corner grocer and then 
to his competitor across the way. an ad- 
venture. Now Mrs. Czech was able to 
buy what she wanted when she wanted 
it. She began to cultivate that epicurean 
attitude toward food that makes the way 
things are cooked one of the most im- 
portant subjects of thought and of con- 
versation. 

Gradually the scope of her administra- 
tion was extended until she had full 
charge of the family budget. Corre- 
spondingly, the appearance of her home 
improved. From an indifferent, depend- 
ent sort of person Mrs. Czech grew to 
be an enthusiastic, systematic housekeep- 
er. It is not surprising that the children 
gained in health. By the time that they 
were able to earn enough to maintain 
the home their mother had become so 
remarkable a domestic economist and had 
made such a success of her family life 
that now the head of the charitable so- 
cietv says that whenever she feels dis- 



couraged about her work she pays a call 
upon Mrs. Czech and straightway for- 
gets all her troubles. 

This happened several years ago, and 
probably it would not be easy to find an 
instance of such mistaken relief in kind 
in the current work of any well-con- 
ducted charity organization society. But 
although the present tendency is away 
from such a method of administration, 
there is always the temptation to over- 
look the bad effect which the unwise 
giving of relief in kind has upon those^ 
whom we are trying to help. To send 
groceries, to pay rent, to supply cloth- 
ing is such a concrete way of giving as- 
sistance ; it so certainly reaches the fam- 
ily for which it is intended that the real 
influence which it exerts upon the educa- 
tion of the family is frequently in dan- 
ger of being forgotten. 

There are many pet theories by which 
we deceive ourselves into believing in the 
importance of supplying food directly. 
We say it educates the family in nutri- 
tive values; yet learning by doing is the 
first principle of pedagogy. We say that 
it is cheaper for a society to make pur- 
chases than it is for the family ; but a 
study of 500 food orders conducted re- 
cently by the Junior League and the New 
York Charity Organization Society shows 
that families can purchase just as cheap- 
ly as social workers. Only those few 
organizations that buy in such large 
quantities as to be able to take advan- 
tage of wholesale rates can purchase 
more economically than the ordinary 
housekeeper. But even so, the first in- 
terest of social work should be to save 
families rather than money. 

In emergencies it will always, no doubt, 
be necessary to send an order of food 
directly to a family through the grocer, 
but where a household is receiving aid 
regularly, the best way to educate that 
family is to give it the responsibility of 
buying its own food. Feeling this re- 
sponsibility, it will be quick to profit by 
any suggestions about nutritive values 
that the social worker may make. 

Let the Family Buy 

If the effort of charity organization 
societies is to develop self-reliance and 
independence in families, then they 
should make the fullest possible use of 
the educational opportunities which the 
psychology of barter involves. Just as 
editorial criticism helps people to learn 
to write, so a kind of editorial judgment 
passed upon purchases can be made of 
great assistance in adding to a family's 
knowledge of domestic economy. Only 
let the family have the fun of buying; 



45 



4'' 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



suggest and advise, but do not send the 
provisions to the door. The sharpening 
of wits that comes from the search for 
the best values at the lowest prices and 
the exercise of choice and discrimination 
that the provisioning of a household in- 
volves are opportunities for development 
of which the family should be encouraged 
to make the most. 

Even greater than the temptation to 
>elect and send food to a household is 
the temptation to pay rent. It is per- 
haps easier to raise money for this pur- 
pose than for almost any other. Save-a- 
home funds and similar enterprises are 
one proof of this. There is nothing that 
seems so sensible or so satisfying as to 
say, when the needs of a family come up 
for discussion, "Well, we will pay the 
rent; then the Joneses can be sure of 
having a roof over their heads." But to 
assume the responsibility for meeting the 
landlord's bills is to deprive the person 
one is helping of the chance of exercis- 
ing foresight and thrift. 

Character and the Rent 

The housekeeper must have character 
or must develop it in order to apportion 
her budget so that from each week's pay 
envelope a little money may be set aside 
against the monthly visit 01 the rent col- 
lector. It involves giving up present 
needs tor more pressing future neces- 
sities. Is it not true that frequently 
families which have been receiving al- 
lowances in the form of rent are reluct- 
ant and almost unable, when their earn- 
ings increase, to arrange their income so 
as to be able to provide for this part of 
the domestic expenses? If the family- 
is earning enough money to be self-sup- 
porting with rent paid for it, why not 
pay that family the ten or fifteen dollars 
a month needed for this purpose? Some 
social workers may object that they can- 
not trust the judgment of many of their 
families. But if the family is not taught 
how to administer its finances by ex- 
perience how else is it going to learn ? 

Clothing is the most usual of all gifts 
among all classes of society. From 
father to son, from sister to sister, from 
rich city cousin to less well-off country 
cousin, from the misfitted friend to the 
easily fitted friend, from housewife to 
housemaid, clothing has been passed 
since the day the first tailor decided to 
improve business by changing styles. For 
this reason, if clothing is given in one 
of the normal ways just referred to, it 
can be accepted with less loss of self- 
respect than any other form of relief. 

Because of this custom of passing 
along clothes, a charitable agency can 
supply a family with clothing without so 
much fear of causing dependency as 
when giving money. But the danger of 



dependence is not the only thing to be 
considered in the giving of clothing. 
The family's loss of opportunity for self- 
expression is also involved. 

More than an Art 

Self-expression is one of the funda- 
mental desires of every human being. 
Just because people are poor does not 
mean that they have lost this longing. 
One of the greatest miseries of poverty- 
is the inarticulateness it forces and the 
limit it places upon the ways in which 
the poor can express themselves. Seldom 
indeed have they opportunity or ability 
to use music, painting, or literature for 
this purpose. Nor is this handicap con- 
fined solely to the poor. For thousands 
of men and women clothing is the only 
art. Careful, therefore, should we in- 
deed be not to deprive the poor of this 
opportunity for self-expression. 

< )ur tastes are not the tastes of those 
whom we help. Just because we would 
express our sense of beauty in the pur- 
chase of a certain pair of shoes does 
not mean that this is a universal kind 
of beauty that everybody will admire. 
Thus one woman, having been given 
the opportunity to -elect a hat from an 
assortment sent from a Fifth avenue 
store, chose rather to spend fifteen cents 
for a frame on Second Avenue and trim 
it herself. The Fifth avenue bonnet was 
not being worn three blocks east and 
this woman wanted to be in style. A cer- 
tain green coat given to a certain society 
which, if worn by a person of fashion 
would have added distinction to her ap- 
pearance, was refused by woman after 
woman. Each one felt that it would 
make her too conspicuous and the coat 
was not used until it had been dyed 
and remodeled in order to blend with 
the styles in vogue among the families 
of two-dollar-a-dav income-. 

Managers of children's institutions 
have learned what a depressing effect 
uniformity of dress has upon their 
charges. The loss of opportunity to ex- 
preSS individuality in this way has a very 
definite effect upon the character of the 
children. The same thing is true of 
adults. It is not fair to a family to de- 
cide for it what it will wear. 

If our object is to bring a household 
to a normal way of life, then we cannot 
well refuse to supply it with a cash al- 
lowance large enough to cover the item 
of clothing. There will always be op- 
portunity for the use of old clothing in 
emergencies. There will always also be 
opportunity for offering a family casu- 
ally, now and then, a piece of material 
or a garment that can be made over to 
suit the needs of some one of its mem- 
bers. This sort of giving, however, 
should only be supplementary. Just as 



much as possible it should be left to the 
family to determine how it will express 
itself in clothes. 

Self-expression is, of course, not the 
only psychological factor involved in the 
purchase of clothing. Just as there is 
a great deal of the aesthetic connected 
with the selection of food and of a home, 
so there is also opportunity for the dis- 
play of thrift in the buying of clothing. 
Clothing expenditures involve from 10 to 
15 per cent of the income of the normal 
family. There is need for foresight in 
the saving of money toward the obtain- 
ing of clothes, as there is in the payment 
of rent. Because the art of clothing is 
important does not mean that it has not 
also an educational value trom an econ- 
omic point of view. 

The cash allowance ought to include 
all household expenditures, fuel and in- 
surance as well as food, rent and cloth- 
ing. It requires character to set aside 
money for the payment of insurance just 
as much as it requires character to pro- 
vide for rent. To pay one's own fuel 
bills means to learn economy in the use 
of fuel. A woman who undertook to pay 
the gas bills of a certain family was 
amazed to find that that family used four 
times as much gas as any of the neigh- 
bors. Yet it was not hard to understand 
the family's point of view : the gas was 
free. 

The Psychology of It 

What has been said thus far about 
the giving of relief has to do with fami- 
lies that are under care for a period of 
time; it does not apply to emergencies. 
Under any circumstances, however, it is 
well to remember that the normal atti- 
tude toward the necessities of life is not 
that of giving but of using. We should 
not forget that the fundamental purpose 
of food is not to be donated, but to be 
eaten. In other words, we must not con- 
sider clothing, rent, and food from the 
point of view of the giver and with re- 
gard to his convenience, but rather from 
the point of view of the recipient and 
with regard to his welfare. 

Second only to the service which the 
necessities of life perform for the body 
is the service they render to the mind. 
If there is one thing that charity organ- 
ization work teaches it is that people are 
human beings not human machines, and 
that you can do nothing for them in a 
mechanical way. Only by considering 
the man as a unit — both body and soul — 
can one offer him effective help. It is 
not enough to regard food as something 
to eat. rent as provision for shelter, and 
clothing as something to wear: one must 
also remember their psychological con- 
notations of barter, foresight, and self- 
expression. 



Drugs and the Drug User 

By Charles B. Towns 



TO understand adequately the gen- 
eral problem of drug addiction as 
it affects society, one must first 
get a good mental grip on the personal 
problem of the individual drug-taker. 
For unless his problem and his peculiar 
pathology are comprehended, no working 
knowledge of the broader aspects of the 
subject is possible, no remedy for the 
situation as a whole can be safely pro- 
posed or supported. So I shall preface 
my discussion of the national and inter- 
national fight against drug abuse with a 
consideration of the formation of the 
■ hug habit, the psychology of addiction, 
and the methods of reclaiming the indi- 
vidual victim. 

The drug habit is in every instance a 
manufactured article. A craving for 
drugs cannot be transmitted by heredity. 
I'.xcept in the underworld, where mimetic 
tendencies and constant search for new 
sensation are largely responsible for the 
habit, addiction is due in most cases to 
the doctor or the patent medicine vendor. 

The doctor's manufacture of the drug 
habit is, unfortunately, too often a very 
simple and logical process, for which he 
cannot be entirely or even chiefly blamed. 
A man in pain, knowing the general 
character and location of his suffering, 
tells his doctor of it. The doctor makes 
his diagnosis and possibly recommends 
an operation. The patient, as fearful of 
the surgeon's knife as of the gallows, 
protests. Perhaps he intimates that if 
the doctor cannot treat him successfully 
without recourse to an operation, he will 
find another man who will. 

In the meantime the pain increases. 
He insists that something be given him 
to relieve it. The doctor gives him some- 
thing — something thrust beneath his skin 
through the hollow needle of a hypo- 
dermic syringe. 

With that first thrust of the hypo- 
dermic the patient has discovered what 
will ease his pain. What more natural 
than that another injection should be 
demanded the following day, when the 
pain again becomes intolerable? More 
thrusts. Presently, a habit. 

If the doctor, being conscientious, re- 
fuses to give morphin, the patient who 
has become intent on having it will search 
until he finds a doctor who will give it. 
The conscientious doctor gets no credit 
tor his probity ; instead he probably loses 
a patient. If the doctor on the other 
hand yields to the patient's insistence, 
which he often does against his judg- 
ment, he has yielded, we must recognize, 
to a set of circumstances for which he 
is not responsible. Both he and his pati- 
ent have fallen victims to the lack of 
safeguards against the pressure of nor- 



TT)ROBABl.Y no one person int 
JL this entire country has been\ 
more closely in touch with the 
problems of the drug habit or more 
energetic in the war against the 
illegitimate use and sale of drugs 
than has Mr. Towns. In the four- 
teen years of his experience he has 
treated successfully more than 6,000 
cases of drug addiction. His rela- 
tion to the medical profession is 
unique. He has placed freely at 
///(• disposal of doctors the formula 
of his treatment, has published it in 
medical journals and has been a 
welcome spe&ker at medical society 
meetings. Endorsements of his 
work bear many distinguished 
names. Dr. Richard C. Cabot wrote 
mi introduction to his book, Habits 
That Handicap. Mr. Towns' major 
interest, however, is not with the 
cure but with the prevention of the 
drug habit, lie has been closely 
concerned in promoting the Boylan 
laic and other slate, national and 
international legislation which, he 
soys. "I sincerely trust will eventu- 
ally put my hospital out of busi- 
ness." This and the succeeding 
articles which he has written for 
The Survey are of particular in- 
terest at this lime in view of the 
amendments to the Harrison drug 
law which will be proposed during 
I he com i u (j session of Congress. — 
Editor. 



mal human impulse under abnormal 
strain. For the lack of proper safeguards 
in such emergency, society is responsible ; 
which means that those who legislate and 
those who demand and support legis- 
lation are responsible. 

There is another and still more appal- 
ling phase of the doctor and patient re- 
lation, which arises when the doctor him- 
self is a drug-taker. And this situation, 
which I will take up more in detail later, 
crops out far oftener than the layman 
would imagine. The danger to the pati- 
ent comes from the peculiar psychology 
of addiction, for one who takes a habit- 
forming drug is almost certain to become 
abnormally sympathetic to the suffering 
of fellow victims. The doctor so en- 
slaved will administer the drug of his 
addiction to patients, with friendly in- 
tent; he will do what he can to help con- 
firmed users get their drugs, even if he 
makes no profit from it. He will write 
prescriptions in evasion if not in violation 
of the law. It is a curious and tragic 
fact that the drug-taking doctor will 



often spread the habit in his own family. 

The second broad and easy road to 
drug addiction is through the use of pat- 
ent medicines, headache and sleeping 
potions. The American public has ac- 
quired the vicious habit of appealing to 
the druggist when the physician's serv- 
ices are clearly indicated. A dozen 
times a day in the experience of any 
druggist, a customer enters and says : 
"I want something to make me sleep," 
or "I want something to cure my head- 
ache." Without hesitation the druggist 
reaches to his shelf and dispenses pre- 
parations in which lurks the utmost peril. 
For while under the present law, as it 
exists, I think, in every state, druggists 
cannot prescribe for sufferers, they can 
advise customers to purchase advertised 
preparations or those which they them- 
selves compound. 

Only a very powerful drug can stop a 
headache with the speed and complete- 
ness that has come to be demanded by 
the customer of the American drug store. 
It must be a preparation of a strength 
sufficient to deaden disordered nerves. 
It is practically certain to have no cura- 
tive qualities whatever, for it is chosen 
because it will be generally effective, not 
selectively effective. The time cannot be 
far distant when government will take 
cognizance of the danger inherent in an 
unrestricted sale by druggists of sleeping- 
powders and hypnotics. In such sub- 
stances lies a peril comparable to that 
inherent in morphin and cocaine. 

It is a popular impression that only 
those of weak psychology or mental char- 
acteristics become enmeshed in the drug 
habit. There never was a more inac- 
curate impression. The mentally strong 
and the morally lofty are as sensitive 
to pain as their weaker fellows. Un- 
warned of the peril of the hypodermic, 
they are as quick to avail themselves of 
the relief the anodyne affords. And 
when the drug has been given until that 
point of tolerance has been reached 
when its administration cannot be neg- 
lected without the violent protest of the 
physical body, they are as helpless as 
the most hopeless defective in similar 
case. This fact has been established by 
thousands of letters and cases coming 
under my personal observation. It is re- 
sponsible for some of the most pitiful 
instances of lost self-control in all the 
history of drug addiction. 

Nor is the growth of the habit in the 
individual inevitably accompanied by 
mental or moral degeneracy, as is gen- 
erally supposed. In this the drug-taker 
differs radically from the alcoholic. The 
latter will often defend his vice. A 
library might be filled with books, fic- 



47 



4^ 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



tional and otherwise, glorifying alcohol 
and the good fellowship and conviviality 
it is held to promote. One would search 
long to find a victim of the drug habit 
who would speak with affection of the 
material which has enthralled him. 
There is no drug addict living who would 
not hail with joy any opportunity through 
which he could be sure of gaining free- 
dom. 

Drugs vs. Alcohol 

The alcoholic feels little interest in 
methods advertised as remedial until his 
trouble has reached an acute stage. He 
will deny to his friends and even to him- 
self that he is an alcoholic until he has 
reached a point akin to hopelessness. 
The drug-taker, on the other hand, 
knows that he is a victim as soon as he 
becomes one. He is immediately filled 
with an intense longing to be relieved of 
his addiction. 

A drug victim investigates each hint 
of hope with eager interest, reading, in- 
telligently questioning, experimenting. 
He shrinks from publicity with a horror 
backed by acute consciousness of his con- 
dition, while the victim of alcohol be- 
comes so morally callous that he takes 
no thought of consequences, knows no 
proper shame. 

This extreme sensitiveness and secret- 
iveness of the drug-taker is one great 
obstacle to his reclamation, despite his 
anxious desire to overcome his slavery, 
for where his investigation of so-called 
cures does not impress him with their 
validity he will hide his addiction from 
the eyes of the world for years — in 
many cases, while life lasts. 

Nothing but really enforced restric- 
tive legislation, fashioned after the 
model of the present New York state 
law, will ever uncover the majority of 
drug-takers in a community. The New 
York law has revealed thousands, and 
in two weeks after it went into effect, 
forced Bellevue and other hospitals to 
devote many beds to sufferers from drug 
deprivation. 

But to deprive the drug-taker of his 
drug without making provision for his 
proper and humane treatment, is a hell- 
ish form of torture. No suffering on 
earth is more intense than this. Imag- 
ination shrinks and falters before its 
unspeakable agony. Rather than under- 
go such suffering a victim will resort to 
the most desperate expedients. I do 
not doubt that the establishment of an 
efficient treatment for drug addiction in 
prisons would result in the commission 
of crimes by drug-takers unable to pro- 
cure their drug elsewhere ; for they 
would gladly endure the misery of jail 
life to procure relief. 

I am not entirely sure that this last 
does not happen in some cases now. 
For my experience has convinced me 
that drugs are obtainable in one way or 
another in practically every prison, and 
where the law outside is highly restric- 



tive and the drug addict is unable to get 
his drug he will — if he is familiar with 
prison conditions — leave no stone un- 
turned to force an entry there. 

Lest this statement seem an exaggera- 
tion of conditions I will refer readers to 
the experience of Katherine Bement 
Davis, upon assuming the duties of com- 
missioner of corrections of New York 
city, as an illustration of the difficulty 
of suppressing altogether the purvey- 
ance of drugs to inmates. Upon investi- 
gation Miss Davis discovered that an or- 
ganized system of drug smuggling ex- 
isted in the metropolitan institutions, 
through the collusion of guards and other 
employes. And once this was done away 
with, she was confronted with the more 
difficult task of combatting the abnorm- 
ally stimulated ingenuity of the drug ad- 
dicts themselves. 

When faced with the terrible prospect 
of deprivation, plans were invented 
worthy of a Poe or a Gaboriau. Drugs 
were brought into the Tombs hidden in 
the visitors' shoes, "starched"' into clean 
linen, injected into oranges from which 
the juice had been previously extracted 
through a minute puncture in the skin. 

I have stated that the great majority 
of drug-users wish nothing so much as 
to be freed from this slavery, while at 
the same time they fear nothing so great- 
ly as sudden deprivation of their drug. 
In the interaction of these two major 
impulses lies the key to the drug ad- 
dict's psychology. Failure to appreciate 
this two-fold and often conflicting state 
of mind, is responsible for much well 
intentioned but stupid infliction of use- 
less suffering upon the victims of their 
own slavery to drugs and society's slav- 
ery to ignorance. An efficient remedy 
for the general condition implies under- 
standing of the nature of drug addic- 
tion, both physical and psychological, on 
the part of doctors and legislators and 
influential citizens, the passage of proper 
restrictive legislation, and. supplementary 
to this, the creation of a system of scien- 
tific treatment for drug victims to en- 
sure their reclamation with the minimum 
of suffering to themselves. 

My personal conclusions in the matter 
of what constitutes "scientific treatment" 
are the result of fourteen years practical 
experience in dealing with the victims 
of drug addiction. And I state them 
with thousands of letters, case histories 
and drug histories to support my find- 
ings. 

To proceed by elimination. 1 am un- 
alterably opposed to the sanatorium idea, 
ill toto. It amounts to a colonization of 
drug victims, even if it does not go be- 
yond that. And drug victims should nol 
be colonized. If I could devise a way to 
do so I should propose and fight for a 
law which would prevent the concen- 
tration of drug-users into groups for the 
piazza discussion of their ailments. 

In the special case of the drug-user 
whose habit can be traced to an initial 



alleviation of pain through its use, such 
patient should be at once examined with 
the purpose of discovering and diagnos- 
ing the underlying cause of that pain. 
When this is done, treatment should be 
given to remove the cause of the pain. 
If that is successful, treatment to eradi- 
cate the drug habit may be safely used. 
Neither of these steps indicates the neces- 
sity or desirability of the sanatorium. 

There are many sanatoria which are 
in effect high-priced boarding-houses. 
As such, their heads are naturally de- 
sirous of keeping their boarders as long 
as possible. It is against human nature 
for such heads to seek to remove en- 
tirely the craving for habit-forming 
drugs. The man who charges by the 
week for the care of the sick is unlikely 
to include cure as a detail of that care- 
Investigation shows that he does not usu- 
ally include it. 

At a meeting of medical men which I 
attended some time since, a member of 
the profession frankly assured me that 
he could not in his sanatorium adopt my 
treatment because it would soon depopu- 
late his place ! His position and attitude 
was not at all unique; his candor was. 

Xo physician in private practice should 
attempt to relieve drug addiction in a 
manner incidental to the conduct of his 
practice. It is true that the temptation 
for the doctor to do this is great. If a 
patient addicted to the drug habit be- 
comes aware that his physician knows of 
a treatment which will bring relief, that 
patient is likely to bring every pressure 
to bear to induce the physician to ad- 
minister it. Many sufferers feel a strong 
aversion to leaving home for treatment. 
But the home treatment is almost in- 
variably ineffective. 

Hospital Treatment 

The HOSPITAL is the. place to treat the 
drug addict. And unless the doctor who 
has not had experience in this field is 
brought to a realization of this fact, 
much time and funds and hope will be 
wasted, with very probably an accom- 
panying loss (if confidence in the doctor 
On the part of his patient. 

If the sanatorium and the inexperi- 
enced doctor often fail to benefit the 
well-to-do drug user, the state, in its 
treatment of drug addicts which come 
within the sweep of the law's wide arm. 
does worse than fail. Especially is the 
plight of the victim pitiful where re- 
strictive legislation brings to light honest 
drug-users, /'. r.. those who have acquired 
the habit through sickness. To these un- 
fortunates no helping hand is anywhere 
held out save, at this writing, in Xew 
York state. 

It is a situation hardest, of course, on 
the victims, but bard also on society. 
For illustration, in one of the largest 
hospitals in America 1 once came acrn^ 
an old woman crooning ami rocking an 
imaginary baby. She had been formally 
and legalh adjudged insane. \s a mat- 






THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



49 



ter of fact she was suffering from hallu- 
cinations due to sudden deprivation of 
her drug. I suggested definite medical 
treatment. In two days the woman had 
lost her hallucinations and on the third 
day was dismissed as cured. 

It is my belief that insane commit- 
ments in the United States might be de- 
creased one-half if in every case where 
insanity was suspected, but where a drug 
history or an alcoholic history was also 



suspected, the patient should be sub- 
jected to the necessary definite medical 
treatment before final commitment. 

In conclusion I want to make clear 
that the particular things which must be 
brought about before our drug problem 
can be considered in any large sense 
solved, are two: First, the angle of the 
confirmed drug-user must be understood 
and appreciated and definite treatment 
in every case succeed the present emo- 



tionalistic helplessness of society towards 
him. This will mean reclamation. Sec- 
ond, the responsibility for creating and 
maintaining drug addiction must be put 
squarely up to the medical profession. 
This will mean prevention. 

These desiderata presuppose education, 
both of the doctor and of the public; 
and requisite legislation. What is meant 
by requisite legislation I will discuss in 
a succeeding article. 



Bridgeport on the Rebound 

By Amy Hewes 



ONE Sunday last spring Kid, the 
Soldier of Fortune, came from 
New York city to Bridgeport, 
Conn., to spend the day with "the boys." 
His friends had named him the Soldier 
of Fortune long before. He was a young 
fellow who had been working first at 
one job and then at another, lured on 
through the city streets by the spirit of 
youth and adventure; and "the boys" 
were three of his friends who had left 
New York to go up to the munition fac- 
tories in Bridgeport and get the easy 
work and good pay of which the whole 
working world was talking. 

The four boys walked through the 
Bridgeport streets looking at the great 
factories which had sprung up where 
only marsh land lay a few months be- 
fore. 

"Why don't you stay and try your luck 
with us, Kid? I'll stump you to walk 
up to the gate tomorrow and get a job," 
said one of the boys. 

"I'll stay, and I'll take you," said the 
Kid. 

By Monday night he was an oiler in 
the factory, earning twenty-five cents 
an hour. A week from the next Satur- 
day night, and for many Saturdays after 
that, his envelope held $24. 

Kid sent down to New York for his 
father, who was a machinist by trade. 
Next day his father went into the fac- 
tory as a high-paid machinist, and in 
three weeks he had earned so much 
money that he knocked off to spend it. 
When his pockets were empty, he started 
back to the factory to "roll up some 
more." Just outside the factory gate 
a steam-roller was working. 

"Hello, boss," said Kid's father, "do 
you want a guy to run that steam-roller 
for you?" 

"Yes," said the man, "I'll take you 
for $25." 

"Make it $35 and I'll run her." 

"You're my man," was the answer; 
and that afternoon Kid's father began to 
"roll up some more." 

With a few modifications the story of 
Kid, the Soldier of Fortune, is the story 
of hundreds of the young fellows who 



T)RWGEPORT , Conn., is a new 
x3 city. A year ago it was in a 
fair zvay of being smothered by 
the tremendous prosperity which 
munition-making had poured in its 
receptive -but unprepared lap. In 
The Survey for December 4, 1915, 
Zenas L. Potter told of a lack of 
houses so great that men earning 
ordinary wages coidd not get a 
home; of its schools all but swamp- 
ed by the children of its new thou- 
sands of workingmcn ; of its con- 
gested streets and inadequate rec- 
reation. Now a nezv spirit is at 
work building a new city. Miss 
Hezves, former secretary of the 
Massachusetts Minimum Wage 
Commission, appraises it in the 
light of her experience as an in- 
vestigator for the Russell Sage 
Foundation, for zvhich she studied 
conditions affecting women in mu- 
nitions factories during the past 
summer. A summary of her full 
report zvill be published in a later 
issue. — Editor. 



crowd Bridgeport's brilliantly lighted 
streets on Saturday and Sunday nights, 
and an epitomized history of the city's 
industrial expansion. Awakening Bridge- 
port is just beginning to see the neces- 
sities and opportunities which the hordes 
of incoming working people have 
brought. The change brought by muni- 
tion work has been too rapid, the on- 
slaught too vigorous ; the city has barely 
had time to catch its breath and pull it- 
self together. In a little more than a 
year and a half it has passed through 
three sharply defined stages of develop- 
ment. 

In the winter of 1914-15, it was groan- 
ing under a season of unemployment and 
hardship and poverty such as it had not 
seen since the bitter days following the 
panic of 1907. Except for the depres- 
sion which such a period brings to any 
city, it was progressing in an orderly 



and conventional manner. It had a popu- 
lation of something over 102,000, a trans- 
portation system which met its needs, a 
conservative city government, and was 
extending its suburbs and caring for its 
large foreign population in a restrained 
and gradual fashion by building new 
schoolhouses and taking steps toward re- 
vising its tenement house laws. 

Within nine months great munition 
factories had been built and thousands of 
men were working night and day under 
their roofs to turn out the enormous war 
orders that were making Bridgeport 
known as "the new world arsenal." Job- 
hunters were pouring in on every train. 
At the same time wages kept rising and 
labor was at a premium. Advertise- 
ments for employes, in wnich the ad- 
vantages of the proffered work were de- 
scribed almost pleadingly, filled the daily 
papers. The families of the incoming 
workers taxed the housing facilities of 
the city; rents soared; and stories of 
eviction of families who could not pay 
the increased rents for their old homes 
found their way into print. The trans- 
portation service proved inadequate and 
Bridgeport's narrow streets were filled 
with innumerable honking jitneys. The 
population rose by the tens of thousands. 

Through it all, it seemed to outsiders 
that the municipality itself was hardly 
conscious of its responsibilities. The 
visitor to Bridgeport saw the thronged 
streets, the halting transportation service, 
the lack of recreational facilities, the 
flimsy three-decker tenements for which 
rents double those of a year before were 
asked ; and marveled at the apparent fail- 
ure of the city government to take cog- 
nizance of the fact that it was no longer 
a middle-aged, conservative manufactur- 
ing city, but a "boom town," young with 
the youth of its newest citizens, and full 
of great possibilities for good or harm, 
for ugliness or beauty, for loyalty or 
bitterness, in its new industrial army. 

The year 1916 has seen the inception 
of a new spirit in Bridgeport. Even 
while the city seemed to be asleep, new- 
ideas had been fermenting. Bridgeport 
had ceased to be a typical American city, 



50 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



and had become a unique American city. 
L'nder the old order, in most American 
towns, merchants and manufacturers 
went their several ways intent on making 
and selling goods, leaving to the mayor 
and the Board of Aldermen and the party 
bosses behind them all concern for the 
city's housekeeping, a concern which too 
often took the form of a distribution of 
plums and lemons. When business men 
formed associations it was to promote 
some mutual benefit which did not ex- 
tend beyond the trade in which they 
were organized. 

Bridgeport has cast aside the old tra- 
dition. Nothing better illustrates the 
new spirit that has captured the city than 
the Minerva-like appearance of a life- 
size Chamber of Commerce, not yet a 
year old, which is advancing upon the 
city's problems with a program for pro- 
viding houses for working people to live 
in, terminal and track facilities to ac- 
commodate the enormously increased 
freight traffic, and street extensions for 
the tangled thoroughfares. 

"We've never had any real cooperation 
among the business men before," said 
one enthusiastic member. "Before, when 
we tried to put through any civic enter- 
prise, it has always ended in mere talk. 
Nobody would go in for public improve- 
ments unless you could assure him that 
they would increase the value of his own 
back yard. Today a truce is on. Old 
opponents are working on the same com- 
mittees, and we're all agreed that we're 
going to make this town a good town to 
live in after all." 

More Houses Needed 

The chamber's most vigorous campaign 
has been a concentrated effort for more 
houses. Its members believed that the 
satisfaction of this need was an impor- 
tant key to the city's continued pros- 
perity. As one of her most far-seeing 
business men expressed it, "We've got 
to make people comfortable in order to 
keep them in Bridgeport." The Reming- 
ton Arms-Union Metallic Cartridge Com- 
pany bad started an extensive system of 
company houses, but the completion of 
a number of these was delayed and even 
the whole number would have been only 
a fraction of the number of houses re- 
quired. Hundreds of desirable men, 
many of them men with families, had 
come to the city only to go away again 
because they could not find suitable 
homes, or because they could not find 
houses of any kind. 

The Chamber of Commerce sent repre- 
sentatives to study housing projects in 
other cities, and charged them to dis- 
tinguish paying investments from the 
"fancy" experiments of semi-philan- 
thropic agencies, for the new Bridgeport 
means to conduct her municipal business 
with truly efficient and business-like 
methods. The services of John Nolen, 
city planner, were secured, and the Hous- 
ing Committee of the Chamber of Com- 
merce proceeded to act on the recom- 



mendations given in the report on local 
housing conditions prepared by him, and 
submitted in August, 1916. 

Mr. Nolen stated that the situation in 
Bridgeport was "desperate," and recom- 
mended the organization of a house 
building company as "the only good 
solution of the problem." The Bridge- 
port Housing Company was formed, 
capitalized at a million dollars, and 
backed by several of the city's 
most prominent and public-spirited citi- 
zens. This organization, which contem- 
plates one of the most significant housing 
operations ever undertaken in this coun- 
try, has its project already under way. 
The plans call for houses to accommo- 
date 1,000 families, with rents ranging 
from $15 to $25 a month. F. C. Blanch- 
ard, formerly manager of one of the 
large local companies, has been made 
manager of the housing company and 
expert advice has been secured by en- 
gaging John Ihlder as housing consultant. 

Bridgeport's housing awakening found 
its way into advertisements which ap- 
peared in the papers last spring, in the 
name of the Build for Bridgeport Move- 
ment. In one of these the advantages 
of "getting together" were urged in the 
following exhortation : 

"Get Together Week. 

"We are waking up in Bridgeport. 
Some of us are a little dazzled by seeing 
what was before our eyes all the time. 

"A lot of us are asleep yet, a sort of 
restless, active, hypnotic sleep, caused by 
keeping our eyes fixed on the next dol- 
lar in front of us. 

"Those who are awake are looking 
ahead to many more dollars than are in 
sight now, a steady secure stream of 
them made permanent by stable pros- 
perity governed by intelligence, by fair 
play, by honest work. . 

"We are not going to have this gam- 
bler's prosperity handed to us on a silver 
platter indefinitely. And we can't club 
it out of each other, when there isn't 
enough to go round, even if we are silly 
enough to try it. . 

"Remember always that the value of 
a dollar isn't measured by the figure 1 
with a sign before it. Its measure is 
what you can get for it. the work you 
can make it do for you. 

"The biggest work a dollar can do for 
you just now is to build homes that will 
pay. 

"It is going to take many dollars — all 
we can spare. 

"Big men in Bridgeport are giving 
their brains and knowledge to the prob- 
lem, and they will lend their money. 

"They can't do it all. It isn't fair to 
Bridgeport nor to us to let them do it all. 
Tt's part of our job. 

"All of us must join in and DO IT 
NOW. 

"By this time we all know where we 
stand; if we have two good feet and a 
head of our own we can balance on top 
of them. 

"Let's agree right now to go into part- 
nership with our own town and work- 
like honest, loval partners. 

"BE FOR BRIDGEPORT." 



The incrowding population pressed 
upon the city's resources not only for 
houses but for all other public services 
necessary for community life It is gen- 
erally believed that there are about 150- 
000 people in Bridgeport today, an in- 
crease of nearly 50 per cent over the 
102,054 reported by the federal census 
in 1910. With this influx Bridgeport 
suddenly outgrew her schools, her hos- 
pitals and parks, her bridges and sewers. 
The public purse needed replenishing and 
the voters, now awake to the need for 
immediate action, responded in April of 
this year by approving the largest bond 
issues in the city's history. These totaled 
$2,275,000, and included provisions for 
streets, bridges, schools, sewers, clinics 
and parks, and additional equipment for 
the police and fire departments. 

Looking beyond the enlargement of the 
beautiful park along the sound and small- 
er parks throughout the city, a municipal 
commission has undertaken the big prob- 
lem of all-the-year-round recreation. 
The crowds of young men and women 
who loiter along the streets when the 
working day is done, the lines of people 
stretching a block in either direction 
waiting to get into the overtaxed movie-, 
the throngs rushing for cars to the near- 
by beaches, these make up the audience 
which watches for better recreational op- 
portunities for the working people. 

Behind the appointment of the Recrea- 
tion Commission lies the report of the 
Vice Commission, which laid bare some 
of the secrets of the underworld and 
strongly urged the appointment of a body 
to provide opportunities for healthful 
amusement and exercise. Like the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, the Recreation Com- 
mission has obtained expert advice and 
assistance, and secured a representative 
of the Playground and Recreation Asso- 
ciation of America to survey the situa- 
tion in Bridgeport in the past summer. 

Expert Health Advice 

The vital ISSUE of public health forced 
itself upon the attention of the city in 
the early summer of 1916. Cases of 
streptococcic infection, attributed to the 
milk supply, spread alarm throughout the 
city, and brought forth determined ef- 
forts to locate the source of the trouble 
and to secure clean milk. Closely upon 
this followed the danger of an epidemic 
of infantile paralysis, which was rife in 
New York city. No time was lost in 
securing the services of an expert. Dr. 
Abraham Sophian of the Rockefeller 
Institute was put in charge of the work 
of the Board of Health in July. Pro- 
tective measures were at once enforced. 
and it is believed that the prompt and 
thorough work of the department saved 
the lives of many children. 

Another far-reaching benefit came 
from a general clean-up. and from the 
educational work done by the inspector- 
and visiting nurses. The daily press re 
fleeted the growing appreciation of the 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



5i 



need of adequate protection of the public 
health and already the sum which was 
voted last spring for public clinics is con- 
sidered inadequate for the up-to-date 
out-service work which is planned to 
supplement the hospitals. 

Bridgeport has good reason to be 
proud of the accomplishments of the last 
few months. Faced with emergencies 
which taxed her resources beyond their 
limits, she has set herself vigorously and 
persistently to her tasks. The newly self- 
conscious city is aware that her future 



growth must be an ordered progress. 
The habit of securing expert advice has 
been formed. Higher standards for pub- 
lic health, for schools, for recreation, 
and for housing are being realized. A 
better coordination of these separate ef- 
forts to meet the new social demands is 
the next step. The masses of human 
beings from all occupations and all parts 
of the world who are pouring through 
the city's gates must not remain alien and 
unrelated. A new civic consciousness 
must be generated in the new Bridgeport. 



Conferences 



PLAY MAKES MEN 



"W 



HAT right have we to 
hold a recreation con- 
gress," asked one speaker, 
"when Europe is aflame, when America 
is struggling through political, economic, 
social changes of grave moment? Is 
recreation statesmenlike? Is it one of 
the great socializing forces of the day? 
Can play be a nation-builder?" 

One answer suggested at the Interna- 
tional Recreation Congress at Grand 
Rapids, Mich., October 2-6, was that the 
recreation movement represents the 
greatest unworked mine of power in 
every community, writes Charles F. 
Weller, associate secretary of the Play- 
ground and Recreation Association of 
America. Four million hours of leisure 
every week in Grand Rapids; three 
billion leisure homes weekly in the 
United States. Any great advances in 
civilization must be developed out of this 
margin, this slack, this unworked mine. 
Recreation changes leisure hours from 
liabilities to assets. 

For the invigoration of American life 
this International Recreation Congress 
united the advocates and the opponents 
of military training. Nine-tenths of 
military training nowadays is trench- 
digging, outdoor life, obedience, hardi- 
hood, courage. These essentials are best 
developed, not by gun drill, but by games, 
athletics, physical education. 

Wellington said: "The battle of Water- 
loo was won on the playing fields of Eton 
and Harrow." "Future wars, we hope, 
will be fought, not from trenches, but on 
football fields," said a speaker at the 
opening session of the recreation con- 
gress. He described the international- 
izing, civilizing influences of American 
games in China, India, the Philippines, 
South America and among five million 
dispirited men in the prison war camps 
of Europe. The congress discussed 
athletics, games and play as the best 
means of building character and effici- 
ency — whether for peace or for war. 

Any one who thinks of "play" as 
merely childlike, soft, amusing, unim- 
portant, would have been surprised at 
the hundreds of powerful, earnest men 
and women assembled at Grand Rapids, 
intent upon the invigoration of American 



life through wholesome use of leisure 
hours of all the people. 

Never before -has there been a recrea- 
tion congress with so large an attend- 
ance. To the 7,500 employed playleaders 
of America represented came the call to 
formulate programs which shall stimulate 
and guide all our colleges and schools, 
all park forces, libraries, city and town 
governments, uniting them in effective 
efforts for the strengthening of American 
life. These forces are strong enough, if 
vitalized, to bring about an American 
renaissance. 

"What delays us?" asked one speaker. 

"Provincialism," was the answer. 
"America does not yet exist as a unified 
ideal. A tragic war would rouse us into 
genuine nationalism. Disasters like that 
at San Francisco show how great groups 
of people may be lifted out of narrow- 
ness into idealism and fraternal action. 
But ordinarily an American lives only 
for his own nearby community. He may 
contribute to playgrounds at home, but 
not to a national movement, not to the 
upbuilding of boys and girls outside 
his own narrow range of vision." 

"To re-create America, playleaders 
must have such vision, such broad, deep, 
religious fervor as will lead into united 
action, in every community, all the wets 
and drys ; the Protestants, Catholics, 
Lutherans, Jews and Gentiles; all school, 
park and city forces ; the politicians and 
idealists; and all the fiftv-seven varieties 
of common humanity." 

From Uruguay came the report of $50,- 
000 appropriated annually for physical 
education and playgrounds under the 
leadership of a trained man from Kansas. 
From the arts related to recreation — from 
music, dancing, and dramatics — vital 
contributions were made. Enlistment 
and training for this "new pro- 
fession" of playleadership were dis- 
cussed. Rural problems engaged at- 
tention more than ever before. Recrea- 
tion in industries was one of the newer 
outlooks emphasized by the presence of 
business men who are planning play- 
grounds and recreational activities for 
factories and stores. Governmental de- 
partments and prison reform contributed 
their quota. In Warden Osborne's work 
of transforming Sing Sing recreation 



was shown to have had a vital share. 

Joseph Lee, of Boston, president of 
the congress and of the Playground and 
Recreation Association of Amercia, sent 
out from Grand Rapids two special 
letters to friends of the movement. Pre- 
ceding paragraphs of this review are 
taken largely from these official letters 
describing the congress. In conclusion 
Mr. Lee wrote: "Help us to develop 
such virile Americanism as shall also be 
fully in harmony with internationalism 
and with the spirit of universal brother- 
hood." 

RED MEN IN COUNCIL 

FOLKS who can boast a mere two 
or three centuries of American 
lineage would do well to consider the 
superior claims of those whose ancestors 
were leaving arrowheads as reminders 
of hunt and warfare in the forests of 
the western hemisphere while theirs 
were introducing the deadlier gunpowder 
and cannon "somewhere in France." 

A representative group of these really 
native Americans, writes Flora Warren 
Seymour, met at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 
September 26-30 for the annual confer- 
ence of the Society of American Indians. 
With them convened a group of Anglo- 
Saxon associate members. 

Most divergent views were set forth 
in vigorous fashion, yet there was no 
sign of any desire to hinder their free 
expression. Those who believe the 
Indian stolid and unemotional should 
have heard the impassioned and dramatic 
demand of Dr. Carlos Montezuma, of 
Chicago, for the immediate abolition of 
the Indian Bureau, which both by its 
repression and by its paternalism he be- 
lieved to be stifling the proper develop- 
ment of the race. 

Dr. Montezuma's plea for the elimina- 
tion of reservation lines and the mingl- 
ing of red man and white on equal terms 
was later championed by General Pratt, 
the venerable founder of the Govern- 
ment Indian School at Carlisle, Pa. He 
advocated the removal of the Indian 
from his racial and tribal environment 
as the only method to compel his adop- 
tion of the customs of the dominant race. 
The success of the "outing system" 
which General Pratt inaugurated at 
Carlisle by placing Indian boys and girls 
at work in the fields and homes of Penn- 
sylvanians, illustrates the working out 
of this principle, as also do the accom- 
plishments of individual Indians enlisted 
in the army among white soldiers, when 
contrasted with the failure of a plan, 
adopted for a short time by the War 
Department, to enlist Indians in com- 
panies, each made up of the members of 
a single tribe. 

In marked contrast to these views was 
the appeal of a delegation of Wisconsin 
Indians for protection against encroach- 
ment by the state authorities on their 
treaty hunting grounds. 

One of the most inspiring features of 
the conference was the account of Ger- 
trude Bonnin, a Sioux Indian, of her 
first year of community center work 
among the Utes of the Uintah and Ouray 
Reservation in Utah. Sewing circles 
were organized and simple sewing learn- 
ed in making garments for the aged and 
needy of the tribe. The spirit of help- 



52 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



fulness thus engendered found further 
expression in the establishment of a rest 
room for the Indian women and children 
who came in great numbers to the agency 
for the transaction of business. The 
preparation of the room and the serving 
of lunch to the visitors gave opportunity 
for lessons in domestic science and sani- 
tation. 

At another meeting, an article in The 
Survey for May 13 on the Indians' use 
of peyote, reprinted in the American 
Indian Magazine, the quarterly journal 
of the society, furnished the text for an 
animated discussion on the evils caused 
by the use of this drug. A resolution 
was finally adopted in support of the 
Gandy bill designed to prevent the traffic 
in peyote. 

Other resolutions commend the new 
vocational courses in Indian schools and 
the health campaign among the reserva- 
tions which has already resulted in a 
lowering of the death rate; urge Con- 
gress to close the Indian Bureau as soon 
as trust funds, treaty rights and other 
obligations are fulfilled; and demand a 
definition of the legal status of the 
Indian and the early adjudication of all 
tribal claims. 

IN SHERWOOD FOREST 

IN Sherwood Forest, Md., the annual 
conference of the Intercollegiate 
Socialist Society, September 19-25, 
wrangled with the question that has been 
splitting the solidarity of European So- 
cialists since the war began. In other 
words, according to the report of Harry 
W. Laidler, secretary, the general topic 
for discussion, National and Interna- 
tional Social Preparedness, largely re- 
solved itself into a debate on the Social- 
ist attitude toward war. 

While J. G. Phelps Stokes and Wil- 
liam English Walling argued that wars 
of defense are justified "where the liber- 
ties of the people are deemed to be at 
stake" and that even aggressive wars are 
worthy of support "where deemed by the 
people as essential to the overthrow of 
tyranny," there were pacifists on hand to 
maintain both the improbability of for- 
eign invasion of America and such sub- 
stitutes for armed opposition as economic 
boycotts, a general strike, arbitration, a 
league of peace, etc. 

George W. Nasmyth of the World 
Peace Foundation, for example, con- 
tended that if peace advocates let it be 
known that they are willing to join in 
defensive war, they would place a power- 
ful weapon in the hands of militarists. 
At the outbreak of any war, he said, it 
is comparatively easy for a government 
to convince the mass of the people that 
the war is one of defense, not of ag- 
gression. He emphasized, however, the 
great difficulty of abolishing warfare 
until the governments had some inter- 
national machinery, such as a league of 
peace, to which they could turn in times 
of crises. 

Less divided was the conference in its 
view of dealing with immigration after 
the war, as a part of social preparedness. 
Although some members prophesied an 
influx of immigrants and others a de- 
crease, practically all advocated the 
"open door" policy. 

Prof. Jacob H. Hollander of Johns 



Hopkins University opposed the restric- 
tion of immigration on the ground that 
"the free admission of competent immi- 
grants wisely distributed would result 
in increased economic well being and 
wholesome culture and would contribute 
definite spiritual elements in the life of 
the nation." John Spargo made a special 
plea for the admission of Asiatic peoples, 
declaring that it had not been proved 
that they were non-assimilable. "The 
true Socialist remedy," he said, "is not 
the exclusion of that race, but the de- 
velopment of an enlightened policy by 
the political and economic organizations 
of the working class in this country to 
the end of securely establishing the 
standard of living and making it immune 
against all forms of competition, while 
preserving the open door which inter- 
nationalism demands." 

Military preparedness, the growth of 
the cooperative movement, the world 
wide sweep toward public ownership and 
trade unionism were other topics to 
which the conference devoted its atten- 
tion. 

The conference ended with illuminat- 
ing talks on The Socialist Appeal to the 
Christian Mind by Prof. Walter Rausch- 
enbusch and Richard W. Hogue. Pro- 
fessor Rauschenbusch declared that So- 
cialism has a distinct appeal to Chris- 
tians because of its demand for justice, 
for solidarity, for peace; because of its 
concern for the common man, and be- 
cause it offers to the rich the salvation 
which can come only through participa- 
tion in wholesome productive labor and 
a life of simplicity and fellowship. 

AMERICAN HOSPITALS 

HOW widely ramified is the work of 
a modern hospital was evident at 
the convention of the American Hospital 
Association, just closed in Philadelphia; 
The central plan and its administration 
from foundation-stone to cupola, from 
aesthetics to dietetics, was most thor- 
oughly reviewed by hospital men all the 
way from Minnesota to Connecticut. 
Small hospitals and their particular 
needs; the best means of preventing in- 
fection for general institutions; advance 
in nurses' training, all had their place in 
the discussion, as a matter of course. 
But then, the hospital reached out into 
the community instead of waiting for 
the community to muster up courage to 
come to it. Dispensaries, clinics, social 
service — these familiar ideas were in- 
cluded on the program as part of a uni- 
fied hospital process. 

Among the special topics was that of 
clinics for treating venereal disease. Dr. 
W. F. Snow, secretary of the American 
Social Hygiene Association, urged the 
need for a larger number of such clinics, 
and suggested some ways and means of 
developing them. Speaking of what dis- 
pensary work should stand for, Dr. Rich- 
ard C. Cabot, of Boston, emphasized the 
value of the "cooperative work of 
specialists, who together, with a united 
skill, can make a more accurate diagnosis 
than any individual. ... A dispens- 
ary, properly organized, represents today 
this cooperative medicine." 

The rapid growth of the dispensary 
movement, was illustrated by the report 
which Michael M. Davis, Jr., director of 



the Boston Dispensary, presented for the 
committee on dispensary work of the 
Hospital Association. "The number of 
dispensaries in this country," Mr. Davis 
said, "has grown from 200 in 1904 to at 
least 2,300 at the present time." "About 
1,000 of these are dispensaries for the 
sick poor, treating general diseases, 
while the remaining 1,300 are public 
health dispensaries, established to relieve 
and particularly to prevent tuberculosis, 
infant mortality, defects of school chil- 
dren, etc." 

CATHOLIC CHARITIES 

CHILD care was the problem which 
received the greatest amount of at- 
tention at the fourth biennial meeting of 
the National Conference of Catholic 
Charities held at Washington, D. C, 
September 17-20. In particular, reports 
John O'Grady, this subject was discussed 
from the standpoint of the Catholic in- 
stitution in retaining and placing chil- 
dren. 

Robert Biggs of Baltimore summed up 
the results of a canvass of eighty Catho- 
lic institutions caring for 20,000 depend- 
ent children, on requirements for admis- 
sion, educational standards, policy and 
practice in discharging children, and 
sources of revenue. While he found that 
the institutional standards were on the 
whole fairly high, he suggested that 
more care might be exercised in regard 
to physical examination, before receiv- 
ing the children. 

Mary Tinney of Brooklyn, who dealt 
with the placement of 3,000 children by 
the Catholic Home Bureau of New York, 
concluded that the best placement age 
is between one and eight. Between eight 
and twelve she considered a rather doubt- 
ful period. In regard to children over 
twelve, Miss Tinney thought that it was 
nothing short of cruelty to put them out 
into the world unequipped by education 
and training to compete with the child 
brought up in normal surroundings. 
"Let the institutions," she declared, "keep 
these children until they are at least six- 
teen and give them along with their 
ordinary school work the special voca- 
tional training for which they have a 
preference." 

One session of the conference, de- 
voted to juvenile delinquency, empha- 
sized the fact that the most dangerous 
period in the lives of children is when 
they leave school and go out to work. 
In this connection, the various efforts 
of the church to develop social centers 
where young people may find healthy 
amusement and recreation were re- 
viewed. 

Turning from problems concerning the 
young to those concerning adults the 
conference considered such industrial is- 
sues as the work of free employment 
bureaus, the contribution of the church 
toward the solution of the unemployment 
problem and the securing of employment 
for the handicapped. F. E. Kenkel of 
St. Louis, who spoke on the role of so- 
cial legislation in the field of relief, 
made a strong plea for sickness, old age 
and unemployment insurance as the best 
means of preventing dependency. A dis- 
cussion of a paper adverse to minimum 
wage revealed the fact that the over- 
whelming sentiment of the conference 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



53 



was in favor of the legal regulation of 
wages of women and minors. 

The most important new line of en- 
deavor undertaken by the conference is 
the publication of a monthly review, to 
appear in January, at the Catholic Uni- 
versity, to take the place of the St. Vin- 



cent De Paul Quarterly. The magazine 
will be edited by the Rev. John A. Ryan. 
The officers for 1917 and 1918 are the 
Rt. Rev. Thomas J. Shahan, rector of 
the Catholic University, Washington, 
D. C, president; the Rev. William J. 
Kerby, Catholic University, secretary. 





Book Reviews 







Public Health 

from 

Chaucer's Time 







Germs 

is 
Germs 





English Public Health Administra- 
tion 

By B. G. Bannington. P. S. King 

and Son (London). 338 pp. Price 

$1.75; by mail of The Survey $2.25 

(50 cents duty). 

Elements of Physiology and Sanita- 
tion 

By Louis J. Rettger. A. S. Barnes 

and Company. 389 pp. Price $.80; 

by mail of The Survey $.91. 

Content With Flies 

By Mary and Jane Findlater. E. P. 
Dutton Company. Ill pp. Price $1; 
by mail of The Survey $1.07. 

The Fight for Food 

By Leon A. Congdon. J. B. Lippin- 
cott Company. 207 pp. Price $1.25; 
by mail of The Survey $1.33. 

Dr. Bannington, for 
years a public health 
officer in the West 
Ham district, writes 
out of his own experi- 
ence, observation and 
study with a twofold 
aim. He provides a 
"survey of its admin- 
istrative technique" of 
the British public 
health department for 
those who are inter- 
ested as students or as electors or elect- 
ed ; and a solid reference book for those 
officials now in the health service who 
seek to rise to higher positions. 

The result is a masterly handling of a 
most intricate mass of detail. Dr. Ban- 
nington traces the development of the 
public health movement from the days 
of Chaucer when towns were command- 
ed by law to clean up "all that would 
corrupt and infect the air and bring 
disease;" through the times when 
Shakespeare's father was twice fined for 
failing to keep his share of the street 
clean ; on to the very modern develop- 
ments of food inspection, and the preven- 
tion of infectious diseases. Adequate 
quotation of original laws, valuable tabu- 
lations and summaries, take the reader 
over a great deal of ground. The volume 
is invaluable for reference; impossible 
of description. 

It is interesting to note that in con- 
cluding, Dr. Bannington writes on "the 
need for reform." Too intricate, too 
highly organized, the present system 
seems to him to be. A superabundance 
of laws of all kinds — the standard legal 
work on public health fills over 3,000 
pages — leaves it inevitable that there 
should often be "a great difference be- instruction for the aesthetic and moral 



tween what Parliament meant, what or- 
dinary people believe they meant, and 
what judges decide they meant." Result: 
a maximum of cost and effort and a min- 
imum of result. Parts of the field are 
overworked; others are left untouched. 
Significant as Dr. Bannington's study 
must be as a history and a call to higher 
efficiency in its definite territory, the 
volume will also prove illuminating to 
those in this Country who are attentively 
studying public health administration 
and standards. It is published as one of 
the "studies" of the London School of 
Economics and Political Science. 

This textbook is es- 
pecially noticeable for 
its interesting illus- 
trations. In his sec- 
tion on sanitation, 
Professor Rettger 
shows the various bac- 
teria and their char- 
acteristic groupings; 
the path of a fly thir- 
ty-six hours after it 
walked across a sterile 
plate and the germs 
from its feet have bubbled up into little 
colonies ; so, too, the germs that blos- 
somed along the tracings of a pencil 
moistened with saliva. 

"Now, children, do you see? Those 
are germs !" 

Excellent — clear, dramatic, simple. 
Germs is germs. But what about other 
germs? 'Ware the disease-bringers, of 
course, and heartily. Why not give 
credit to those that are not naturally 
pathogenic, and tell the decidedly ex- 
citing story of how they may become so? 
This lack of discrimination, of exact- 
ness, is a fault of no small proportion. 
Says Professor Rettger: <f [The fly] 
spends most of its time feeding upon all 
forms of garbage and filth. Laden with 
this infection. . . ." It is laden with 
infection only if there is infected mate- 
rial there. 

Again, the fly is said to haunt out- 
buildings, "and because of this is par- 
ticularly dangerous to health inasmuch 
as it carries germs of intestinal diseases. 
. . ." It will carry them if they are 
there. 

We have no desire to relieve the fly 
of any responsibility. We regret the 
use in a textbook of statements so gen- 
eral as to be positively inaccurate, and 
we dread reaction against the whole sub- 
ject when the pupil discovers the inac- 
curacy. Why not tell the whole interest- 
ing truth? Is there no place in class 



value of a clean yard and a clean pair 
of hands? The book strains out gnats 
and swallows camels. 

Professor Rettger's philology is also 
occasionally insecure. Apropos of germ- 
diseases, contrasted with the visible at- 
tack of large foes, he says : "We give to 
the latter attack the name of sickness 
or disease because the invading enemy 
is too small to make himself at once 
known. . . ." ! 

The teacher who has to use this book 
should have an adequate reference li- 
brary at home, and use it fearlessly. It 
would save time and strength to have a 
better textbook. 



Apologies ladies ! Immersed in all the 
orthodox traditions of clean-up cam- 
paigns and swatters, we laid prompt and 
violent hands upon your book with its so 
unorthodox a title. And lo, we found it 
a pleasing chronicle of quest for the sim- 
ple life away from cooks, crowds, streets 
and "hostile currents of thought." We 
found some attractive pictures — fine 
trees by beautiful lake-sides, where only 
the mosquito was vile. The motive for 
this quest is found in the biological fact 
vouched for in the following couplet: 

"As cats when they can catch no mice 
Content themselves with catching 
flies" — 

Again, apologies, ladies. We have 
been "interested" and also "cheered" 
even though we shall not try your ex- 
periment. Crowds are too interesting. 
And so are flies — real flies. But why 
did not your publisher save you from 
your title? 



The "fight for food" is something on 
which Mr. Congdon certainly has a right 
to speak. He is chief of the division of 
food and drugs in the Kansas State 
Board of Health, a division which has in 
the past few years, made inspection of 
food and drugs a prominent part of its 
work. 

The task is a large one — to pack into 
a small volume the story of the prob- 
lems, legal, sanitary, economic and vital, 
involved in "pure food." Also, to tell 
this story simply is in itself not easy. 
Mr. Congdon may meet the charge of 
superficiality; but he makes no claim to 
exhaustiveness, seeking only that the 
"public at large" may know something 
about their food. His book should defin- 
itely contribute towards that end. 

Gertrude Seymour. 

Sex Problems of Man in Health and 

Disease 

By Dr. Moses Scholts. Stewart and 
Kidd Company. 168 pp. Price $1 ; 
by mail of The Survey $1.07. 

It is most appropri- 
ate that the writer of 
a treatise on sex prob- 
lems should in some 
measure resemble Job ; 
even if only in the 
matter of multiple per- 
sonality. In no other 
way can we explain 
the authorship of this 
volume. For the apt 
and forceful phrase 
jostles the inversion 
and the casual ineptitude. Repeated use 





Mixing 
Medicine 
With Sex 





54 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



of "prostrate" for prostate, and of 
"embryo" as synonymous for "ovum," 
and an unequaled grammatical careless- 
ness in the use of the article are matched 
by really telling phrases in the preface 
and summary. 

The inspiration of this volume is 
quite as manifold as its syntax. We 
doubt the ability of the uninitiated to 
understand the anatomical details or to 
benefit by the gruesome and somewhat 
inaccurate descriptions of disease. We 
see no virtue in the many pages devoted 
to the treatment of disease other than 
that of exploiting the author's profes- 
sional skill. On the other hand the 
pages dealing with the psychological as- 
pects of the sex problem merit com- 
mendation for their tactful and practi- 
cal, yet high-minded enthusiasm. 

The author believes in sexual repres- 
sion up to the age of "22 — 25," after 
which he appears to concede that the 
sex-impulse can no longer be restrained. 
We are moved by the strength of the 
plea for continence earlier in the vol- 
ume to ask, Why "22—25"? 

The effect of this book will doubt- 
less be good rather than harmful. Its 
inspired psychology should counteract 
the morbid descriptions of disease. 

Edward L. Keyes, Jr. 

The Source, Chemistry and Use of 

Food Products. 

By E. H. S. Bailey. P. Blakiston's 
Son and Company. 539 pp. Price 
$1.60; by mail of The Survey $1.77. 

Professor Bailey has 
rendered a definite 
service to all who are 
interested in the de- 
velopment of home 
economics literature. 
His book is a very 
happy combination of 
scientific fact and 
popular interpretation. 
It is planned as a text- 
book for high schools 
and colleges, but as a 
reference book is a valuable addition to 
the library of any one interested in the 
subject. 

The chapters cover the following sub- 
jects: sources of foods; composition and 
manufacture of cereals, bread, sugars, 
alcoholic beverages ; cultivation and pre- 
servation of fruits and vegetables; com- 
position and use of meat products, fish, 
milk and dairy products; sources of 
spices and other condiments ; a chapter 
on the importance of water, and finally 
an appendix that is worth the price of 
the book to one who has pursued certain 
tables in elusive pamphlets. This ap- 
pendix gives tabulations of the composi- 
tion and food value of most of the com- 
mon foods. 

In these days of popular writing on 
scientific subjects it is worth while to 
have a book that is absolutely reliable. 
There is just enough chemistry to give a 
proper background to the student and 
not enough to discourage the layman. 
The discussions of relative value of cer- 
tain package foods are very valuable, as 
are also those on diet fads and adultera- 
tion of foods. The book is not a treatise 
on nutrition, but there are certain para- 



For Students 

and 

Laymen 



Justice 
Hughes' 
Opinions 



graphs of value to students of this sub- 
ject, notably the one on the nutritive 
value of potatoes. 

The book is one that will surely help 
to clear up popular confusion on any 
number of points. 

Winifred Stuart Gibbs. 

Charles E. Hughes 

By William L. Ransom. E. P. Dut- 
ton Company. 353 pp. Price $1.50; 
by mail of The Survey $1.60. 

For readers who re- 
vere the seclusion of 
courts of last resort 
and the withdrawal of 
judges from the cur- 
rent affairs with which 
their decisions deal, 
this book will seem an 
fi^wvO omen of evil change. 
For in it a judge pre- 
sents to the reading 
public for criticism 
and as a guide to ac- 
tion, selected decisions, excerpts from 
decisions, and dissenting opinions of a 
justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

The period covered opens on April 25, 
1910, with the appointment of Justice 
Hughes to the Supreme Court, and closes 
on June 12, 1916, with the adoption by 
the court of the last decision written 
by him, that of the case of New York 
vs. Becker. It covers, therefore, some- 
what more than half of the current de- 
cade — 1910 to 1920— and could not be 
more contemporaneous. 

No effort has been spared to make 
easy for the reader an acquaintance with 
the mind of Justice Hughes as expressed 
in his work and recorded in print. Ap- 
pendix A gives a table of opinions writ- 
ten by him for the court. Appendix B 
a table of dissents by him from the ma- 
jority opinion, with the reference in 
every case, and the dates of argument 
and rendered decision. 

An excellent index and a table of cases 
aid the reader, and among the seventeen 
chapter heads are found: National 
power over national interests; safe- 
guards against adulteration and mis- 
branding of foods and drugs ; the eight- 
hour workday and compensation for oc- 
cupational disabilities arising from trade 
risks ; the paper-box factory girl and the 
constitution (referring to the Oregon 
minimum wage case still pending before 
the Supreme Court after being argued 
in December, 1914) ; compelling choice 
between withdrawal from trades union 
membership and discharge from employ- 
ment ; the rights and industrial status of 
women; franchise obligations and vest- 
ed rights ; prejudicial restraint of trade 
and the need for certainty in the anti- 
trust acts; the case of Leo M. Frank and 
a puzzling question of national respon- 
sibility (dissenting opinion by Justices 
Holmes and Hughes) ; the "separate 
coach" law and the sleeping car; Amer- 
ica and the immigrant of today and yes- 
terday; the courts as expert agents of 
democracy. 

Chapters under less popular captions 
deal with peonage, with the powers of 
commissions and administrative depart- 
ments, and with modern interpretations 



and enlargements of the police powers. 

It is unfortunate that there appears 
to be no reference to the Danbury hat- 
ters' case. For although Justice Hughes 
seems neither to have written any of the 
decisions relating to it, nor to have dis- 
sented from any of them, the case was, 
at one stage, before the court of which 
he was a member, and his position in re- 
gard to it is a subject of speculation 
among thousands of citizens. 

The following three decisions as to 
working hours are of poignant interest 
at the moment, in relation to the recent 
federal eight-hour law for railway men : 

"The length of hours of service has 
direct relation to the efficiency of the 
human agencies upon which protection 
to life and property necessarily depends. 
This has been repeatedly emphasized in 
official reports of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, and is a matter so 
plain as to require no elaboration. In 
its power suitably to provide for the 
safety of employes and travelers, Con- 
gress was not limited to the enactment 
of laws relating to mechanical appli- 
ances, but it was also competent to con- 
sider, and to endeavor to reduce, the 
dangers incident to the strain of exces- 
sive hours of duty on the part of en- 
gineers, conductors, train despatchers, 
telegraphers, and other persons embraced 
within the class defined by the act. And 
in imposing restrictions having reason- 
able relation to this end there is no in- 
terference with liberty of contract as 
guaranteed by the Constitution. If then 
it be assumed, as it must be, that in the 
furtherance of its purposes Congress can 
limit the hours of labor of employes en- 
gaged in interstate transportation, it fol- 
lows that this power cannot be defeated 
either by prolonging the period of serv- 
ice through other requirements of the 
carriers or by the commingling of duties 
relating to interstate and intrastate op- 
erations. . . ." 

Thus spoke Justice Hughes in the case 
of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Com- 
pany against the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. In an Ohio case in- 
volving the validity of the Ohio statute 
which limited the working hours of 
women to 54 in any one week, he was 
one of a unanimous court. He wrote 
the opinion of the Supreme Court in 
Miller vs. Wilson, sustaining as reason- 
able and within the federal constitu- 
tion the California statute which re- 
stricts to 8 hours in one day and 48 
hours in one week the work of women 
in all industries except household serv- 
ice, agriculture, horticulture, viticulture, 
and the work of graduate nurses and 
pharmacists in hospitals. 

Judge Ransom has performed a sub- 
stantial service in painstakingly com- 
piling these excerpts and references, 
and social workers can follow the cam- 
paign with more enlightened under- 
standing after reading the volume. 

Florence Kelley. 

BOOKS RECEIVED 

Amfrica and the Orient. Sidney I* Onllck. 
Missionary Induration Movement. 100 pp. 
Price $.25: by mall of The Si-rvey $.30. 

American Pervte. rart I. Colonial. State 
and National Rights, 1761-1861. Bv Marlon 
Mills Miller. O. P. Putnam's Sons. 417 pp 
Price $2 : by mall of The Sirvey S2.1S. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



55 



American Debate. Part II. The Land and 
Slavery Questions, 1607-1860. By Marion 
Mills Miller. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 467 pp. 
Price $2 ; by mail of The Survey $2.18. 

A Brief History of Panics and their Period- 
ical Occurrence in the United States. 
By Clement Juglar. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
189 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The Survey 
$1.09. 

Charles E. Hughes. By William L. Ransom. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. 353 pp. Price $1.50; 
by mail of The Survey $1.60. 

The Chorus. By Sylvia Lynd. E. P. Dutton 
& Co. 311 pp. Price $1.35 ; by mail of 
The Survey $1.44. 

Clothing for Women. By Laura I. Baldt. J. 
B. Lippincott Co. 454 pp. Price $2 ; by 
mail of The Survey $2.20. 

The Commerce of Louisiana During the 
French Regime, 1699-1763. By N. M. Mil- 
ler Surrey. Longmans Green & Co., Agents. 
476 pp. Price $4 ; by mail of The Survey 
$4.18. 

Comparative Salary Data. Compiled by the 
Bureau of Municipal Research of Philadel- 
phia. 76 pp. Price $.75 ; by mail of The 
Survey $.79. 

Diseases of Occupation and Vocational Hy- 
giene. By Kober and Hanson. P. Blakiston 
Sons & Co. 918 pp. Price $8 ; by mail of 
The Survey $8.30. 

The Essentials of International Public 
Law. By Amos S. Hershey. The Macmillan 
Co. 558 pp. Price $3 ; by mail of The Sur- 
vey $3.20. 

A Frenchwoman's Notes on the War. By 
Claire DePratz. E. P. Dutton & Co. 290 pp. 
Price $1.50 ; by mail of The Survey $1.60. 

Home Care of Consumptives. By Roy L. 
French. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 224 pp. 
Price $1 ; by mail of The Survey $1.10. 

How Girls Can Help Their Country. Adapted 
from Baden-Powell's Handbook. Published 
by the Girl Scouts. 151 pp. Price $.50 ; by 
mail of The Survey $.54. 

In Slums and Society. By James Adderley. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. 302 pp. Price $1.50 ; 
by mail of The Survey $1.60. 

Jewish Disabilities in the Balkan States. 
By Max Kohler and Simon Wolf. American 
Jewish Historical Society. 169 pp. Price 
$1.50 ; by mail of The Survey $1.61. 

Julius LeVallon. By Algernon Blackwood. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. 354 pp. Price $1.50; 
by mail of The Survey $1.61. 

The Life and Times of Booker T. Washing- 
ton. By B. F. Riley. Fleming H. Revell 
Co. 301 pp. Price $1.50 ; by mail of The 
Survey $1.62. 

A Little House in War-Time. By Agnes and 
Egerton Castle. E. P. Dutton & Co. 276 
pp. Price $1.50 ; by mail of The Survey 
$1.62. 

Malice in Kulturland. By Horace Wyatt. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. 80 pp. Price $.60 ; by 
mail of The Survey $.65. 

A Manual of Fire Prevention and Fire Pro- 
tection. By Otto R. Eichel. John Wiley & 
Sons. 69 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The Sur- 
vey $1.06. 

The Memoirs of a Physician. Translated 
from the Russian by Simeon Linden. Al- 
fred A. Knopf publisher. 374 pp. Price 
$1.50 ; by mail of The Survey $1.60. 

Mohammedan Theories of Finance. By 
Nicolas P. Aghnides. Longmans, Green & 
Co., Agents. 540 pp. Price $4 ; by mail of 
The Survey $4.20. 

Moral Sanitation. By Ernest R. Groves. As- 
sociation Press. 128 pp. Price $.50 ; by mail 
of The Survey $.56. 

Nursing Problems and Obligations. By 
Sara E. Parsons. Whitcomb & Barrows. 149 
pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The Survey $1.08. 

Potential Russia. By Richard Washburn 
Child. E. P. Dutton & Co. 221 pp. Price 
$1.50 ; by mail of The Survey $1.62. 

The Problems of the Commonwealth. By 
Lionel Curtis. The Macmillan Co. 247 pp. 
Price $1.50 ; by mail of The Survey $1.60. 

The Second Folk Dance Book. By C. Ward 
Crampton. A. S. Barnes Co. 79 pp. Price 
$1.60 ; by mail of The Survey $1.73. 

The Social Survey. By Carol Aronovici. Sey- 
bert Institution. 255 pp. Price $1.25 ; by 
mail of The Survey $1.34. 

The Truth About the Theater. Stewart 
& Kidd Co. Ill pp. Price $1 ; by mail of 
The Survey $1.08. 

The War and the Soul. By Rev. R. J. Camp- 
bell. Dodd, Mead & Co. 300 pp. Price 
$1.25 ; by mail of The Survey $1.36. 

War, Science and Civilization. By William 
E. Ritter. Sherman French & Co. 125 pp. 
Price $1 ; by mail of The Survey $1.10. 

Belgians Under the German Eagle. By Jean 
Massart. E. P. Dutton & Co. 368 pp. Price 
$3.50 ; by mail of The Survey $3.64. 

Talks on Talking. By Grenville Kleiser. 
Funk & Wagnalls Co. 156 pp. Price $.75 ; 
by mail of The Survey $.82. 



Communications 



TWO SUGGESTIONS 

To the Editor: — Edith Houghton 
Hooker's article in the September 2 issue 
interested me. There are just two 
things I want to suggest after reading it. 

One is that the "single standard" of 
sexual morality is a matter of moral 
teaching and not of scientific "informa- 
tion." 

The other is that whatever a Catholic 
boy may ultimately do or be, he at least 
is under no delusion on the point. He 
knows that the standard for boy and 
girl is one and the same and if he sins 
it is not in ignorance. He is taught not 
that it is "foolish", not that it is "dan- 
gerous" but simply that it is wrong. 

And that is the first and last thing 
that needs to be' taught a boy. Nothing 
else will be of any use. When woman 
shall "gain full voice in the teachings 
of the community's public school" can 
she teach him that so that he will know 
it to be true? Thomas F. Woodlock. 
Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

THE FEDERAL WORKING AGE 

To the Editor: In Politics and the 
New Child Labor Law in your issue for 
September 30, I regret that you commit 
an error which is likely to cause more 
confusion to your readers than the note 
itself will dispel. You quote me as say- 
ing that the law prohibits interstate 
commerce in goods produced in any es- 
tablishment in which "within thirty days 
prior to the removal of such product 
therefrom children under the age of 
sixteen years have been employed or per- 
mitted to work." The word "sixteen" 
should read "fourteen," and I suggest 
that you kindly make the correction in 
an early issue. The sixteen-year age- 
limit applies only to mines and quarries. 
Owen R. Lovejoy. 

[Secretary National Child Labor Com- 
mittee.] 

New York. 

WITH APOLOGIES 

To the Editor : In The Survey for 
September 23, there is what purports to 
be a quotation by Justice Greenbaum 
from my testimony before the Strong 
commission which was investigating the 
New York state Board of Charities. It 
is a little mortifying that the fact that 
the closing sentence of this paragraph as 
it stands is absolute nonsense, without 
subject, predicate or any sort of mean- 
ing, did not suggest either to the justice 
or to the editor of The Survey a doubt 
of its authenticity. 

At any rate I would like to protest as 
earnestly as possible that neither the 
paragraph as a whole nor any single sen- 
tence in it is a correct record of my 
statement. Not having had an oppor- 
tunity to revise the record of my brief 
testimony on this subject before the 



Strong commission, I am unable to say 
whether the official reporter or some one 
else is responsible for the travesty of 
my views. 

I am not "prepared to say that the day 
of private institutions" has "gone past 
forever," whether "in relation to the 
civic corporation" or in any other rela- 
tion. I have never thought so. I could 
not possibly have said so. I have never 
in print or in speech referred to a "well 
organized Catholic interest," without at 
the same time and in the same connection 
referring to similarly organized Jewish 
and Protestant "interests." 

I believe and have always believed in 
the usefulness of and the necessity for 
private institutions for children and pri- 
vate hospitals. I believe that these pri- 
vate hospitals and private institutions 
should be supported by voluntary con- 
tributions and endowments and not by 
taxation. 

When the private institutions, whether 
independently or organized in a common 
body, oppose the normal development of 
public hospitals and institutions, when 
they put obstacles in the way of adequate 
appropriations for municipal depart- 
ments, when they seek to discredit state 
and municipal agencies in the interests 
of maintaining and extending the system 
of subsidized institutions — or, if it is 
preferred — in the interest of the system 
of contract payments to private institu- 
tutions, then their influence is pernicious 
and their policy is legitimately! open 
to attack. 

To oppose such policies and to advo- 
cate state institutions, supported by tax- 
ation and managed by public officials, is 
not in any sense an attack on institutions 
as such and is no indication even of un- 
friendliness to them. I have always 
deprecated attacks on individuals and on 
institutions. Policies and measures are 
fair subjects for discussion. 

Private "reformatories" for adults 
are, I think, objectionable on grounds 
which do not apply to hospitals or chil- 
dren's institutions, and I would be very 
glad to be able to say that the day of 
such reformatories, whether subsidized 
or not, has gone by. 

Edward T. Devine. 

New York. 

HOME ECONOMICS 

To the Editor : I was glad to read 
in Robert A. Woods' letter in The Sur- 
vey for September 9, the following ex- 
pression of opinion which, coming from 
him, has peculiar significance and is most 
encouraging to me personally : "For more 
than a generation there has been a stead- 
ily increasing convergence upon the home 
as the vital focal point at which all sound 
beginnings of every sort of helpful serv- 
ice should be made." 

May I call the attention of the readers 
of The Survey to a course of twelve 



56 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 14, 1916 



lectures on the Art of Spending to be 
given under the auspices of the Commit- 
tee on Home Economics of the National 
Special Aid Society at its offices, 259 
Fifth avenue New York city? Lectures 
will be given Mondays and Fridays at 
3.30 p.m., beginning October 9. 

The committee hopes soon to open a 
library of home economics free to all. 
The books are being given through the 
generosity of the publishers. 

New York. Annie Nathan Meyer. 



q 



JOTTINGS 



The Ohio State Industrial Commission 
has appointed Charles Arndt, former busi- 
ness agent of the Pattern-Makers' Union, 
head of the State-City Free Labor Ex- 
change. His city title is commissioner of 
labor and immigration. 



The endowment for an international hos- 
pital in Tokio, Japan [See The Survey for 
March 20, 1915], has been completed. The 
American Council of St. Luke's Hospital 
announce a fund of $500,000 for the hospital 
and a department of research in Oriental 
diseases. 

President Wilson announced last week 
his appointments to the board which is to 
investigate the operation of the eight-hour 
day on the railroads: Maj.-Gen. George W. 
Goethals, E. E. Clark of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission and George Rublee of 
the federal Trade Commission. 



The City Club of Kansas City, Mo., has 
called upon the governor of the state to 
institute an investigation of the state prison 
at Jefferson City by the State Board of 
Charities and Correction. The conditions 
disclosed by private investigators and form- 
er inmates are alleged to reveal "a situation 
intolerable to a civilized people." The club's 
request of the governor calls not only for 
immediate action, but for the formula- 
tion of a permanent policy for prison 
administration which will bring the penal 
institutions of the state up to the highest 
modern standards. 



A special edition of the Greenwich, Conn., 
Press, the Sanitary Supplement, was issued 
on September 28 by the Health Defense 
Guard, an organization of women to co- 
operate with the Health Department during 
the epidemic of infantile paralysis. 

At least five of the supplement's six 
pages are filled with readable and pointed 
paragraphs. The weak points in Green- 
wich's sanitary conditions are specifically 
indicated ; such as the need for a municipal 
bathing beach with toilet facilities, proper 
screening against flies, — and above all, the 
cooperation of citizens in voluntary obedi- 
ence to the sanitary code. 



In response to the proclamation of the 
President of the United States appointing 
Saturday and Sunday, October 21 and 22, 
as days for the relief of the suffering 
Armenian and Syrian peoples, the Federal 
Council of the Churches of Christ in 
America has issued an appeal to all of the 
Churches of the thirty constituent bodies 
of the Federal Council, urging that Sun- 
day, October 22, be set apart for interces- 
sion in behalf of these races. The Council 
will send to all the pastors of its constitu- 
ency material for use in presenting this 
cause to the people and recommends that 
contributions at all the services on that 
day, be secured for distribution through 
the American Committee for Armenian 
and Syrian Relief. 



New York's Municipal Employment Bu- 
reau will be abandoned if the Board 
of Estimate and Apportionment accepts 
the recommendation made by a sub- 
committee of the Committee on Bud- 
get. The sub-committee, which consists 
of representatives of responsible city 
officials, and upon which there is no mem- 
ber of the Budget Committee itself, recom- 
mended the abandonment of the bureau as 
a measure of economy. Representatives of 
the mayor and comptroller on the board 
were in favor of continuing the bureau. 
One argument in favor of abolishing it was 
that the state maintains an employment 
office in the city, — in spite of the fact that 
the state office is located in Brooklyn and 
that there is no possibility of the state in- 
creasing its facilities for handling employ- 
ment for another year since its fiscal year 
begins October 1. The Mayor's Committee 
on Unemployment is marshalling the op- 
position to the report of the sub-committee. 



I Why burden your wife with the care 

I of your estate? 

1 TF you wish to appoint your wife or 

g ■*■ other woman relative as executrix and 

jj trustee under your will, why not assist 

1 her to carry the heav*/ burden by appoint- 

1 ing this company as co-executor and co- 

| trustee? 

H Your estato will thus have the advantage of the 

s personal direction which she can give, and she 

= will be relieved of the burdensome details neces- 

M sarily involved in the management of any large 

|§ estate. Also she will receive invaluable assist- 

= ance in regard to investments. 

j Our officers will be glad to confer with you re- 

s garding any trust or banking business you may 

s have in mind. 

I Bankers Trust Company 

New York 

= Bankers Trust Company 

Resources over $250,000,000 Building 




PAMPHLETS 



Schedule Rating for Workmen's Compen- 
sation Risks. A reason for Its introduc- 
tion, its advantages and the Method of 
Application. By Leon S. Senior. The In- 
surance Society of New York, 84 William 
street, New York city. 

National Guidance. By Frank A. Manny, 
special investigator, Bureau Welfare of 
School Children, New York Association for 
Improving the Condition of the Poor, 105 
East 22 street, New York city. 

A Star op Hope for Mexico. By Charles 
William Dabney, president, University of 
Cincinnati. Reprinted from The Outlook and 
Commerce and Finance. Latin-American 
News Association, 1400 Broadway. New York 
city. 

The Unwed Mother and Her Child. Re- 
ports and recommendations of the Cleve- 
land Conference on Illegitimacy and Its 
Committees. July, 1916. Published by the 
Cleveland Federation for Charity and Philan- 
thropy, Cleveland, Ohio. 

School Nurses, Teachers, and Parents. Need 
of their cooperation in following up cases 
for treatment. By J. H. Berkowitz, special 
investigator, Bureau of Welfare of School 
Children, New York Association for Improv- 
ing the Condition of the Poor, 105 East 22 
street, New York city. Reprinted from the 
Modem Hospital. 

The Bethlehem Steel Company. Appeals 
to the people against the proposal to expend 
$11,000,000 of the people's money for a 
government armor plant. Republished by 
Bethlehem Steel Company, South Bethle- 
hem, Pa. 

The Fourth Dimension. By John G. Woolley. 
The American Issue Publishing Company, 
Westerville, Ohio. 

Woodrow Wilson and Social Justice. By 
the Democratic National Committee, 30 East 
42 street. New York city. 

Wilson and the Issues. By George Creel. 
Published by the Century Company, 353 
Fourth avenue, New York city. September. 
1916. 

President Wilson's Polict of Neutrality. 
Address of Hon. Martin H. Glynn, tempor- 
ary chairman of the National Democratic 
Convention. Reprinted from the Congres- 
sionnl Record. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. 

Industrial Profit Sharing and Welfare 
Work. A report of the Committee on In- 
dustrial Welfare, Chamber of Commerce, 
Cleveland. 

Memorial Addresses in Honor of Db. Booker 
T. Washington. The trustees of the John 
F. Slater Fund. Occasional papers, No. 17. 
Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va. 

Massachusetts Society for Mental Hygiene, 
Its Aims and Purposes. Publication No. 1. 
Massachusetts Society for Mental Hygiene, 
Inc., Room 313 Ford bldg., 15 Ashburton 
place, Boston. 

The Burden of Feeble-Mindedness. Br Wal- 
ter E. Fernald. M.D. Publication No. 4. 
Massachusetts Society for Mental Hygiene, 
Inc., Room 313 Ford bldg., 15 Ashburton 
place, Boston. 

Legislation for the Insane in Massachu- 
setts with Particular Reference to thb 
Voluntary and Temporary Care Laws. By 
Frankwood E.. Williams. M.D. Publica- 
tion No. 5. Massachusetts Society for Mental 
Hygiene, Inc., Room 313 Ford bldg., 15 Ash- 
burton place, Boston. 

Instruction in City Schools Concerning 
THE War. By Charles E. McCorkle, Clark 
University. Worcester. Mass. Reprinted from 
the Pedagogical Seminary. 

Micromotion Studies Applied to Education. 
By A. A. Douglass and W. L. Dealer, Clark 
University. Worcester Mass. Reprinted 
from the Pedagogical Seminary. 

The Tuberculosis i'roblem in Rural Com- 
munities. Its modern aspect and the duty 
of health officers. By S. Adolphns Knopf, 
M.D. Reprint No. 243 from the Public 
Health Reports. Price 5 cents. Govern- 
ment Trlntlng Office. Washington, D. C. 

Industrial accident Commission of the 
State of California. Department of Safety, 
Mining Division. Safety Bear Letters, No. 
1, No. 2 and No. 3. Edwin Hlsrclns. chief 
mine Inspector, Room 407 Underwood bldg., 
San Francisco. 

Relating to Safety and Efficiency in Mints. 
April. 1916. Bulletin No. 1. Industrial Ac- 
cident Commission, 525 Market street. San 
Francisco. 



>'7 




U*f& / AN 



COSC920 




WHERE HEALTH AND RELIEF 
WORK STRIKE HANDS 

SO successful has the experiment of 
treating tuberculosis as a family 
problem proved, after a four-year test, 
that the Home Hospital of the New 
York Association for Impoving the Con- 
dition of the Poor has again been en- 
larged. 

The experiment resulted from experi- 
ence with many families in which pa- 
tients could not be induced to go to 
hospitals or sanatoria, and with other 
families in which there were patients 
who had returned from hospitals or sana- 
toria against the advice of physicians. 
The Home Hospital was accordingly or- 
ganized. There families with tuberculous 
patients were placed in model tenements 
and treated as a unit, with complete 
medical and nursing supervision. [See 
The Survey for February 7, 1914.] 

Four years ago, the hospital had about 
twenty families ; two years ago, forty 
families and the present plans of the 
association will make it possible to care 
for about eighty families of four hun- 
dred individuals. About one-third of the 
number of individuals admitted are posi- 
tive cases of tuberculosis and another 
third are in the suspect class. 

The satisfactory experience of thus 
dealing with these families has led to a 
careful examination of the treatment of 
the many families under the association's 
care outside of the Home Hospital in 
which there are cases of tuberculosis. It 
was found there were 338 such families. 
Included in these families were 696 
adults, and 1,077 children, or a total of 
1,773 individuals; and among them were 
known to be 290 tuberculous adults and 
248 tuberculous children. Doubtless a 
more rigid examination would disclose 
many other suspect cases. 

These families have all come to the 
association for relief. But experience at 
the Home Hospital has emphasized more 
than ever the impossibility of consider- 
ing the relief problem in such families as 
other than a subordinate part of the more 
important health problem involved. The 
association has therefore during the past 
summer entirely reorganized its method 
of dealing with these families. Instead 



of relying on its regular lay relief visi- 
tors, it has placed them all under the 
care and supervision of nurses who have 
had training at the Home Hospital or 
are closely in touch with its methods 
of work. Upon these nurses, in coopera- 
tion with the tuberculosis clinics of the 
city, is placed the responsibility for deal- 
ing with both relief and health in these 
families. 

Arrangements are made for a careful 
physical examination of every member 
of each family, and an individual medi- 
cal record blank is kept in addition to 
the usual relief record of the family. 
The nurses are devoting their entire 
time to this work. 

This reorganization has already re- 
sulted in more effective cooperation with 
clinics and in securing more definite re- 
sults in dealing with the family prob- 
lem as a whole. Incidentally, it has in- 
creased the amount of relief which the 
association is obliged to spend for fami- 
lies in which there is tuberculosis, but 
experience has proved that good public 
health work costs money. 



A MISERABLE CHRISTMAS 

or 

A MERRY CHRISTMAS? 



In planning a merry Christmas for your 
friends, do not let it mean a miserable 
Christmas to those less fortunate than you. 



T 



HOUSANDS of worl 
taught by bitter experi 
mas with dread. 



in every city have been 
to look forward to Christ- 



Every shop girl knows that the coming Christmas season 
will mean to her an immense amount of extra work, of nervous 
strain and exhaustion. 

The great army of workers whom you do not see — the 
bundle wrappers, drivers and errand boys — look forward to 
Christmas as a hateful time of undeserved effort and hardship. 

Is this your conception of the day? A very little unselfish- 
ness on your part will greatly lighten the burden of these work- 
ing people. Merely do your Christmas shopping 
early — early in the month, and early in the day. 

By so doing, you will not only relieve the shop girls and errand 
boys of the necessity of serving you at the last moment, but you 
will escape the annoyance of finding that the very gifts you most 
desired have already been sold. 

Carry this message on to your friends and let them see how 
much a little prompt action on their part will mean to a great 
many people less fortunate than they. 

When you are making your Christmas plans do not forget 
the patient workers in the shops. It may help you to help them 
if you will remember these words: 

"Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least 
of these my brethren, ye have done it unto Me." 



THE EARLY BIRD OF EARLY CHRISTMAS 
SHOPPING 



SETTING A MARK IN PUBLIC 
COOPERATION 

THE opening of the Chicago and 
Cook County School for Boys 
closes a long struggle to secure the bet- 
ter care and place of detention for de- 
linquent boys. 

Before the Juvenile Court was estab- 
lished, the county jail and the city 
House of Correction, as well as the 
police stations, constituted more of a 
schooling in crime than a chance for re- 
formation, despite the good intentions 
of many of the officials. Although the 
Juvenile Court probation system has been 
adequate to deal with the largest pro- 
portion of the court's wards, yet there 
have always been enough of them to 
overcrowd the detention home, located 
in the original Juvenile Court building. 
Until a year or more ago, therefore, it 
was necessary to continue to send boys 
needing detention to that department of 
the House of Correction known as the 
John Worthy School. 

The increasing public agitation over 
this necessity, four years ago, resulted 
in one of those successful cooperative 
efforts for which Chicago is noteworthy. 
In it participated a City Council com- 
mittee, headed by the secretary of the 
Police Department, who proved to be the 
promoter of the enterprise, the superin- 
tendent of the House of Correction, the 
county judge and board of commission- 
ers, the Board of Education, the Ju- 
venile Court, the Special Park Commis- 
sion and many private citizens and 
voluntary agencies. 

The Park Commission transferred the 
"Gage Farm" of 240 acres, which had 
been conveyed to the city thirty-five 
years ago by a private citizen. The 
Board of Education erected the school 
building by an appropriation of $75,000. 
The citizens voted a bond issue of $60,- 
000 to build a dormitory and superin- 
tendent's residence. Cook county as- 
sumes the expense of equipping and 
maintaining the school, which is con- 
ducted as a public school with one of 
the most experienced principals as su- 
perintendent. 

The opening occasion elicited equally 
hearty congratulations from the repre- 



57 



58 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, 1916 



sentative officials, school men and pri- 
vate citizens, both women and men who 
shared the joy of inaugurating this be- 
ginning of a new era in Chicago's deal- 
ings with delinquent boys and who had 
as much satisfaction in ending the bad 
old times and evil ways which have per- 
sisted so long. 

FIRST STUDIES ON THE 
PARALYSIS EPIDEMIC 

THAT the autumn grist of summer 
studies on poliomyelitis is coming 
to the mill was proved by the "lessons to 
the pediatrist from the recent epidemic" 
discussed at the New York Academy of 
Medicine on October 12. Reports from 
students of every aspect of the prob- 
lem — diagnosis, clinical and laboratory ; 
hospital care; cause of the disease and 
modes of transmission; treatment and 
after-care — showed how intense had been 
the application to the problem, how 
baffling is the problem still. The topic 
might have been announced as, what we 
have set out to learn about poliomyelitis. 

Without following strictly the speakers 
in order, here is, in brief, a summary of 
the points discussed : Perhaps the most 
difficult problem is to find a sure means 
of early diagnosis. When paralysis oc- 
curs, the thing is obvious. But when the 
child is drowsy, has a slight "cold," is 
irritable when disturbed, how be sure 
that here are "polio" symptoms, and not 
the symptoms of several other less seri- 
ous diseases? One practical test em- 
phasized was, that when a child's discom- 
fort far exceeded any discoverable ade- 
quate causes, the case should be sus- 
pected. 

Experience had taught Dr. DuBois and 
other workers at Willard Parker Hospi- 
tal that laboratory analysis alone would 
not afford a reliable diagnosis. Thus 
far, through hundreds of tests, it has 
been impossible to distinguish the spinal 
fluid in certain conditions of poliomyeli- 
tis from that in certain other diseases. 
But Dr. Draper of Rockefeller Institute 
believed that if records were kept of the 
very hour of a lumbar puncture — not of 
the day only — that the fluids earlier 
drawn would be found to contain dis- 
tinctive characteristics in comparison 
with those taken later. 

But more and more the conviction has 
deepened that the time of spreading in- 
fection is the early days or hours of the 
attack, no matter which form it assumes. 
Hence the importance of providing for 
the general practitioner a means of di- 
agnosis in the pre-paralytic stage. Com- 
missioner Emerson emphasized this point 
also, from the angle of the Department 
of Health. "You can't compel a man to 
report a case that he doesn't believe is 
'polio'," he said. "Find these early cases, 
and diagnose them and report them." 

An interesting confirmation of the 
value of hosptial care is afforded by the 
comparative records of boroughs of New 
York city in which cases were sent 



promptly to hospitals and those in which 
cases were kept at home. In Richmond, 
Staten Island and Queens the children 
were at home. The districts are largely 
residence sections, with separate houses 
and open spaces. Yet the incidence rate 
has been higher here in proportion to the 
population than in Brooklyn or Manhat- 
tan, where hospitals were very general- 
ly used. The value of hospitalization is 
undoubtedly in part the strict isolation 
of cases. 

"There are three communities that 
have not been touched by the epidemic," 
said Commissioner Emerson. "One is 
Governor's Island. Here conditions are 
excellent. Sanitation is perfect; streets 
are clean. There have been no cases 
among the hundred or sp children there. 
Another place is Barren Island. Here is 
neither water-supply nor sewers. Roads 
are very bad. Garbage is abundant. 
Dead animals are sent there. Flies are 
there in droves. Also smells. But 
among the 300 children on Barren Island 
have occurred no poliomyelitis cases. 
And the third group is the 3,000 and 
more children in the city's institutions. 
Among all these are only one or two 
suspects isolated for observation." 

That the present epidemic was not 
greatly different from other outbreaks, 
abroad and in this country, except in 
numbers, is one of the conclusions which 
the doctors of the federal Public Health 
Service are reaching. Some of the diffi- 
culties and apparent contradictions met 
in the epidemiological work on "polio" 
were mentioned by Dr. C. H. Lavinder — 
why, for instance, does the endemic 
type of "polio" suddenly become epi- 
demic? New York had about 50 cases 
last year; why has it 9,000 this year? 

Most studies tend to confirm the car- 
rier theory — that through the missed 
case, or the light case, or even the per- 
son who is apparently not ill at all, in- 
fection is spread. And yet if spread de- 
pends on human contact, why is the "sea- 
sonal prevalence" greater in summer 
time, rather than in winter? Again, in 
age incidence — is the apparent immunity 
of some children due to earlier light and 
unsuspected attacks? And what is the 
period of infectivity, or the time over 
which a case may continue to spread in- 
fection? The task of collecting all 
records of possible sources and means of 
the spread of infection in every case, had 
not yet been completed, he said. Their 
interpretation will be published later by 
the Public Health Service. 

How varied are the forms under which 
paralysis appears, was also emphasized. 
One group of workers assigned to labora- 
tory analysis duty on Long Island, ex- 
claimed after a fortnight's experience, 
"But we came down here to study para- 
lytic cases !" Their work focused upon 
the pre-paralytic stage. One vagary of 
"polio" was illustrated by Dr. Shaw of 
the State Board of Health, who told how 
exclusively among poorer people the out- 
break had been in one city, and iust as 



exclusively among millionaire families in 
another. 

Much of the discussion was technical. 
But nevertheless, a listener at such a 
meeting gains a new idea of the magni- 
tude and variety of the doctor's task, 
and of the determination with which he 
is attacking it. 

HOW THE SALVAGE OF 
POLIO CASES PROCEEDS 

DURING the epidemic of infantile 
paralysis in New York last sum- 
mer, more than 9,000 children were sick 
with that disease, and a large proportion 
were cared for in various hospitals of 
the city. When the first few con- 
valescents were discharged, some were 
taken home ; some were provided for in 
the convalescent home provided by the 
Henry Street Settlement and the Neu- 
stadter Foundation. [See The Survey 
for July 29.] 

But in September, the numbers of chil- 
dren being discharged passed the ability 
of any one existing society to provide 
for. More than 2,800 had lived through 
the attack and had come back to life only 
to face the possibility of lasting de- 
formity. For, if there is one fact in this 
disease about which there is no differ- 
ence of opinion, it is that only the most 
exact and unremitting after-care will re- 
store the affected muscles to their nor- 
mal use and save the child from becom- 
ing a cripple. 

This after-care means abundant food 
of just the right kind ; scientific manipu- 
lation of the loosened joints and drop- 
ping hands or feet; rest at just the right 
angle for the weakened back, on the 
softest of supports. And all this through 
a period of months surely, perhaps for 
several years. 

The amount of work involved and the 
costliness of such care are problems at 
once obvious. But further, granted that 
gifts to dispensaries and nursing associa- 
tions would meet the demands for medi- 
cines, food and apparatus, how insure 
that hundreds of mothers know where 
the nearest dispensary is, or knowing, 
faithfully use its aid; that each nursing 
association knows of every case return- 
ing to its district ; that the parting in- 
structions of the hospital are clearly 
understood by parents, often foreign, 
usually unlettered ; and finally, how pre- 
vent a break in the records of all these 
cases? A large interruption would ren- 
der futile the case histories begun, and 
lose material invaluable for scientific 
study of the epidemic of 1916. 

The crisis has been met by a remark- 
able clearing-house organization, the 
New York Committee on After-Care 
for Cases of Infantile Paralysis, which 
grips hands with hospitals and with the 
Department of Health and visiting 
nurses. Its aim is twofold: to care 
adequately for every child that has been 
ill with poliomyelitis; to keep a perfect 
record of everv case as material for 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, ipi6 



59 



later study. Its method of realizing 
this aim is, first, through a free in- 
formation bureau; second, through a 
complete registry in charge of a trained 
statistician, and containing every detail 
of every case from "onset" to cure; 
third, through active cooperation with 
the Department of Health and all nurs- 
ing organizations, as well as with a 
specially organized group of club women 
who provide automobiles for transport- 
ing children to and from dispensaries 
for treatment. 

At the head of this important and far- 
extending work are Thomas J. Riley, of 
the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities, chair- 
man ; Oliver H. Bartine, superintendent 
of the Hospital for Ruptured and 
Crippled Children; James A. Perkins, 
of the National City Bank, treasurer, 
and Dr. Donald E. Baxter, general 
director. From Dr. Baxter the facts 
in this account have been received. 
Here, for example is the daily routine. 

As soon as a case is discharged from 
the hospital or quarantine is terminated, 
the Department of Health sends to the 
parents a notice urging the importance 
of after-care for the child and describ- 
ing exactly the weakness which in this 
case must be guarded against. This 
notice includes a list of orthopedic hospi- 
tals and dispensaries in the city. At the 
same time a notice is sent also to Dr. 
Baxter, containing full details — date of 
onset, what treatment was followed in 
the hospital, the present condition of the 
child. 

This report becomes part of the perma- 
nent record at headquarters of the com- 
mittee for after-care. Word is tele- 
phoned to the nursing supervisor of the 
district in which the child lives, and a 
nurse goes to verify the address and 
report on the child's condition. All this 
within a few hours. 

Arrangements are then made by the 
nurse for the child's further treatment, 
either at an orthopedic dispensary or in 
an institution for convalescent hospital 
care. It was estimated recently that ful- 
ly 600 children will need this institu- 
tional treatment ; fully 2,400 the dis- 
pensary aid. This is considered a most 
conservative estimate. 

Meantime, until the plans are in actual 
operation and the after-treatment has 
been begun, the nurse continues her 
visits as frequently as possible. To avoid 
duplicating efforts and wasting energy, 
the city has been divided into four large 
districts, and one nursing organization 
in each is responsible for the work in 
that section. All cases in Brooklyn, 
where the scourge was heaviest, are re- 
ferred to the Brooklyn Committee on 
Crippled Children ; cases in lower Man- 
hattan, to the Association for the Aid of 
Crippled Children ; cases in upper east 
Manhattan and the Bronx, to the Bureau 
of Educational Nursing; cases elsewhere 
in Manhattan and in Richmond and 
Queens, to the Henry Street (Nurses') 
Settlement. 



The nurse goes to the home again to 
make sure that instructions are being 
carried out. Duplicates of all cards of 
admission to hospital or dispensary and 
fortnightly reports from these institu- 
tions concerning attendance and progress 
of the case, all go back to the headquar- 
ters. So the after-care is begun, a fol- 
low-up system started, and data accumu- 
lated, which when organized and inter- 
preted later, will doubtless give valuable 
clues to causes and cures. 

Indeed, a distinct feature of the 1916 
epidemics has been the strict record- 
keeping by reports, charts of dot and 
line, systems of maps that bristled with 
pins large and small and of all colors — 
or any other method that might ultimate- 
ly answer the queries, whence ? and how ? 
In 1907, the disease was not even report- 
able. Cases were not removed to hospi- 
tals, there were few records of any kind 
and all figures of that time are but esti- 
mates. 

Besides their final significance, these 
permanent records have, too, an immedi- 
ate value. At the headquarters is an in- 
formation bureau, and how it works may 
be shown concretely. 

On one of the first days of the com- 
mittee's work, a woman telephoned: "My 
friend's little boy had the 'polio' and it 
left him blind and deaf. Please see if 



you know about the case and can you do 
something to help him?" The discharge 
notice of this boy was quickly found, 
and a nurse notified to take up the case. 
In about an hour the machinery of after- 
care was in running order. 

Again, a woman called to tell of her 
little niece, both of whose legs were 
paralyzed. The clinic to which she had 
been referred, was about a mile from her 
home, the child was heavy to carry, and 
the mother found it impossible to go regu- 
larly. The aunt thought the child was 
being neglected. Could the committee 
help her to find a nearer place where she 
could get the proper treatment for the 
child? A nearer clinic was found and a 
transfer promptly followed. 

A young Italian man, mystified by the 
instructions given him when his boy was 
discharged from the hospital, came for 
advice because he had read in the papers 
that the committee could help the chil- 
dren. His delighted astonishment to find 
his boy's name on the records was 
equalled only by his satisfaction at the 
assurance that a nurse had been told 
about him and would visit his boy within 
twenty-four hours. 

Another pathetic case was that of a 
mother who called, carrying her little 
boy of five years, whose legs were both 
paralyzed. She wanted advice as to 




DEAF AND BLIND POULTRYMEN 



s 



O-CALLED practical poultry-raisers have little use for the Philo 
system, but here are eight Philo coops that are making good at the 
Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind at Colorado Springs, Colo. The 
plan is said to have distinct advantages for those who must raise poultry 
in a small back lot. Each coop is designed to accommodate six laying 
hens. Bessie Sawyer has won the distinction of making the largest profit 
in one month of all the members of the Poultry Association at the school. 
She cleared $3.49 on her coop of six hens. Frank Pierce got a larger 
number of eggs than Bessie, but Bessie proved herself a better business 
manager. She obtained a contract with W . K. Argo, superintendent of the 
school, who was to take all her eggs at 60 cents a dozen until he notified 
her of a change in the price. Mr. Argo forgot to tell Bessie when the 
market price had dropped and consequently paid the 60 cents a dozen after 
the price had gone down to fifty cents 



6o 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, 1916 



where she could put her child while she 
went out to work. Her husband was 
with the army in Mexico and she had 
been able to support herself and child 
until he became sick and needed her at 
home. She had lived in Brooklyn, but 
thought maybe the nurses could not find 
her in New York because at the hospital 
she was frightened and gave her maiden 
name. She was much pleased when the 
committee's records were able to identify 
her and bring a nurse again in touch 
with her. 

Not all parents are so alert for the 
best good of their little convalescents. 
One mother whose child, stricken by 
paralysis, had been long detained in the 
hospital, uttered the frantic prayer: "O 
God, let me keep my child ! Paralyze 
both his legs if you want to — do anything 
you choose — but only let me have my 
child !" Such passive acceptance of dis- 
ability makes doubly important a careful 
following up of the patients, to arouse 
interest in the further treatment as well 
as to see that instructions are actually 
being obeyed. 

A problem that soon arose in the com- 
mittee's experience was this: Very many 
children who could be treated at dispen- 
saries were so helpless from effects of the 
paralysis that it was almost impossible 
to move them to a dispensary and back. 
And if there were no nearer dispensary, 
there was danger that the child would be 
neglected. To provide transportation for 
these cases and so insure a regular at- 
tendance and treatment, a group of one 
hundred women from many clubs of the 
city and the state organized the Sick 
Children's Transfer Society. The so- 
ciety furnishes funds to pay for trans- 
portation whenever necessary and some 
members lend their automobiles. Many 
other sympathetic citizens also lend their 
cars for use under the committee's di- 
rection. 

Still another branch of the committee's 
work has been the three weeks of special 
clinics for teaching muscle-training to 
physicians and nurses who are working 
with convalescent paralysis cases. The 
lessons are given by Miriam T. Sweeney, 
of the Boston Children's Hospital. Miss 
Sweeney has worked under the direction 
of Dr. R. W. Lovett. 

POLITICS IN MARYLAND'S 
PENAL BOARD 

A PROMISING opportunity to re- 
vamp Maryland's whole correc- 
tional system may be lost because of the 
character of appointments made by Gov- 
ernor Harrington. The opportunity was 
presented by a law which took effect 
October 1 and which created a new 
Penal Board to supplant the boards of 
directors of the House of Correction and 
the penitentiary. 

One of the instructions to the board is 
to select, if possible, a practicable plan 
for employing prisioners as an alterna- 
tive to the contract labor system now in 



force, or, failing that, to report its find- 
ings to the governor and legislature. It 
is authorized also to use its discretion in 
transferring prisoners from the peni- 
tentiary to the House of Correction or 
vice versa. 

The appointments to the board com- 
prise two Democrats and one Republi- 
can. One of these has been connected 
with the penitentiary as member of its 
board of trustees, one has a brother in- 
terested in prison reform and one is 
chairman of the Democratic State Cen- 
tral Committee. It is announced that 
the chairman of the state central com- 
mittee will resign his political office im- 
mediately after election to avoid the im- 
propriety of holding that job and mem- 
bership on the Penal Board simultane- 
ously. He has also served on the Ad- 
visory Board of Parole of the state. 

One of the first acts of the new board 
was to reappoint as superintendent of the 
House of Correction a man who had been 
previously discharged and who had no 
ostensible professional training. The ap- 
pointment is regarded by social workers 
in Maryland as purely political. For- 
tunately Warden Leonard of the peni- 
tentiary., who is deemed a valuable 
officer, was politically acceptable and was 
retained. 

Governor Harrington based his selec- 
tion of the present incumbents partly on 
the ground that they "have high ideals 
in prison reform" and "are not faddists." 
"I am in full sympathy," he said, "with 
the movement toward the kind treat- 
ment of prisoners and their reform, if 
possible, and fully believe in the idea 
of giving convicts, whenever reasonable, 
a second chance to make good." 

THE SPREADING MOVEMENT 
FOR BIRTH CONTROL 

BIRTH control leagues have been or- 
ganized or are reported in process 
of formation in Boston, Cleveland, Ann 
Arbor, Chicago, St. Louis, Los Angeles, 
San Francisco. Portland, Ore., Seattle, 
Detroit, Racine, Wis., Milwaukee, St. 
Paul, Minneapolis, Spokane, Denver, 
Indianapolis, Washington, D. C, and 
Pittsburgh. Plans are being formulated 
for a convention of delegates from these 
cities for the purpose of forming a na- 
tional federation, and a national organ, 
the Birth Control Revieiv, with offices 
at 104 Fifth avenue, New York city, is 
about to make its appearance with 
Frederick A. Blossom as managing 
editor. 

Cleveland was one of the first cities 
in this country to develop a thoroughly 
organized birth control movement. Two 
public addresses by Margaret Sanger on 
her tour across the country last summer, 
led to the formation of a league which 
drew into its membership doctors, nurses, 
social workers, clergymen and others in- 
terested in social problems. Mr. Blos- 
som, the business manager of the Cleve- 
land Associated Charities, resigned his 



position in order to accept the presidency 
and give his whole time to it. Four 
miniters are on its executive committee 
and one is vice-president of the league. 

A weekly public luncheon held during 
the summer increased in attendance un- 
til larger quarters had to be secured. 
The Cleveland Congress of Mothers, 
after a discussion of the question of 
family limitation, unanimously voted its 
approval of the movement. The 
mothers' club of one of the most active 
churches in the city, at a birth control 
meeting that filled the church, voted to 
assist the league in every possible way. 
A favorable hearing was also had before 
the Cuyahoga county Women's Christian 
Temperence Union, in the chapel of the 
Young Women's Christian Association. 
A score of men and women have volun- 
teered their services and the Federation 
for Charity and Philanthropy has listed 
them in its booklet issued to organ za- 
tions seeking speakers on social topics. 
Meetings in Cleveland and adjoining 
towns booked for the coming winter, 
include church societies, civic and fra- 
ternal organizations, the Council of So- 
ciology and women's clubs. Ten thou- 
sand copies of a leaflet containing 
articles by local physicians, social work- 
ers and clergymen have been distributed 
and a second edition is just off the press. 

In Portland, Ore., clashes with the au- 
thorities led to the arrest of Mrs. Sanger, 
a local physician and five others for dis- 
tributing leaflets. Hundreds of letters 
and telegrams were received protesting 
against their arrest and when the cases 
came to trial the accused were let off 
with a suspended sentence or a nominal 
fine. Today birth control information is 
said to be disseminated in Portland more 
generally than in any other city in the 
country. A quiet house-to-house canvass 
is being carried on to reach mothers of 
the working class. 

The center of agitation has now been 
transferred to Boston, chiefly, perhaps, 
because of legal prosecution. A young 
newspaper man, graduate of Columbia 
University, Van Kleeck Allison, re- 
printed in his monthly magazine, the 
Flame, an article on birth control by Dr. 
W. J. Robinson, which had appeared in 
the latter's Critic and Guide. The article 
argued the case for family limitation 
without giving any medical instruction 
whatever. Allison was called upon 
shortly thereafter by a detective who. 
posing as a workingman with an invalid 
wife and a family too large for his 
means, asked for and obtained a leaflet 
giving contraceptive advice. Allison 
was arrested and received a prison 
tence of three years. 

The case has been appealed and a vig- 
orous agitation in Allison's behalf is be- 
ing conducted by the Massachusetts 
Birth Control League. Charles Zeublin 
is president of the league which numbers 
among its members several clergymen, 
professors at Harvard and Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology and s< 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER zi, 1916 



61 



workers. A protest meeting addressed 
by Mrs. Sanger which crowded the Ma- 
jestic Theater has been followed by a 
series of minor gatherings, culminating 
in a mass meeting at Faneuil Hall at 
which, speeches were made by Laura 
Garrett, Ida Rauh, now under indict- 
ment for distributing birth control leaf- 
lets in New York city, and Dr. Ira S. 
Wile of the New York city Board of 
Education. An effort is now being made 
to raise a defense fund of five thousand 
dollars to fight the Allison case through 
to the Supreme Court, if necessary, and 
plans are being made to organize the 
movement throughout the state. An in- 
itial meeting for this purpose held in 
Springfield was attended by over fifty 
clergymen. 

Interest among medical men is indi- 
cated by the recent resolution adopted at 
a meeting of physicians under the juris- 
diction of the Iowa State Board of Con- 
trol and by the fact that the American 
Public Health Association is to discuss 
the subject at its forty-fourth annual 
meeting in Cincinnati next week. 

And last week birth control was, for 



the first time, made the subject of a ju- 
dicial opinion. In the Court of General 
Sessions, New York city, Judge William 
H. Wadhams suspended sentence upon 
a woman, mother of six children, who 
had pleaded guilty to a charge of burg- 
lary, her second offense. His investiga- 
tion showed, the judge declared, that the 
mother had made a hard but unsuccess- 
ful attempt to support her children since 
the father had been driven from his 
work in garment making five years ago. 
Meantime, two of the children had been 
born. Said Judge Wadhams: 

"Her husband is not permitted by the 
authorities to work because of his be- 
ing ill with tuberculosis. It would be 
dangerous for him to work on children's 
garments. It might spread the consump- 
tion to the innocents. There is a law 
against that. As a result of this law the 
husband has had no work for four years. 

"Nevertheless, he goes on producing 
children who have very little chance 
under the conditions to be anything but 
tubercular, and, themselves growing up, 
repeat the process with society. There is 
no law against that. 

"But we have not only no birth regu- 



lation in such cases, but if information 
is given with respect to birth regulation 
people are brought to the bar of justice 
for it. There is a law they violate. The 
question is whether we have the most 
intelligent law on this subject we might 
have. These matters are regulated bet- 
ter in some of the old countries, particu- 
larly in Holland, than they are in this 
country. 

"I believe we are living in an age of 
ignorance, which at some future time 
will be looked upon aghast." 

Commenting on the decision editorial- 
ly, the New York World said: 

"Whether or not one agrees with it, 
such an opinion from the bench in effect 
lifts up and dignifies a topic that has 
mostly come in for surreptitious discus- 
sion. It is at best a delicate topic and 
one needing to be treated with a certain 
reserve. Yet it is a topic to which so- 
ciety can no longer close its eyes. And 
in the circumstances it is preferable to 
have it discussed frankly and without 
the half-secrecy in which lay its worst 
element of danger." 

The mother of six on whom sentence 
was suspended is in charge of a charit- 
able society. 



The Explosion at Bayonne 

By "John A. Fitch 



THREE people dead, a dozen or 
so in the city hospital badly 
wounded, property destroyed, in- 
nocent people brutally assulted — that is 
the situation in Bayonne, N. J., after 
two weeks of the strike of the employes 
of the Standard Oil Company refineries. 
The strike had been in effect less than 
twenty-four hours before there were 
battles between strikers and the police. 
Bricks were thrown and shots were 
fired. The second day of the strike a 
young woman was killed as she leaned 
out of an upper window to watch an 
encounter in the street. The next day a 
young lawyer, on business in the strike 
district, was struck by a bullet and killed. 
Then a workman, whose identity seems 
rather uncertain, was killed as he walked 
out of a saloon. 

What is it all about? What desperate 
situation lies back of it all? There are 
varying opinions, but here seems to be 
about the only documentary evidence ; 
it is the list of "demands" served on 
Supt. George B. Hennessey of the Stand- 
ard Oil Company just before the strike 
began : 

"We your employes of the various de- 
partments hereafter named, present the 
following amicable request, feeling rea- 
sonably certain that if you consider the 
condition under which we are compelled 
to work, the prices which we now are 
compelled to pay for the commodities of 
life, or rather the means of sustenance, 
you are bound to realize that our de- 
mand is fair and reasonable. 



"1st. We request an increase in all 
departments — except in the still cleaning 
department — in which wages have been 
raised and are adequate — in the follow- 
ing manner : 30 per cent increase to the 
men now making less than $3 a day, and 
20 per cent increase to the men making 
$3 a day or more. 

"2d. We request that an 8-hour day 
be adopted as a basis throughout. 

"3d. That fairness be exercised in 
discharging men and that men shall not 
be discharged without just cause. 

"4th. We request humane and decent 
treatment at the hands of foremen and 
superiors in place of the brutal kicking 
and punching we now receive without 
provocation. / 

"5th. We request twenty minutes 
time for lunch in the press department. 

"We make the above requests in a 
peaceful and amicable manner, without 
threats or violence, preferring to obtain 
what we deem is justly due us in a 
friendly and peaceful manner. We must, 
however, state that unless our request 
is granted within 48 hours, we will be 
compelled to strike." 

There is nothing in all of this sug- 
gestive of violence. On the contrary 
the emphasis is laid upon the peaceful 
and amicable spirit of the petitioners. It 
does not have the peremptory tone com- 
monly found in the demands of men who 
are ready to strike. I learned that it was 
written in Polish — most of the strikers 
are Polish — and translated by M. F. 
Trakimas, a Lithuanian photographer. I 
strongly suspected that the friendly and 



diplomatic language had been inserted by 
the gentlemanly translator. He insisted 
to me, however, that he had done nothing 
of the sort. It is, he asserts, a faithful 
translation of the original petition. 

How then shall we account for the 
violence? It has been just fifteen 
months since these same men were on 
strike. In July, 1915, Bayonne, N. J., 
attracted to itself the attention of the 
country by reason of the violence and 
bloodshed that took place during a strike 
which was finally ended by the spectacu- 
lar activity of Eugene F. Kinkead, 
sheriff of Hudson county. Six men in- 
stead of three were killed at that time. 

These two strikes within fifteen 
months seem to suggest that the workers 
of Bayonne are a particularly turbulent 
and bloodthirsty lot. And then we find 
this respectful, courteous petition, the 
basis for the present outbreak. If we 
examine it more carefully, however, 
some explanation of the existing feeling 
begins to emerge. 

The first paragraph calls attention to 
"the prices which we now are compelled 
to pay for the commodities of life or 
rather means of sustenance," and then 
the first demand is for an increase in 
wages — 30 per cent for those getting less 
than $3 a day. Here we begin to get 
some light upon the situation. There is 
always dynamite in a low wage with an 
increased cost of living. 

When the men went on strike in 1915, 
and asked for a 15 per cent advance, un- 



62 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, i 9 i6 



skilled labor, which constitutes a large 
proportion of the 5,000 odd employes of 
the Standard Oil Company in Bayonne, 
was receiving $1.75 a day. A 15 per 
cent advance would have meant for them 
$2.02 a day. They have received, it is 
said, two increases during the last year, 
and were getting when the present strike 
began $2.20. That is $688.60 for a year 
of 313 days, which is a full working year 
omitting nothing but the 52 Sundays. 
That is less than the lowest estimate that 
has been made in recent years as abso- 
lutely necessary to support a working- 
man's family. In the last month, 
furthermore, the prices of some of the 
most important necessities of life, such 
as, meat, eggs, butter, milk and bread 
have been materially advanced. 

"How do you think we can live on 
$26 in two weeks?" a wife of a striker 
wrote to a Bayonne newspaper. 

Superintendent Hennessey gave out a 
statement declaring that the wages paid 
by the Standard Oil Company were 
higher than those of any other company 
in the vicinity of Bayonne, excepting one 
company which is handling war orders. 
I have not investigated the truth of this 
statement, but even if true, it is small 
comfort to know that there are others 
worse off than you are, if you have not 
enough to live on. It may be, also, that 
the strikers had not failed to note the 
story prominently featured in all the 
papers just a few weeks ago, that on ac- 
count of the advance in the market value 
of Standard Oil stock, John D. Rocke- 
feller is now a billionaire. 

The second request is for an 8-hour 
day. Some of the men now have an 8- 
hour day, others work 9 and 10 hours, 
and some work 12, and there is a cer- 
tain amount of seven-day labor in the 
big oil plant. 

No comment is necessary on the mod- 
eration and restraint of the fourth de- 
mand : "We request humane and decent 
treatment at the hands of foremen and 
superiors in place of the brutal kicking 
and punching that we now receive with- 
out provocation." Nor can much be 
added to the fifth: "We request twenty 
minutes time for lunch in the press de- 
partment." What is the time for lunch 
now do you ask — 15 minutes, 10 minutes? 
The men on the street in Bayonne tell 
you that no time is allowed. 

These factors must be taken into con- 
sideration in trying to find an answer to 
the question of why there is violence in 
Bayonne. But such a suggestion seems 
to assume that the strikers are the ones 
who are guilty of violence. With re- 
gard to the specific cases mentioned, I 
have no information. I do not know 



who killed the young woman about to be 
a bride, or the lawyer, or the working- 
man. But I do know that violence has 
not been confined to the strikers. 

As I looked the situation over in Bay- 
onne, it seemed to me that the issue 
here is primarily one of Americanism. 
It is tremendously significant that in the 
common language of the street there are 
two classes of people in Bayonne — 
"white" men and foreigners. 

"It's just these low-class foreigners," 
a newspaper man told me. "It isn't 
peculiar to Bayonne — it's the way they 
act everywhere. You know what a terri- 
ble time they had in Paterson during the 
silk strike a few years ago. It is the 
same class of people and they act the 
same everywhere." Now, as a matter of 
fact, although there are Poles in Pater- 
son, and more than 20,000 workers were 
on strike for three or four months, there 
was less violence than there would be at 
a county fair, except as it was engaged 
in by policemen and detectives. 

I asked a group of policemen standing 
on a Bayonne corner what they thought 
about the strike. 

"You see it's this way," replied a big 
fellow with a protruding jaw, "it is just 
a case of these fellows making too much 
money. When they've got a little money 
in their pockets, they just have to get 
out and raise hell." 

That was a little too strong for an- 
other one in the group, who remarked 
somewhat apologetically, "No we are 
not saying that. These people are not 
getting enough money. It's on account 
of a lot of agitators coming in here and 
stirring up trouble among the foreign- 
ers." 

I asked a business man what he 
thought about it. "It's a case of the 
ignorant, low-class foreigner making 
trouble," he said. "This is an orderly, 
prosperous and comfortable town. Those 
fellows live over by themselves and re- 
fuse to become Americans. They live 
in dirt and filth and hoard their money." 

"It has been suggested," I said to him, 
"that that is rather a neglected part of 
Bayonne where the foreigners live, that 
unsanitary conditions prevail there, and 
that the authorities do not trouble them- 
selves about the matter." 

"Nothing to it at all," replied the busi- 
ness man, "they live there because they 
like it — they prefer that sort of thing. 
Rents are high over there, but they pre- 
fer to stay nevertheless. This is the 
first time that I have said a good word 
for the Standard Oil Company, but I am 
with them on this deal." 

The morning that I went to Bayonne, 
"order" was said to have been restored. 



The town was alive with men in police 
uniform. Not nearly all of them were 
regular policemen. They had been hur- 
riedly sworn in and given uniforms and 
badges. They had made raid after raid 
into the strike district. A leader of the 
foreign people, protesting against what 
he called the lawlessness of the police, 
took me into the district where they live 
to show how they had wrecked the 
saloons. All of the saloons had been 
ordered closed, and when some of them 
in the foreign section had continued to 
run, despite the order, the police raided 
them. 

I had supposed from the accounts in 
the papers that they had emptied the 
stock into the streets. My guide took 
me into two wrecked saloons. Broken 
bottles were piled up a foot high in the 
corners; the walls were scarred with the 
impact of the bottles that had been 
thrown against them; floors were soggy 
with the liquor that had been poured out ; 
there were even pools of it standing here 
and there ; furniture was damaged and 
electric globes and fixtures had been 
smashed. It was a scene of wanton de- 
struction of property far exceeding the 
drastic measures that doubtless were 
necessary. 

Going away from the district, I en- 
countered a moving picture operator. 
He had gone in at another point with a 
squad of police on one of the regular 
raids into strike territory for the pur- 
pose of putting respect for authority into 
the hearts of the strikers. 



"That man Cady is a bird," he said. 
"He led that bunch of cops in there and 
put everybody off the street. Nobody 
dared to say a word, or he got smashed 
over the head. A fellow was standing in 
a doorway and just made a kind of a 
face and said, 'This is a fine bunch' or 
something like that, and Cady laid him 
out with the butt of his revolver. The 
man's wife came out to the door and 
threw her arms around Cady to protect 
her husband. He just grabbed her and 
threw her back bodily through the door. 
I have a peach of a film of the whole 
thins." 



By all means let us have law and 
order ! But I wondered as I looked at 
the funeral passing up the street of the 
girl who was shot almost on the eve of 
her wedding day, as I observed the de- 
struction wrought by the police, and as 
I noted the sullen faces on the street, — 
I wondered how much had been con- 
tributed toward law and order and a 
peaceful settlement of Bayonne's next 
strike. 



MARS EXULTANT 

By Sarah Wambaugh 

I am the Master Tyrant, foe of truth. 
\nd freedom — watchwood of the mounting years. 
With cunning hand I kindle old men's fears ; 
Ruthless I take my toll of generous youth. 




STRICT NEUTRALITY AT THE RED CROSS PIER 

From every corner of America to every corner of warring Europe supplies are sent by the Red Cross. 



War Relief and the American Contributor 

By Esther E. Baldwin 

DIRECTOR BUREAU OF ADVICE AND INFORMATION OF THE NEW YORK CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY 



THE contributor to war relief 
work is dazed. He is bewild- 
ered by the multiplicity of needs 
that come to his attention by way of 
letter and newspaper appeals. He reads 
the exposures of fraudulent organiza- 
tions, and he grows a little uncertain 
about all the war relief committees. He 
does not want to stop giving, and yet 
he does not want to give blindly. 

As one contributor writes: "We feel 
as if we ought to be sacrificing ourselves 
to the utmost in order to do what little 
we can for relief, for reconciliation and 
toward reconstruction, but in our bewil- 
derment we do not do even all we might." 
At the present time the American war 
relief situation offers for analysis more 
in the way of variety in human nature 
than in uniformly available cold facts. 
There are in it happenings and develop- 
ments that are splendidly American. 
There is outstanding a generous spirit 
of personal service that is forming a 
new ideal for volunteer social service in 
this country. There are the fine in- 
stances of business organization on a 
large scale in the work of the Commis- 
sion for Relief in Belgium, the Red 
Cross, and the War Relief Clearing 
House for France and Her Allies. On 
the other hand there are the personal 
rivalries, the conflicts in methods be- 
tween different workers, and even the 



vagaries of the contributors to be taken 
into account in order to understand 
somewhat the ins and outs of the war 
relief situation. 

From New York city as the organiz- 
ing center at least 102 central commit- 
tees have been launched during the first 
twenty-four months of the war. Un- 
counted branches have been formed by 
the energy of these central committees. 
The War Relief Clearing House for 
France and Her Allies (which is com- 
monly called the Clearing House) re- 
ports that "5,000 relief organizations, 
societies, schools, churches, clubs, and 
individuals at the head of small circles 
in various parts of the United States, 
Canada, Hawaiian Islands, Cuba, and 
Bermuda" are using its free facilities 
for transferring material to France. 

If one undertakes to discuss war re- 
lief work from the point of view of five 
thousand small committees, there is no 
hope of reducing the contributor's be- 
wilderment. If, however, one goes back 
to the four elements of the relief prob- 
lem; namely, raising money, purchasing 
supplies, transferring and distributing 
material and monetary relief, it be- 
comes easier to approach an understand- 
ing of what has been done and what re- 
mains to be done by America. It be- 
comes clearer that there exists outside 
certain bounds, a Topsy-like confusion 



that has "just growed." Within these 
bounds American genius for business or- 
ganization has gone to work seriously. 
In fact the cooperation with distributing 
agencies abroad and the means of trans- 
ferring relief are so well organized that 
one wonders why there should be such 
apparent lack of order connected with 
the effort to raise money. 

No Precedent 

Up to August, 1914, there may be said 
to have been one national conception of 
war relief. This was the idea of 
medical relief on the field, in temporary 
hospitals, and in base hospitals. As 
America expected at the beginning of 
the war, the Red Cross immediately set 
in motion its adaptable machinery for 
military relief. 

Then civil want was foreshadowed. 
Our experience had presented no prob- 
lem of this type. We had had the cumu- 
lative experience of the Red Cross in 
dealing with single disasters: floods, 
fires, earthquakes, famine and shipwreck. 
But they had not resulted from 
war; and so, finding no existing or- 
ganization specifically to meet the non- 
military needs in Europe in August, 
1914, there was an outburst of efforts 
to do something, efforts taking shape in 
large and small war relief committees. 

Need was centered in Belgium. To 

63 



6 4 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER ai, 1916 



ff 



IMEoMMRIKS MOST E\MOUSMEN^!^S^fVERDIJN 



Prominent Bankers, Diplomatist and Educator Appeal for 
Funds in the Name of the Suffering Soldiers of France— 

The National Allied Relief Committee, co-operating with the War Relief Clearing House for France and her Aftlu, le 
striding out what perhaps will be the most broadcast appeal yet issued on behalf of the war sufferers of Europe. 

This appeal is for funds for the relief of the soldiers of France wounded in the fighting around Verdun. 

What lends additional Interest to this appeal is the fact that It is signed by six of the most prominent men in America. 
Those who signed it are: August Belmont of the banking firm bearing his name; Hon. Jos. H. Choate, Ex-Ambassador to 
England; Or. Charles W. Elliot, President Emeritus of Harvard University; A. Barton Hepburn, Chairman of the Board - of 
Director* of the Chase National Bank; Edwin G. Merrill, President of the Union Trust Company, and Henry L. Higginson 
of the banking firm of Lee. Higginson & Company, Boston. 

It Is anticipated thai the contributions received from this wide-spread appeal will be devoted also to relief work among a 
large number of wounded resulting from the greatly increased activities of the contending armies. 

The appeal }% reproduced herewith. 



NATIONAL ALLIED RELIEF COMMITTEE 

cooperating tvith the 

WAR RELIEF CLEARING HOUSE 



Honorary President: Charles W. Eliot. President Em 



t Harvard Uni*miiy 



Mrs. WlOlem Alexander 

President SftcUt Kelief Socittt 
Mo. J. Borden Horrlman 



President Norman Hapgood. Editor. Harftr'i Weekly 
Vtct-Prtsidtnti 
Frederick H Allen Auruai Belmoni 

Anmurt) America* Commuuon Hanker 

Ctfford Ptnchot Mm . Schu/ler van Rensselaer 

Formerly United States Forestn 

Mrs. Barren Wendell 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS 

John Moffat. Vut Chairman end Chairman 0/ Publicity Committee 

Treaimrrr: James A. Blair. Jr. of Blair & Co. 

Depantorui: L««. HisffUiaon At Company 

s.udavr James Marwick, Chartered Accountant of Marwlck, Mitchell, Peat & Co., New York. Boetoo. London sid Parte 



Mrs. Fisk* Warren 



Secretary,- Aucuenu W. tU-Uey 



TtLCPHOWI.: tfV» Chkwcv 



>>'•' 



. 200 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 

We are sending you the enclosed emergency bulletin at the 
request of the War Relief Clearing House. In this great crisis we beg 
you to help us to relieve the terrible Bufferings of these brave French 
soldiers who have been wounded in the fighting around Verdun. 

Won*t you fill out the attached subscription blank and send 

as p donation today. _ _ .. tmM , , 

Tours faithfully, * . 



<{ 



To the National Allied Relief Committee 

200 filth An-nui. Nro York. 

Dear Sirs: In response to your appeal I beg to enclose- 
similar subscription monthly. 



-dollars 'and hope to mate a 



yours very truly 



Cl.il) cWd 1*. auA p*7*bl » Lee, fUggtraan At Co, 



AN APPEAL 

A single S. O. S. that netted more than $100,000, including one check for 
$40,000, for wounded soldiers. 



meet this need, which called the atten- 
tion of all neutral countries, the Com- 
mission for Relief in Belgium was es- 
tablished. But the small committees in 
America which contributed through the 
commission remained free to take care 
of their own problems of raising money. 

Money Raising Campaigns 

There has begun to be question about 
the possibility of organizing the money 
raising campaign upon a basis as efficient 
as that of the purchasing, transferring 
and distributing. The needs of civilians 
grew greater. Meanwhile the President 
had issued his proclamation of neutrali- 
ty. It seemed logical that our nation 
would be able to express its sympathy 
for civilians through a single channel, as 
it had been doing in the matter of mili- 
tary relief and disasters since the estab- 
lishment of the Red Cross. So the neu- 
tral Committee of Mercy was formed 
under the patronage of the President 
and under the guidance of active, re- 
sponsible, well-known American citizens. 
Within a year the growth of partisan 
feeling gave rise to the National Allied 
Relief Committee, organized for the same 



task, from the point of view of efficiency, 
as that of the Committee of Mercy; 
namely, undertaking to raise the most 
money with greatest economy.' 

The war relief committees learned that 
the average contributor depended upon 
special appeals for his news about needs 
abroad. If he received one appeal from 
each of three committees, he was quite 
likely to send three contributions. If he 
received three appeals from one com- 
mittee, he was not so likely to feel that 
he should make three responses. It 
seems strange in these days, when con- 
tributors to local charitable work are 
tending more and more to demand a 
simplified technique for money raising, 
that these same people have responded 
more generously for war relief in meas- 
ure with the variety of appeals coining 
to them. Their present feeling of con- 
fusion about the endless numbers of ap- 
peals they are receiving is to some de- 
gree a reaction from a policy they have 
unknowingly encouraged. 

On an average four or five new cen- 
tral committees have been organized 
during each of the first twenty-four 
months of the war. The trend of the 



war is shown by the successive appear- 
ance among these of Austrian, British, 
Polish, Jewish, Serbian, Persian, Syrian, 
Armenian and Russian relief. One finds 
appearing constantly, too, more and 
more German and French and Belgian 
committees. This dynamic initiative, 
which produces on the one hand such 
splendid volunteer service from commit- 
tee members, tends to encourage the con- 
tinuance of many committees rather than 
of any effort to reduce their number. 

Need of Variety 

Not only does one find financial re- 
sponse increasing in proportion to the 
variety of appeals, but one also finds a 
greater amount of personal service pro- 
duceable if the people giving it can 
make their contribution in some way 
that is peculiarly their own. Hence the 
continued existence of innumerable com- 
mittees, each aiming at a specific task 
of relief and each under the leadership 
of some strong personality. In a word 
there is, in New York city, a decided 
advocacy of variety in methods of 
work as well as variety in sources of 
appeal : 

"You can work it out by fractions or 

by simple Rule of Three, 
But the way of Tweedle-Dum is not the 

way of Tweedle-Dee. 
You can twist it, you can turn it, you 

can plait it till you drop — 
But the way of Pilly-Winky's not the 

way of Winkie-Pop." 

So at one and the same time we find 
ourselves appealed to because we are 
neutral, or because we are partisan; 
because we like to help in very definite 
ways or because we really admire the 
sort of American ability that can sys- 
tematize matters on a business basis: 
matters like clothing a nation, for in- 
stance. And all this is no reflection 
upon the relief committees. It is their 
burden, rather. It means hard work for 
them, for they know from experience 
that Americans have been giving in re- 
sponse to the types of appeals that touch 
them. The response has not been near- 
ly large enough to meet the needs. 
Therefore, if more money is to be had 
all kinds of appeals must be used. 

I have said that the executive prob- 
lem of war relief work is fourfold. It 
will be interesting to see the tendencies 
toward increased efficiency in the work 
of the last three — purchasing, transfer- 
ring and distributing supplies, and to 
compare with these the situation in re- 
gard to the first, money raising. 

In the matter of the distribution of 
relief abroad, Americans can well afford 
to be guided by a sense of proportion. 
Distribution is a term that I use to in- 
clude every form in which aid is being 
given to war sufferers in Europe. It 
means attending to the primary wants 
of food, clothing, and shelter ; to hospital 
and ambulance service both for civilians 
and for wounded soldiers: to the sort 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, ipi6 



65 



of personal ministrations to the spirit 
that one finds in opportunities to reach 
individuals aboard, orphaned children or 
soldiers behind the lines in France or in 
Russian prison camps, or those residents, 
at the beginning of the war in alien 
countries, who have been interned with 
others of their nationality in special 
camps. 

I believe contributors cannot at pres- 
ent discriminate between temporary and 
permanent, or constructive work, once 
it is clear that, in carrying both kinds, 
all possible methods of avoiding waste- 
fulness are observed. After all, when 
the need for food is greater than the 
amount supplied, and when a system pre- 
venting overlapping of distribution is 
known to be in force, the question of 
emergent needs thus naturally receives 
our hearty response. 

We can easily understand that when 
the war is over these forms of relief 
will become supplanted by reconstructive 
efforts. Then, it is true, it may be diffi- 
cult in some instances to separate the 
white sheep from the black; for recon- 
struction will become the slogan of both 
earnest workers and exploiters. But 
that has not arrived. We will hope 
when the countries of Europe are free 
to turn their attention to reconstruction 
that they will treat their problems on a 
national basis, with the effectiveness, 
with which the Commission for Relief in 
Belgium is doing its present work of 
feeding and clothing the Belgians. 

Medical Relief 

Granted then that one will do all he 
can to support the existing forms of re- 
lief work abroad. How is he to do it? 
Medical and surgical relief work can be 
reached effectively through the Ameri- 
can Red Cross. Supplies for hospital 
use should be prepared after directions 
which can be obtained upon application 
to the Red Cross. 

Besides the opportunities in connec- 
tion with the Red Cross and the general 
relief agencies, there are others, inter- 
ested in hospital supplies and the pur- 
chasing of ambulances, that commend 
themselves to the interest of Americans. 
It is difficult to obtain an absolutely 
complete list of these. The ones that 
are mentioned here are not selected, but 
include all of those known to the writer: 



Ambulance Chirurgical Mobile No. 2, 
Directress, Mrs. . Borden-Turner. 
Depositary, Farmers' Loan and Trust 
Co., 44 William street, New York 
city. 
American Ambulance Hospital in Paris, 
14 Wall street, New York city. 
Chairman, Mrs. Robert Bacon. 
Depositary, J. P. Morgan and Com- 
pany. 
American Fund for French Wounded, 
134 West 42 street, New York city. 
Treasurer, Anne Morgan. 
American Hospital and Ambulance in 
Russia, 
140 Broadway, New York city. 
Secretary, Philip M. Lydig, 111 
Broadway, New York city. 
American Red Cross, 
Washington, D. C. 
Treasurer, John Skelton Williams. 
American Physicians Expedition Com- 
mittee, Inc., 
P. O. Box 1207, New York city. 
Treasurer, Herman A. Metz. 
Armenian Medical Relief Association, 
175 Fifth avenue, New York city. 
Treasurer, A. H. Tiryakian. 
Australian War Relief Fund, 
435 Fifth avenue, New York city. 
Treasurer, A. J. Howard. 
Franco-Serbian Field Hospital of 
America, 
17 West 30 street, New York city. 
Secretary-treasurer, Henry B. Britton. 
Friends Ambulance Unit, 

121 South Third street, Philadelphia. 
Treasurer in America, William T. 
Elkinton. 

Contributors of food and clothing 
should apply to the Red Cross and the 
clearing house and the commission for 
their bulletins. These bulletins give 
shipping directions as well as informa- 
tion about the current needs abroad. It 
is not possible to send food supplies to 
other countries, including Poland, Ar- 
menia, Serbia, and Germany, but money 
can be sent to each of these countries 
for the purchase of food by the Armen- 
ian Red Cross or by the Polish Vic- 
tims' Relief Fund, the American Com- 
mittee for Armenian and Syrian Relief, 
the Serbian Relief Committee, the 
American Jewish Relief Committee, or 
the Relief Committee for War Sufferers 
(German). 

In regard to articles of clothing, there 
are two or three things to keep in mind 
at present. Used clothing is no longer 
accepted by the commission. If it is in 



good condition and clean the American 
Girls' Aid will gladly take it for dis- 
tribution in France. Such articles 
should be sent to Pier 57, North River, 
New York city, addressed to the Ameri- 
can Girls' Aid. Free transportation 
abroad is obtained by this committee. 
The Committee for Relief of German 
Prisoners receives donations of clothing 
which are sent by way of Pacific liners 
to prisoners in Siberia. New clothing 
is acceptable to the Commission for Re- 
lief in Belgium, the War Relief Clear- 
ing House and for refugees and con- 
valescents in England, Switzerland, and 
Russia. 

Clothing 

Cloth ready to be made up into cloth- 
ing can be sent to the Vacation War 
Relief Committee which maintains a 
workroom for this purpose, as well as 
for the preparation of surgical dress- 
ings. During 1915 this committee 
organized workrooms for the aid of 
the unemployed. Since that time 
there has been a call from abroad 
for unmade materials to supply simi- 
lar workrooms there, so that cloth 
for making into clothing can also be 
sent through the commission and the 
clearing house. For information about 
the kinds of clothing that are best to 
send and the best time for sending them, 
write to these central agencies. Cloth- 
ing for hospital use should be sent to the 
Red Cross, Bush Terminal, Brooklyn. 

I have spoken of reconstructive work 
as being already under way. Almost 
from the beginning of the war there 
has been a lighthouse for blinded 
soldiers in Paris under the experienced 
leadership of Winifred Holt [see The 
Survey for October 14]. Her commit- 
tee is providing in this way an oppor- 
tunity for blind Frenchmen to become 
readjusted industrially. There is also 
in France an American Committee for 
Training in Suitable Trades Maimed 
French Soldiers with the same object as 
the work for the blind. In England 
plans are under way for similar re- 
education. For this work contributions 
can be made through the British, French, 
Belgian Permanent Blind Fund which 
until September, at least, was just a col- 
lection agency. Later it will establish 
work for the re-education of ex-soldiers 




TWO BENEFITS ROLLED IN ONE 

The Vacation War Relief Committee gives work to unemployed women in New York city on bandages 
and on garments that are sent to sufferers in the war zone. 



66 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, i 9 i6 



in the three countries included in its 
title. 

Rebuilding the East 

Two striking illustrations of recon- 
structive work have come to my atten- 
tion. The American Committee on Ar- 
menian and Syrian Relief is responsible 
for the welfare of Armenians, Syrians, 
and Persians in Asia Minor and in the 
refugee districts in Russia. This com- 
mittee is not the only one working in 
that field, but is the representative of 
American effort in this direction. When 
the Kurds devastated the country of the 
Nestorians, when the Turks had driven 
the Armenians away from their homes, 
the problem of relief in the Near East 
became twofold: that of the refugee in 
his camp and that of the native who 
returned to his home in the districts 
just swept by the massacres. To meet 
the needs of this second group the field 
workers of this committee have organ- 
ized the returned natives in certain dis- 
tricts for the purpose of taking care of 
the harvest and of the planting for the 
following season. 

Those who return are given power to 
rent the lands so that all may be put 
under cultivation and so that all the 
orchards and vineyards may be cared 
for. The plan is so arranged that in 
case the owners of land appear later 
they will find their property in good con- 
dition and can reclaim it, paying as 
soon as possible the amount expended 
upon it in the meanwhile. If the owners 
do not return, the proceeds of the pres- 
ent season's crops are to be used for 
further relief work. 

The plan for re-establishing the na- 
tives is novel. Those who have their 
own land to go back to may purchase 
oxen, cows, and buffalos. For each ani- 
mal a ticket is made out and given to the 
recipient, a yoke of oxen going to every 
three families. Widows and families of 
orphan children are given the prefer- 
ence in the distribution of cows. Each 
recipient, upon receiving his animal, 
gives a note in exchange by which he 
promises to repay the committee in 
three annual payments beginning in 
1917. The price set is the price in 
normal times, which is from three to six 
times less than what the committee must 
pay now. These families are given im- 
plements for harvesting and seeds to be 
sown. In the towns the tailors, carpen- 
ters, bakers, and other tradesmen are also 
being helped through the supply of tools 
of their trade. 

The government is already active in 
cooperating with this and other commit- 
tees in similar reconstruction work. It 
is remarkable that so little time has 
been lost. This is true, beyond doubt, 
because the field workers of the commit- 
tee have been long familiar, through 
their missionary work, with conditions 
of the country and the nature of the 
people. Therefore, they are very well 
equipped to use their judgment and to 




— --^* = ^* :r '' /3UaTi«»«^ : J**«j« i » 



LEFT BEHIND 
IN SERE \\ 

Send Money for(he Women 
an d Children to the GERMAN RELIEF 
Jo Fifth Avenue NewYorK 

take chances, for they have taken 
chances, in beginning these undertakings 
almost before the wave of the massacres 
has passed. 

And yet work of similar value has 
been done in France by people who have 
had no previously organized contact with 
the country and no established basis for 
confidence. This is the work of English 
Friends. These pacifists, whose belief 
has been tested by conscription, have 
met the rebuke of the majority who saw 
patriotism only in fighting, by creating 
an organization entirely new and without 
precedent in their church, or in any 
other body, through which they could 
carry out their faith. 

Pacifist Service 

The four branches of the service are 
under the direction of separate commit- 
tees, although the whole work receives 
the sanction and support of the Friends. 
There is underneath this method of or- 
ganization a very human story. The 
four branches of Friends' service repre- 
sent four varying points of view of the 
Friendly idea of practicing Christian 
principles. There are those who serve 
under one committee who could not con- 
scientiously give their help under an- 
other. 

These committees include propaganda 
work for peace, in England only ; the 
Friends Ambulance Unit at work in 
France, Belgium, and perhaps by this 
time, in Russia; the Emergency Com- 
mittee for Helping Aliens in Distress 
(convened to aid innocent aliens in Great 
Britain rendered destitute by the war) 
and the War Victims Relief Committee. 
It is to this last committee that I refer 
as an example of constructive war relief 
work. It has been so successful that 
the French government has taken over 
part of it. 

At the opening of the war the War 



Victims Relief Committee began its task 
of following the battle line along the 
western front, by restoring villages in 
French territory as soon as it became 
practical to do so. Small groups of men 
and women with temporary field head- 
quarters near the battle line go to village 
after village rebuilding houses, procur- 
ing animals and implements and seeds 
for re-establishing agricultural activities. 
In carrying out their work they supple- 
ment the labor of the remaining vil- 
lagers. Upon their own initiative the 
committee began this work in the de- 
partment of the Marne and, by the in- 
vitation of French officials, they have 
extended it through the Meuse, the 
Aisne and the Meurthe-et-Moselle. 

By April, 1915, the French authorities 
were providing materials for rebuilding 
and were giving assistance in obtaining 
the labor of territorial soldiers. The 
government was soon able to assume the 
responsibility of meeting the agricultural 
needs of the larger districts and thus 
supplanted the committee. The problems 
of the cottagers with small plots of land 
are still left however, to the committee. 

Building Huts 

A systematic hut-building campaign 
has also been undertaken by the War 
Victims Relief Committee in connection 
with its reconstructive work. By means 
of local labor and with lumber pur- 
chased in France, series of small houses 
have been built in village after village. 
These are comfortable simple homes fol- 
lowing out uniform models which the 
committee created, and which the French 
government has since used. This suc- 
cessful house building is also being car- 
ried on for Belgian refugees in Holland 
where portable houses are being con- 
structed near the Belgian border with 
the labor of refugees and Belgian 
soldiers. When the war is over these 
houses can be taken down and con- 
veyed by the refugees to their former 
homes where they may serve as com- 
fortable shelters of a fairly permanent 
nature. [See The Survey for Tune 
26, 1915.] 

The transferring of material relief 
from America is admirably organized. 
Of all the items of the war relief prob- 
lem it is in the simplest shape. It 
amounts to this. There are three chief 
shipping organizations: the Commission 
for Relief in Belgium, the Clearing 
House, and the Red Cross. Practically 
all the other committees arrange for the 
transfer of their supplies through these 
three. The commission has its own 
boats. The clearing house and the Red 
Cross are granted space for transferring 
their supplies, almost always free of 
charge, by private shipping companies. 
This contribution to the war relief work 
is especially generous in the case of 
French and Italian companies. 

Admission of relief into the countries 
abroad, free of customs charges, is also 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, ipi6 



67 



secured. The only responsibility that 
rests with the consignor is to see that 
his gifts are transferred to the receiv- 
ing stations of the three shipping com- 
mittees. Every possible consignor 
should secure from these committees 
their printed directions for this end of 
the transferring. In the case of the 
Red Cross and the commission, branch 
assembly depots are maintained in vari- 
ous states to which a consignor or a 
small committee may send contributions. 
From these branch stations the supplies 
are forwarded to the shipping head- 
quarters. Supplies for the clearing 
house are sent direct to the New York 
shipping point. 

Free Delivery 

The commission has arranged with the 
express companies to carry the contri- 
butions for its work free of charge. 
Contributions of supplies for the Red 
Cross and the clearing house must be 
sent prepaid by express, parcel post, or 
freight, in accordance with instructions 
obtainable from these committees. The 
principal express companies will accept 
shipments for both organizations at two- 
thirds of the regular tariff rates. 

On their own account and on account 
of the thousands of cooperating commit- 
tees these three shipping committees 
have done a big bit of work. The com- 
mission has sent 279 shiploads of relief 
for the aid of Belgium and the occupied 
section of France. The clearing house, 
which reports in terms of cases of sup- 
plies, had forwarded over 41,000 cases 
up to the end of August. Practically all 
this huge amount had been contributed 
by small committees, or was sent on be- 
half of these committees to designated 
recipients abroad. The Red Cross had 
shipped up to September I, 45,305 pack- 
ages of supplies. Their total value is 
put at $1,428,761.19. Of this amount 
$948,760.52 is the value of the supplies 
donated to and shipped by the Red Cross 
and $480,000.67 the value of the supplies 
purchased and shipped by the Red Cross 
on its own account. 

The thing that stands out in this 
work of shipping is that a great mass of 
supplies is being sent abroad by small 
committees which have learned to use 
the shipping facilities of the three large 
committees. These same agencies, and 
the committees for Germany, Serbia, Ar- 
menia, and Poland, and the Jewish 
people, also serve as central agencies 
from which money may be forwarded. 
In cases where this is done, the money 
is used, if possible, for purchasing sup- 
plies within the country to be benefited. 

Many committees have also learned to 
use the purchasing facilities of the 
larger committees. This is done in two 
ways. Any committee may purchase at 
cost, from the clearing house materials 
which may be made up, by their own 
workers, into clothing or hospital sup- 
plies. Thus, it receives the benefit of 



FOR FRANCE AND HER ALLIES 




B 



Y express and parcels post, socks and banjos, canned meat and surgical 
instruments — all sorts of gifts tied up in all sorts of packages — pour 
into the War Relief Clearing Howe. 



68 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, i 9 i6 



the greatly reduced prices which the 
clearing house, purchasing in very large 
quantities, can obtain. 

Buying in Bulk 

Or the second way of purchasing may 
be followed. That is, a small committee 
may send a designated donation to any 
one of the three large committees: to 
the Red Cross for the purchase of hospi- 
tal supplies, food and clothing; to the 
commission for food and clothing — this 
fall chiefly for a special diet for Belgian 
children; and to the clearing house for 
supplies of any kind. 

But as a general rule the local com- 
mittees, those that have the interest of 
small groups of people, and that pur- 
chase in variety and in quite small quan- 
tities will doubtless find it more economi- 
cal of time and money to gather up their 
supplies from their own vicinities. 

There are war relief contributors who, 
before giving to war relief, ask regard- 
ing the efficiency with which the money 



is being raised. These are the people 
who have fresh in their minds the finan- 
cial economy of the federation plan of 
raising money for philanthropic work. 
They want to know why such a plan 
has not yet been applied to raising 
money for war relief. If fifty-seven 
philanthropic organizations in Cleveland 
were able to reduce the cost of raising 
their money from IS per cent to 33 per 
cent to 9.4 per cent in the first year of 
federated work by how much could one 
hundred odd war relief committees in 
New York city reduce through a federa- 
tion plan the cost of raising their money 
in the third year of the war? One con- 
siders, too, the simplicity with which the 
hundred and more central committees 
and their branches do their shipping 
abroad through the three main gateways. 
Cannot money, as well as supplies, be 
drawn together in as intelligible a way? 
I have already referred to the two ex- 
pressions of this feeling, found in the 
Committee of Mercy and the National 



THE RELIEF COMMITTEES 

This list of committees includes those mentioned in the accompanying article 
and those appearing in the representative list issued last summer by the Federal 
Council of the Churches of Christ in America. The combined list is not exhasutive 
and does not include all of the committees doing good work. ' 



American Committee for Armenian and 
Syrian Relief, Charles E. Crane, 
Treasurer, 70 Fifth avenue, New York 
city. 

American Committee for Training in 
Suitable Trades the Maimed Soldiers 
of France, Mrs. Edmond Baylis, 
Chairman, 54 Wall street, New York 
city. 

American Girls' Aid, A. Seton Post, 
Treasurer, Pier 57 North River. 

American Huguenot Committee, Edmond 
E. Robert, Treasurer, 105 East 22 
street, New York city. 

American Jewish Relief Committee for 
Sufferers from the War, Felix M. 
Warburg, Treasurer, 174 Second ave- 
nue, Nezv York city. 

American National Red Cross, Hon. 

John Skelton Williams, Treasurer, 

1624 H street, Washington, D. C. 

(The Red Cross has a Department of 

Non-Combatant Relief.) 
American Relief Committee in Berlin 

for Widoivs and Orphans, John D. 

Crimmins, Treasurer, 30 East 42 

street, New York city. 

B. F. B. Permanent Blind Relief War 
Fund, Frank A. Vanderlip, Treasurer, 
590 Fifth avenue, New York city. 

British War Relief Association, Inc., 
Henry Clews, Treasurer, 542 Fifth 
avenue, Neiv York city. 

Commission for Relief in Belgium, 
Alexander J. Hemphill, Treasurer, 120 
Broadway, New York city. 

Committee for Men Blinded in Battle, 
William Forbes Morgan, Jr., Treas- 
urer, 124 West 42 street, New York 
city. 

Committee for Relief of German and 
Austro-Hungarian Prisoners, William 



Knauth, Treasurer, 120 Broadway, 
New York city. 

Committee of Mercy, August Belmont, 
Treasurer, 200 Fifth avenue, New 
York city. 

East Prussian Relief Fund, Hubert 
Cillis, Treasurer, 17 Battery place, 
New York city. 

Fund (The) for Starving Children, 
Frederick Lynch. Treasurer, 70 Fifth 
avenue, New York city. 

National (The) Allied Relief Commit- 
tee, James A. Blair, Jr., Treasurer, 200 
Fifth avenue, Nezv York city. 

Polish Victims' Relief Fund, Frank A. 
Vanderlip, Treasurer, Aeolian build- 
ing, New York city. 

Refugees' Relief Fund, Otto T. Ban- 
nard, Treasurer, 30 Church street, 
New York city. 

Relief Committee for War Sufferers 
(German), Charles Froeb, Treasurer, 
531 Broadway, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Serbian Relief Committee, Murray H. 
Coggeshall, Treasurer, 70 Fifth ave- 
nue, New York city. 

Secours National, Mrs. Whitney War- 
ren, Treasurer, 16 East 47 street, New 
York city. 

Union Nationale des Eglises Reformees 
Evangeliques dc France, Emergency 
Relief Fund, Alfred R. Kimball, 
Treasurer, 105 East 22 street, New 
York city. 

Vacation War Relief Committee, Miss 
Anne Morgan, Treasurer, 5 East 37 
street, New York city. 

War Relief Clearing House for France 
and Her Allies, Thomas W. Lamont, 
Treasurer, 40 Wall street, New York 
city. 

War Victims' Relief Committee, William 
R. Elkinton, Treasurer in America, 
121 So. Third street, Philadelphia. 



Allied Relief Committee. The Red 
Cross also stands permanently ready for 
this service, with accountability to the 
government for financial operations. 
Yet it seems doubtful that any compre- 
hensive federation for money raising 
will be successful, for reasons which I 
have also given. For persons who wish 
to contribute by way of the nearest ap- 
proaches to a federation these three 
agencies are quite usable. There is no 
equivalent plan existing among the com- 
mittees for the aid of the Central 
Powers alone. German newspapers, 
such as the New York Staats-Zeitung do 
serve, however, as a receiving agency 
for designated or undesignated contri- 
butions for such committees. This ser- 
vice is performed without deduction of 
any sort for expenses. 

But whether one encourages, by his 
contributions, these efforts toward fed- 
erated money raising, or whether he 
elects to contribute through the trans- 
ferring agencies, there still remains the 
question as to the safest means for get- 
ting money to headquarters. 

In the past year contributors have had 
to learn all over again the risk of giv- 
ing money directly to solicitors. By this 
method abuses occur easily and are de- 
tected with difficulty. Most of the lead- 
ing agencies advertise that contributions 
should not be given to solicitors but 
should be made payable to the national 
treasurer and sent by the contributor to 
national headquarters. 

Fake Schemes 

Just on the face of things it is im- 
possible to judge whether a benefit is 
being conducted at a legitimate cost. 
Machinery to determine this point for 
the benefit of limited groups of contribu- 
tors is to be found in the charity in- 
vestigating committees of chambers of 
commerce in a goodly number of cities. 
Examples of abuse incident to the use 
of dangerous methods of raising money 
have been whispered about. One of 
these, a recent effort to launch a new 
undertaking, gave considerable trouble 
to a city near New York. 

Two men appeared in X a 

few months ago. They immediately told 
of plans to establish a large constructive 
war relief organization. They sublet a 
flat in a good residence district, decorat- 
ing the living room with all manner of 
war posters and flags of European coun- 
tries. With a picturesque headquarters 
installed, they started out to organize 
their committee. At first they made a 
big impression. One man displayed a 
badge said to have been won by him for 
heroic work in saving the life of a 
soldier. The man limped and told of 
losing his leg in a certain campaign. 
The other man insisted, with dignity, 
upon the proper use of the military title 
he said he had earned. His story was of 
four silver ribs which, he claimed, he 
carried since wounded in battle. 

While the committee was in process 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, 1916 



69 




THE HANNAH, SHIP OF MERCY 

Commission for Relief in Belgium is the sign amidship that insures safe 

passage for this transatlantic vessel, loaded to the boivsprit with Amercan 

foodstuffs and good will. 



of forming, the Chamber of Commerce 
reported upon an investigation of the 
undertaking it had been making. As a 
result the prominent citizens who had 
been induced to form the committee 
withdrew their support and the commit- 
tee dissolved. The flat was abandoned 
and rent and stenographer's bills left un- 
paid. The owner of the four silver ribs 
left America. The pleasant mannered 
man with a limp (but with no wooden 
leg and no bona fide badge of honor) 
left for parts unknown. The city was 
saved from two of the most plausible 
men that have undertaken to profit by 
war relief appeals. 

After all, fraudulent war relief under- 
takings have not been so frequent in 
New York city as one would expect. Of 
the fifteen of which I have heard in two 
years, all but two have been eliminated 
without great financial loss and without 
appeal to the machinery of government. 

One must frankly admit that there are 
people who consider every wave of pub- 
lic feeling, every opportunity for pub- 
licity as a legitimate means for making 
money for themselves. When such peo- 
ple add to their business ventures 
some charitable venture, experience 
shows that the proportion is likely to 
vary from 50 to 80 or 90 per cent for 
business as against 50 to 20 per cent 
for charity. 

Business Before Peace 

A little group of such undertakings 
sprang up in the first few months of the 
war for the selling of peace stamps. 
During the early months of the war, 
hope for an early peace was in the 
minds of many Americans. Enterpris- 
ing individuals realized the extent of this 
feeling and recognized that it was ready 
for their harvesting. It is not in ac- 
cordance with human nature to resist 
an appeal for a cause that is near to the 
heart. So peace stamps were sent broad- 



cast to mailing lists accumulated in other 
businesses with the request that the re- 
cipient remit at so and so much to the 
national headquarters. Politically promi- 
nent men gave their names to one such 
cause. The unknown working members 
of another scheme figured on a letter 
from that on the surface gave no hint of 
other than a sincere effort for peace. A 
third plan was that of a business cor- 
poration chartered to market articles 
quite different from stamps. Returns 
were evidently satisfactory and the or- 
ganizers began to extend their work by 
way of branch committees in other cities. 
One committee claimed to be sending 
part of its "net proceeds" to Belgium. 
Inquiry by cable revealed that a very 
small donation, enough to keep the pro- 
moters within the law, had been sent 
abroad. But, to the best of my knowl- 



edge, in none of the cases was any re- 
port of accomplishment published volun- 
tarily by these propagandists. I am in- 
clined to believe that on the whole such 
efforts were not fruitful financially to 
their promoters, for it seems to be the 
experience of legitimate agencies that 
have used this plan of raising money 
that it is least successful as a sporadic 
or local means of raising money and 
most successful when it can be carried 
along with the regular work of an ex- 
isting organization of considerable size. 
It is refreshing to turn from the dan- 
gers of indirect giving to serious and 
direct efforts to secure steady contribu- 
tions for relief work. Many churches 
and social organizations have urged 
their members to pledge a certain 
amount to be sent to national headquar- 
ters regularly. This method succeeds if 
the organizations have some live volun- 
teers to keep reminding the contributors 
of their pledges. Local branches of 
various relief committees also encourage 
this, and sustain the interest of the con- 
tributors by sending them regular bulle- 
tins showing the progress of their work 
abroad. There is one instance also, that 
of the Refugees Relief Fund, of a single 
agency whose whole purpose is to secure 
regular contributions for persons wish- 
ing to aid the Allies. The regular in- 
come so procured is donated largely to 
the clearing house and the Red Cross. 

Committees Permanent 

There does not seem to be any marked 
tendency on the part of the war relief 
committees to decrease in number. I 
know of only ten in New York city aside 
from the fifteen whose standing has been 
questioned, that have gone out of ex- 
istence. These ten, with two exceptions, 
dropped out as soon as they recognized 
they were not raising much for the war 




A CORNER OF THE HOLD 

Thousands of bags of flour made up 'the gift of Kansas and Iowa to 
the people of Belgium 



JO 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER zi, 1916 



relief work, or as soon as their purpose 
was accomplished. 

It is rarely, in the history of the two 
years, that one finds conscious effort on 
the part of committees themselves to 
unite in such a way as to reduce their 
numbers. Two instances summed up in 
theoretical terms, present the phenom- 
ena of reduced appeals, elimination of 
separate headquarters, a single process 
for transferring money (no material re- 
lief can be sent in either case). But 
underneath these terms there is a story 
of diametrically opposite methods of ap- 
proach. One of these culminations was 
successful because, apparently, the sim- 
plification was brought about by a non- 
cooperative type of person ; the other 
was produced by the ideal kind of co- 
operation. 

Joining Hands 

In the one instance two or three small 
committees were early established for 
the aid of a certain group of civilians. 
Gradually one of these became better 
and better known, probably because of 
the prominence and activity of commit- 
tee members. Its relations with the cen- 
tral money raising agencies were estab- 
lished satisfactorily on as good a co- 
operative basis as conditions permitted. 
Then one day came the announcement 
in the papers that another special com- 
mittee for the aid of this same group of 
civilians was established. The exist- 
ing committees, following the accepted 
ethics, offered to discuss cooperation. 
But the new committee would have none 
of it. And it has succeeded in this 
policy, financially at least, until at pres- 
ent the others have dropped out, leav- 
ing the one committee to reach the gen- 
eral contributor, and to send the money 
raised abroad. 

In the other case three causes for ap- 
peal were combined. The Committee on 
Armenian Atrocities had organized its 
hundred sub-committees in the United 
States. The Persian War Relief Fund 
had also been established in order to 
raise the $70,000 needed to reimburse 
the Presbyterian missionaries who aided 
the 25,000 Nestorian sufferers from the 
Kurd invasions early in 1915. Evi- 
dence of needs among the Syrians 
called for provision for them. Mean- 
while Persian field workers returned to 
the United States and reported their 
critical stage passed. They advised 
doing away with the separate Persian 
committee. Therefore, in November, 
1915, it was decided to re-establish the 
Committee on Armenian Atrocities as 
the American Committee for Armenian 
and Syrian Relief. 

By this step strong non-sectarian back- 
ing for the financial support of the Near 
East relief work was provided. At the 
same time, the plan meant making use 
of the excellent co-operative spirit 
among the church field workers in 
Armenia, Syria, and Persia. This spirit 
has become traditional since 1870, the 



year of the agreement between Congre- 
gationalists and Presbyterians whereby 
the administration of the missionary 
work in Persia was assigned to Presby- 
terians and that of Armenia to Congre- 
gationalists. 

Or one's faith in the ability of peo- 
ple to cooperate is advanced by such in- 
stances as that of the work of the San- 
itary Commission in Serbia in the spring 
of 1915. In that undertaking private 
relief societies abroad and in America, 
the Red Cross societies of America and 
of Serbia, the Serbian government and 
the Rockefeller Foundation came to- 
gether in an excellent division of labor 
plan for supplying money, for super- 
vising and conducting the work of fight- 
ing the typhus plague, and for render- 
ing material relief. 

But the prospect for an earnest ef- 
fort for the reduction to lowest terms 
of the machinery for money raising and 
administration is not bright, even though 
from the point of view of the confused 
contributor, it is much needed. 

In this country the conspicuous ex- 
amples of the systematizing of money 
raising are found in the work of fed- 
erations of organizations for social 
work. These efforts have created stand- 
ards requiring proper incorporation, ac- 
tivity of responsible and representative 
officers and managers, the preparation 



of budgets and the auditing of accounts, 
the elimination of wasteful methods of 
raising money, and the production of 
direct financial support. The result is 
that in any community where such plans 
are in operation confidence has been 
established in the federation's financial 
efficiency. But such a federation comes 
as the expression of an effort for such 
efficiency on the part of a group of sub- 
scribers; for instance, a Chamber of 
Commerce. Or it comes as part of a 
program for increased efficiency in so- 
cial work, including the problem of rais- 
ing money, as in the case of the Alliance 
of Charitable and Social Agencies of 
Baltimore. 

It stands to reason that the contribu- 
tors to war relief cannot unite in estab- 
lishing a central money raising agency 
for war relief, because those contribu- 
tors are scattered throughout the coun- 
try. That would seem to leave open 
the possibility that the central agencies 
for war relief may themselves form a 
plan for the raising of money that will 
be more simple than the different plans 
now in existence. Certainly some plan 
might be forthcoming which would en- 
courage the establishment and mainte- 
nance of more and more local volunteer 
relief efforts rather than of more and 
more money raising committees in New 
York city. 



Conferences 



LEGAL AID 

EVERY national gathering of the 
Legal Aid Societies demonstrates 
how surely and safely they are extending 
the reach of their work. The biennial 
session of their National Alliance at Cin- 
cinnati, October 11-12, registered not 
only many recent, but some long past, 
achievements in securing better legisla- 
tion and procedure, as well as more 
effective enforcement of existing laws. 

This extension of their sphere of ac- 
tion, however, involves no diversion from 
their work of actually dispensing jus- 
tice. As much if not more than ever 
these legal aid societies were shown to 
fulfil the claim of Rudolph Matz, one of 
the most prominent lawyers guiding their 
work, that "the legal aid society is it- 
self a self-constituted court, not only of 
original, but of appellate jurisdiction — in 
every sense a poor man's, a poor 
woman's and a poor child's court, whose 
judgments do settle cases, while not hav- 
ing the recognition or the machinery of 
law to enforce them." 

Indeed in the very fulfillment of this 
function of counseling those seeking 
legal aid and informally adjudicating 
many of their difficulties, these societies 



have all along seen the necessity of being 
more than a legal dispensary for dealing 
with individual cases. At one point of 
their experience after another, their 
executives have come to the conclusion 
which Reginald H. Smith of the Boston 
Society reached in dealing with wage as- 
signments. 

"It struck me one day," he said, "that 
I could go on making these petty ad- 
justments day after day and that in the 
end the situation would be exactly the 
same, and that for one person to whom I 
could bring a little relief, a hundred 
went away without any relief." 

Taking up the case for a better statute 
from the data in the files of this society 
and other agencies, the enactment of the 
Massachusetts law dealing with the non- 
payment of wages was obtained. This 
better law, as in many other instances, 
not only protected those who had been 
victimized for the lack of it, but ex- 
empted the society from many claims for 
its help. 

The New York society thus did much 
t^protect seamen and other industrial 
classes from forms of injustices from 
which it was difficult to deliver the in- 
dividual. The Chicago Legal Aid So- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, i 9 i6 



7i 



ciety and the agencies which united to 
constitute it, were the Illinois pioneers 
in securing the protection of women and 
children from criminal aggression and 
exploitation. Largely through their 
effort the age of consent was raised to 
sixteen years and over, the penalty for 
seduction was increased, imprisonment 
was inflicted for contributing to the de- 
linquency of a child, pawners' societies 
were legally enabled to compete with the 
loan sharks and help drive them out of 
business, like societies for loaning money 
on wage assignments were authorized 
and organized, and a new law allowing 
the garnished employe to intervene and 
set up his rights was enacted. 

Among the topics dealing with the 
more technical points in the conduct of 
legal aid work were the problem in 
smaller cities, the participation of law 
school students, the relation to organ- 
ized charity, the services to business, 
particularly to the employers of labor, 
lessons of the municipal legal aid, now 
established in Dallas, Dayton, Duluth, 
Kansas City and St. Louis, and the ques- 
tion "Should Legal Aid Societies Charge 
Fees for Services?" The opinions 
elicited by the speaker, Mr. Maude P. 
Boyes of the Chicago Society, were al- 
most evenly divided for and against fees 
and commissions. 

The registration included representa- 
tives of twenty legal aid societies, five 
municipal legal aid bureaus ( Dallas, 
Dayton, Duluth, Kansas City, St. Louis), 
nineteen legal agencies of Associated 
Charities, two law schools, one bar as- 
sociation and one Young Women's 
Christian Association, located in forty- 
six cities, from Boston, New Orleans and 
Dallas to Winnepeg and San Francisco. 
Albert F. Bigelow of the Boston Society 
was elected president of the Alliance. 
The motion to hold the next meeting at 
the time and place of the National Con- 
ference of Charities and Correction 
failed to pass. 

PRISON REFORM 

MORE and more the sessions of the 
American Prison Association are 
emphasizing the need of the medical and 
psychological study of law-breakers if 
our methods of reformation are to suc- 
ceed. Wardens, judges, chaplains, 
prison physicians and all who have to 
do with the prisoner from trial to re- 
lease are finding agreement on what, a 
dozen years ago, was one of the novel- 
ties of prison study. Whatever the 
treatment contemplated — self-govern- 
ment, honor system, indeterminate sen- 
tence, parole, or what not — it is recog- 
nized that, preceding action, there must 
be detailed knowledge of mental traits 
and degree of responsibility. 

Last week's meeting of the association 
in Buffalo, though discussing many as- 
pects of prison administration and re- 
form, laid further stress upon this pre- 
requisite of action. The issue was put 



graphically by Dr. Paul M. Bowers, 
medical superintendent of the Indiana 
State Hospital for Insane Criminals, who 
said: "Probably 50 per cent of all juri- 
dical proceedings are concerned with 
criminality, and yet our jurists placidly 
and contentedly continue to study their 
books* instead of men, searching in 
ponderous and ancient volumes of cita- 
tions, resurrecting decisions from the 
legal graveyard of the past; and, with 
crumbling, moth-eaten and time-worn 
precedents, they attempt to regulate the 
anti-social conduct that springs from a 
disordered mentality." 

Over twenty institutions and societies 
maintaining psychological clinics were 
represented at the meeting. The ex- 
tent to which some of those engaged in 
the work of such clinics are willing to 
go as a result of their observations was 
brought out by Dr. William H. Kraemer, 
who has made a special study of prison- 
ers in the New Castle County Work- 
house, Delaware. Dr. Kraemer said : 
"My observations have led me to believe 
that a person who is unable to live with- 
in the laws of human society, and who 
has been committed to a prison on two 
separate, distinct charges and at two 
different times, is suffering from some 



injury or disease, physical or mental, 
congenital or acquired, which is responsi- 
ble for his abnormal conduct and be- 
havior." 

Dr. Bowers, too, had the results of a 
personal study to offer. He had studied 
one hundred recidivists, each of whom 
had been convicted not fewer than four 
times, and of these twelve were insane, 
twenty-three feebleminded, and ten epi- 
leptic. In each case, he said, the mental 
defectiveness bore a direct casual rela- 
tion to the crime committed. The folly 
of our usual criminal procedure in such 
cases was driven home as follows : 

"No less than 108 trials have been held 
for these persons. It is reported by good 
authority that it costs no less than $1,000 
to convict a prisoner; so at that rate the 
lowest possible expense to the common- 
wealth was $180,000. And, three times, 
each one of these defective individuals 
had been released to prey upon society, 
while no permanent good whatever has 
been accomplished." 

The impossibility of reforming prison- 
ers en masse, and the need of individual 
treatment not unlike that involved in 
psychoanalysis was strongly put by Dr. 
Guy G. Fernald, resident physician at the 
Massachusetts State Reformatory. 



. ! 


BOOKS 





Following 

After 
the Dutch 



Scandinavian Immigrants .in New 
York (1630-1674) 

By John Oluf Evjen. K. C. Holter 
Publishing Company. Price $2.50 ; by 
mail of The Survey $2.75. 

The problems of 
New York state and 
city are essentially an 
exaggerated form of 
the great American 
problem of keeping 
unity among various 
racial stocks, without 
crushing the initiative 
of any ethnic group, 
Professor Evjen in 
this book shows that 
the Scandinavians 
were a more important element in New 
Amsterdam than heretofore realized, and 
gives biographical particulars of fifty- 
seven Norwegian, ninety-seven Danish 
and thirty-four Swedish immigrants. In 
an appendix he gives an account of some 
180 Germanic immigrants. 

The Dutch laid the foundation for 
Americanism by their racial tolerance. 
They absorbed these early Scandinavians 
and Germans so completely that many 
descendants of these settlers are ignorant 
of the true origin of their family names. 
This was partly because the sexes were 
not equally represented among these im- 
migrants, so that marriage outside of 



the Scandinavian or German groups was 
almost necessary. The Germans and 
Scandinavians were held together by 
their Lutheranism, but showed a power 
that is still with them, of being assimi- 
lated without losing their national char- 
acteristics. 

Professor Evjen shows a justifiable 
pride in the achievements of his kinsmen, 
but he does not gloss over their failings. 
For this reason the student of eugenics 
must be interested in his account of in- 
dividuals whose germ-plasm has affected 
our national life and become a part of 
its fabric for over two centuries and a 
half. There is something of sociological 
significance in the fact that Professor 
Evjen feels no need of apologetics. It 
shows that the Scandinavians in this 
country realize that they hold an assured 
place. 

Joseph F. Gould. 

Poverty and Social Progress 

By Maurice Parmelee. The Macmillan 
Co. 477 pp. Price $1.75; by mail of 
The Survey $1.87. 

One can scarcely imagine a more diffi- 
cult task than that of bringing into one 
volume the multitude of facts and theo- 
ries that the last quarter of a century has 
contributed to the problem of poverty. 
Biology, psychology, politics and social 
work, as well as economics, have all to be 



72 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, 1916 



considered together with the many re- 
medial and preventive measures that have 
been proposed. 

This is what Professor Parmelee's 
book undertakes. Having been written 
as a textbook, its treatment of many of 
the problems it discusses is not so ex- 
haustive as the person seeking a refer- 
ence book upon this subject might de- 
sire. Professor Parmelee summarizes 
the arguments for and against the vari- 
ous social remedies and theories that 
those who are trying to solve or ex- 
plain the problem of poverty have de- 
veloped. It is, however, not always easy 
to draw for oneself a clear-cut conclu- 
sion after reading the discussion of these 
topics. 

Professor Parmelee is a social evolu- 
tionist rather than a revolutionist. His 
ideal is the democratic society, but he 
does not define the political and social 
characteristics of the society in such 
detail as the reader might desire. He 
accepts as steps toward the realization of 
his ideal most of the reforms which 
social workers generally believe will im- 
prove working and living conditions. 
Among the controversial measures which 
he endorses are the regulation of popu- 
lation through birth control and the re- 
striction of immigration, and the increase 
of the tax upon land. 

The book bears the marks of large and 
wide reading which has not been suffi- 
ciently digested. It is loosely knit to- 
gether and, as far as style and diction 
are concerned, could be improved by re- 
writing. 

Karl de Schweinitz. 

The Boycott in American Trade 
Unions 

By Leo Wolman. The Johns Hopkins 
Press. 148 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of 
The Survey $1.06. 

This monograph, in 
the words of the 
author, "is designed 
to make an impartial 
study of the boycott in 
its relation to trade 
unionism; of the cir- 
cumstances which at- 
tend the emergence of 
the boycott; of its 
value as an organiz- 
ing device; of the 
effect upon trade 
unionism ; of its abandonment as a re- 
source of enforcement; of the extent to 
which it is employed; and finally of its 
legal and ethical aspects." 

While it cannot be said that Dr. Wol- 
man has gone exhaustively into all the 
foregoing phases of the boycott, he has 
nevertheless contributed a book of 
marked value to organized labor. 

To the social reformer who is seeking 
to decide whether he should advocate or 
oppose the legalization of the boycott, 
the discussion regarding the conditions 
under which boycotts emerge and the 
function they perform is particularly im- 
portant. Dr. Wolman claims that boy- 
cotts have arisen in connection with 
those industries in which it has been 
found impossible or extremely difficult, 
without its use, to organize the workers 



Functions 

of 
Boycotts 




or in which a strike has failed as a re- 
sult of labor's inability to keep its ranks 
intact. He declares that the use of the 
boycott has been effective in the past in 
organizing many trades that would other- 
wise have been deprived of the ad- 
vantage of collective bargaining and that 
there are still a large number of in- 
dustries in which the organizing function 
of the boycott might prove of distinct 
value to society. 

The impression left by Dr. Wolman, 
however, that boycotts will have no 
further legitimate function to perform 
when the various trades are well or- 
ganized is, it seems to the writer, un- 
fortunate. For following thorough or- 
ganization, the workers will undoubtedly 
need to continue their struggle for a 
still higher standard of living if the best 
interests of society are to be served, and 
in many industries they are likely to find 
that they can achieve their ends with the 
expenditure of far less effort through the 
employment of the boycott than through 
that of the strike. 

The statement of the author that trade 
unions, with their loose federations, and, 
be it said, their endless jurisdictional 
disputes, are as well adapted to an effec- 
tive use of the boycott as are industrial 
unions, seems also of questionable 
validity. 

On the whole, however, Dr. Wolman's 
dissertation is an admirable complemen- 
tary study to the literature on this sub- 
ject and is essential to a proper under- 
standing of the place of the boycott in 
the American trade union movement. 
Harry W. Laidler. 

BOOKS RECEIVED 

Phyllis McPhilemy. By May Baldwin. B. 
P. Button & Co. 314 pp. Price $1.50; by 
mail of The Survey $1.64. 

In Khaki for the King. By Escott Lynn. 
E. P. Dutton & Co. 375 pp. Price $1.50; 
by mail of The Survey $1.65. 

Standards of Health Insurance. By I. M. 
Rubinow. Henry Holt & Co. 322 pp. Price 
$1.50; by mail of The Survey $1.59. 

Friends of Franck. The Field Service of the 
American Amhul a ice described by its mem- 
bers. Houghton Mifflin Co. 295 pp. Price 
$2 : by mail of The Survey $2.15. 

A Little Book of Irish Verse. By Albert 
C. White. E. P. Dutton & Co., Agts. 79 
pp. Trice $.60; by mail of The Survey $.63. 

The Year Oct of Poors. By Dallas Lore 
Sharp. Houghton Mifflin Co. 106 pp. Price 
$.35 ; by mall of The Survey $.40. 

The Backwash of War. By Ellen N. LaMotte. 
186 pp. Price $1 ; by mall of The Survey 
$1.08. 

The Institutional Care of the Insane in 
the United States and Canada. Vol. II. 
Edited by Henrv M. Hurd. The Johns Hop- 
kins Press. 897 pp. Price $2.50 cloth ; by 
mail of The Survey $2.80. 

A Laboratory Manual op Foods and Cookery. 
Bv Emma B. Matteson and Ethel M. New- 
lands. The Macmillan Co. 325 pp. Price 
$1.50; by mail of The Survey $1.64. 

Problems of Religion. By Durant Drake. 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 425 pp. Price $2; by 
mail of The Survey $2.14. 

The American Labor Year Book, 1916. Pre- 
pared and published by the Rand School of 
Social Science. 382 pp. Price $.50 paper; 
by mall of The Survey $.58. 

The Public and Its School. By William Mc- 
Andrew. World Book Co. 76 pp. Price 
$.50 ; by mail of The Survey $.53. 

The Woman Movement From the Point of 
View of Social Consciousness. By Jessie 
Taft. University of Chicago Press. 62 pp. 
Price $.54 paper; by mall of The Survey 
$.58. 

Woman on Her Own. False Gods and the Red 
Robe By Eugene Brieux. Translated by 
Mrs. Bernard Shaw, J. F. Fagan and A. 
Bernard Miall. Brentano. 330 pp. Price 
$1.50; by mall of The Survey $1.61. 



How to Learn Easily. By George Van Ness 
Dearborn. Little, Brown & Co. 227 pp. 
Price $1 ; by mail of The Survey $1.10. 

The Question as a Factor in Teaching. By 
John William and Alice Cynthia Hall. Hough- 
otn Mifflin Co. 189 pp. Price $1.25 ; by 
mail of The Survey $1.35. 

The High School Prize Speaker. By Will- 
iam Leonard Snow. Houghton Mifflin Co. 
240 pp. Price $.90; by mail of The Sur- 
vey- $.98. 

The Tide of Immigration. By Frank Ju- 
lian Warne. D. Appleton & Co. 388 pp. 
Price $2.50 ; by mail of The Survey $2.62. 

Fight for Food. By Leon A. Congdon. J. B. 
Lippincott Co. 207 pp. Price $1.25 ; by mail 
of The Survey $1.33. 

Content With Flies. By Mary and Jane 
Findlater. E. P. Dutton & Co. Ill pp. 
Price $1 ; by mail of The Survey $1.07. 

The Slavs of the War Zone . By W. F. 
Bailey. E. P. Dutton & Co. 268 pp. Price 
$3.50 ; by mail of The Survey $.,.64. 

Ethics of Democracy. By Louis F. Post. 
The Bobbs Merrill Co. 374 pp. Price $1.50 ; 
by mail of The Survey $1.62. 

The History of the Fabian Society. By Ed- 
ward R. Pease. E. P. Dutton & Co. 288 pp. 
Price $1.75 ; by mail of Tee Survey $1.84. 

The Painters of Florence. By Julia Cart- 
wright. E. P. Dutton & Co. 373 pp. Price 
$1.50 ; by mail of The Survey $1.59. 

Poverty and Riches. By Scott Nearing. 
John C. Winston Co. 261 pp. Price $1 ; by 
mail of The Survey $1.11. 

A Political and Social History of Modern 
Europe. Vol. I., 1500-1815. By Carlton J. 
H. Hayes. The Macmillan Co. 597 pp. 
Price $2 ; by mail of The Survey $2.22. 
Vol. II., 1815-1915. 767 pp. Price $2.25 ; 
by mail of The Survey $2.49. 

The Wrack of the Storm. By Maurice Mae- 
terlinck. Dodd, Mead & Co. 330 pp. Price 
$1.50; by mail of The Survey $1.61. 

Official Diplomatic Documents Relating to 
the Outbreak of the European War. By 
Edmund Von Mach. The Macmillan Co. 
1240 pp. Price $6 ; by mail of The Survey 
$6.38. 
The Mothercraft Manual. By May L. 
Read. Little, Brown & Co. 440 pp. Price 
$1.25 ; by mail of The Survey $1.35. 

Work-Accidents and the Law. Second Edi- 
tion. By Crystal Eastman. The Pittsburgh 
Survey. Published bv The Survey Associates, 
Inc., for the Russell Sage Foundation. 335 
pp. Price $1.50; bv mail of The Survey 
$1.72. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



THE DEVIL WITH FIRE 

To the Editor: When the world's 
congress and the world's supreme court 
shall have become established facts and 
the nations of the earth have agreed to 
abide by the laws of such congress and 
supreme court, then may it be made a 
law that if any ruler or government body 
(be it a congress, parliament, reichstag 
or any other) declares or begins a war, 
every ruler or member of a governing 
body that votes for war shall be executed 
if the world's army and navy can cap- 
ture the offenders. And further, may 
it be enacted that if any public speakex 
or publisher of any publication incites 
to war every such speaker, editor or pub- 
lisher shall be likewise executed. Then 
we may believe that war ("the sport of 
king's") will be a matter of history only. 

A. N. Roe. 

Branchville, N. J. 

SABOTAGE FOR GERMS 

To the Editor : The knowledge of the 
hookworm and its ravages in reducing 
the efficiency of American citizens are 
popularly known. The reports of the 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, ipi6 



73 



bacteriologists, the illustrated pamphlets 
telling us about the rural conditions, the 
work of the laboratories, and the cures 
effected, furnish interesting reading. Al- 
ready the literature of the subject is 
large. 

Yet, after all, are not the feet, especial- 
ly the soft parts — notably the tender 
skin between the toes — the chief gate- 
ways of entrance of the deadly parasite 
into the system? Why not then case 
the feet in defensive armor? Leather 
will no more suffice for prevention than 
will heathen charms or Christian cloth 
to keep out bullets. Wherever crack or 
hole, stitch or peg allow water to pene- 
trate, there the hookworm follows. 

But there is one sort of foot-gear im- 
pervious to the Necator Americanus. 
Wherever the sabot, clomper-klomp, or 
wooden shoe is worn, this pest must 
reach man by some other route — from his 
fellow animals, or by infection through 
carelessness. 

The wooden shoe — dry, comfortable, 
easy to wear, to put on and off, cheap 
and durable — is not perhaps fitted for 
use on pavements nor is it likely to 
suit American taste in the cities. But 
for life on farms, gardens, barn yards, 
ploughed soil, country roads, what bet- 
ter foot-gear? 

An ounce of prevention in this line of 
service is worth a pound, even of scien- 
tific, cure. Why does not some enter- 
prising American give a demonstration of 
the value and economy of the wooden 
shoe ? The money saved annually 
through the substitution of wood for 
leather, to be used during working hours 
would build many schoolhouses and 
properly equip them. It would beautify 
and make more comfortable the average 
home in the devastated regions. Once 
fashionable or at least made popular, as 
it is already in Europe among some of 
the best of the world's citizens, such a 
change would add largely to human 
values and efficiency. I speak after see- 
ing the parasite and its awful ravages. 

Not on ice, not for a race, not for 
fashion — silly or sane — but for economy, 
comfort and the prevention of a scourge 
that is wasting and deadly, do I hope to 
see wooden shoes in rural America. Nor 
do I fear any just reproach of the writer 
or the courageous innovator if, in the 
words of the Dutch proverb, "He stands 
on his word like a farmer in his klomps." 
William Elliott Griffis. 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

APPEALS 

To the Editor: I would like to ex- 
press a word of sympathy with the 
writer of a short article in your num- 
ber for August 26 headed Appeals. 

There must be many who like myself, 
are annoyed and at times exasperated 
by the number, the persistence, the tone, 
and the unreasonable duplication of ap- 
peals for charity of all sorts and kinds. 

It is hard to say which are the most 
objectionable — the ones claiming to rep- 
resent the only true and dependable so- 
ciety for the relief of this or that (while 
you have on your table half a dozen 
others claiming the same thing,) or the 
ones who will never take no for an an- 
swer but go on and on, using up your sub- 



scription, as your correspondent puts 
it, over and over again in the effort to 
get more out of you. Worst of all are 
the societies or committees who do not 
methodically divide up their lists of pos- 
sible donors but who each and all ap- 
ply to the same people. I could send 
you a big bundle of their so called 
"literature" to prove this. The expendi- 
ture for stationery and postage, for of- 
fice time and clerical help must eat up 
a large part of their receipts. 

The whole thing is overdone, and 
tends to perplex and annoy those who 
really want to give but to do so judici- 
ously and to the right agents. 

E. W. H. 





JOTTINGS 





All Chicago extended a hearty welcome 
to Jane Addams, although she feels only 
"half at home" while able to spend only 
part of her time at Hull House during her 
encouraging convalescence. 



Photographs of the bas-relief, the 
Woman Physician, reproduced on the cov- 
er of The Survey for July 22, are for 
sale at the Woman's Medical College of 
Philadelphia. They are copyrighted by 
Clara Hill the sculptor, 1527 Newton 
street, Washington, D. C. 

A mistake occurred in the description of 
the Coney Island health exhibit, The Sur- 
vey for September 30. The advisory serv- 
ice connected with that exhibit was conduct- 
ed not by the New York Department of 
Health, but by the genito-urinary depart- 
ment of the Brooklyn Hospital. Dr. Alec 
Nichol Thomson and his assistants gave 
time to this work practically every day. 

There is no longer anv doubt that Mary 
C. Dunphy cannot be superintendent of the 
New York city Children's Hospital and 
Schools for the feebleminded on Randall's 
Island. The state Court of Appeals de- 
cided October 3 to sustain an earlier de- 
cision of the Appellate Division uphold- 
ing her dismissal by John A. Kingsbury, 
city commissioner of public charities. 



Eugene Cary Foster, for four years as- 
sistant superintendent of Lakeside Hospital, 
Cleveland, on October 1 became superin- 
tendent of the Charity Organization So- 
ciety of Indianapolis, Ind. Mr. Foster, who 
is a graduate of Oberlin, became assistant 
to James F. Jackson, superintendent of the 
Cleveland Associated Charities in 1908. 
During 1910 and 1911, while Superintend- 
ent Jackson was director of charities and 
corrections for the city, Mr. Foster was 
acting superintendent of the Associated 
Charities. 



The Rock River Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in session at 
Chicago declined to accept for its charitable 
institutions any aid from the city, county 
or state. In doing so it declared the ap- 
propriation of $278,425 of public moneys 
by the city of Chicago to eleven sectarian 
institutions and $15,782 to fifteen institu- 
tions in the county outside of the city to 
be an infringement of "the American doc- 
trine of separation of church and state," 
to which the allegiance of the conference 
was pledged by the action taken. 



In response to an inquiry, The Survey 
is glad to make clear that the two-page an- 
nouncement of the National Hughes Al- 
liance in the issue for October 7 was a 
paid advertisement, as was an announce- 
ment of the Democratic National Commit- 
tee in the issue for August 26. Both might 
well have been marked "advertisement," as 
is required by law in Massachusetts. But 
that readers were misled as to their char- 
acter, as our inquirer suggests, seems un- 
likely in view of the location in the ad- 
vertising pages and the style of composi- 
tion, in particular the coupons to be torn 
off and mailed to the advertiser. 



The Birmingham Age-Herald was re- 
cently in receipt of a letter from F. W. 
Haselwood of Willetts, California, enclos- 
ing a card circulated in that state (pre- 
sumably by local liquor interests) which 
distorted an article appearing in The Sur- 
vey for September 11, 1915 in regard to 
the relation between prohibition and Bir- 
mingham's finances and municipal activi- 
ties. This whole matter was gone into in 
The Survey last spring (The Survey 
for April 8, 1916) when we showed how 
thoroughly certain publicity agencies were 
twisting the original Survey article and 
brought out a statement from Commis- 
sioner Ward of Birmingham as to the 
facts. 



The savings bank section of the American 
Hankers Association is following up its ob- 
servance of the first century of American 
i ivings banks [sec The Survey for October 
7 J by preparing an exhaustive bibliography 
on thrift. It w.ll include not only the 
banking and commercial aspects of the sub- 
ject, but such wider aspects as are grouped 
under the following suggestive classifica- 
tions : the bank as a means of socializing 
thrift; family or domestic thrift; economics 
of thrift, agricultural and industrial; gov- 
ernment thrift, conservation, reclamation, 
reduction of waste from fire and in indus- 
trial and municipal administration; inter- 
national thrift, war-waste and the reduction 
of friction through uniformity of nego- 
tiable instruments, standardization of com- 
mercial practice and international banks ; 
sociology of thrift, waste, luxury and ex- 
travagance, charity and philanthropy, loan 
sharks, old age pensions. The suggest ion 
of titles will be welcomed by the librarian 
of the American Bankers Association at 5 
Nassau street, New York city. 



The New York Committee on Feeble- 
mindedness has been organized with the 
expectation of securing citizens from every 
section of the state as members of its gen- 
eral committee. The central offices are in 
the United Charities Building, New York 
city, in charge of an executive committee 
composed of Prof. Stephen E. Duggan, 
Maude E. Miner, Eleanor H. Johnson, 
Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, R. Bayard Cut- 
ting, Homer Folks and Franklin B. Kirk- 
bride. The executive secretary is James 
P. Heaton who for the past six years has 
been a member of The Survey staff. 
The committee announces it will strive 
through legislation for the early care, 
training and supervision of all mental de- 
fectives in the state; for measures and 
methods that are free from reasonable ob- 
jection for preventing a future increase in 
the number of the subnormal; for the es- 
tablishment of special classes in the public 
schools; and for the establishment of a 
svstem of guardianship and supervision in 
the home to supplement institutional and 
farm colony care. Its immediate goal is to 
double the number of beds for the feeble- 
minded and epileptic in New York state 
institutions. 



74 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER zi, iqi6 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates ares Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travel, Real Estate, twenty 
cents per line. 

"Want'' advertisements under the various head- 
ings "Situations Wanted," "Help Wanted," etc., five 
cents each word or initial, including the address, 
for each insertion* Address A-lvertising Depart- 
ment, The Survey, 112 East 19th St., New York City, 



PAMPHLETS 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

RESIDENT position wanted by woman 
of exeecutive ability familiar with all office 
detail. Now engaged in juvenile probation 
work. Address 2396, Survey. 

GRADUATE nurse desires position 
Tuberculosis Hospital or welfare work. 
Training and experience in social and hos- 
pital work. Best references. Address 2397, 
Survey. 

HELP WANTED 

WANTED — By social service organiza- 
tion a trained, experienced case worker. 
Address 2398, Survey. 

EXECUTIVE secretary for a social 
agency in an eastern city. Position re- 
quires some knowledge of the problems of 
public health, housing and city planning. 
State age, training and experience, also 
salary wanted. Include references Ad- 
dress 2399, Survey. 

BOOKS 



JUST PUBLISHED-THE SOCIAL SURVEY. 

By Carol Aronovici, Ph. D., Director Bureau for 
Social Research, Philadelphia. 268 pages, illus- 
trated. Cloth, $1.25. A synthesis of ten years 
experience in the Social Survey field, and em- 
bodying a working plan for applying a com- 
munity efficiency test. With copious bibliogra- 
phy. Sent postpaid. Harper Press, 1016 Chan- 
cellor St. Phila., Pa. 



THREE VOLUMES 

By Edward T. Devine 

THE NORMAL LIFE 

A careful description, a close-knit argument 
for the best things to be had— and how to get 
them — in childhood, in adolescence, in youth, 
in maturity, in old age. Price $1 ; by mail $ 1 .07. 

THE SPIRIT OF SOCIAL WORK 

Nine of Mr. Devine*a addresses, delivered 
at various times and places, full of the author's 
inspiring conviction that "ancient wrongs shall 
be righted." Price, postpaid, $1 .00. 

SOCIAL FORCES 

_ Twenty-five editorials from THE SURVEY 
in which Mr. Devine c ocuses on American prob- 
lems the world-wide experience of social work 
and theory gathered intc the news columns of 
the magazine from week to week. Price, post- 
paid, $ I .HI). 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, INC. 
112 East 19 Street New York, N. Y. 



FINANCIAL 



A SOUND INVESTMENT 

Our Annuity Blue Book explains a sure income ranging from 

4 per cent, to 9 per cent, on one life and 4 percent, to 8-3/10 

per cent, on two lives. This plan makes you your own executor 

and immortalizes your money after you have enjoyed a sure life 

income. These bonds are of special interest to Baptists and others 

who wish their money at last to help Christianize America. 

Forty years' experience. Write for our booklet. 

CHARLES L. WHITE 

The American Baptist Home Mission Society 

Department H, 23 East 26lh Street. New York 



Relating to Safety and Efficiency in 
Mines. May, 1916. Bulletin No. 2. Indus- 
trial Accident Commission, 525 Market street, 
San Francisco. 

Mines Safety Rules. Issued by the Indus- 
trial Accident Commission, 525 Market street, 
San Francisco. 

Lessons of War and Co-Paetnership. An 
Address by Mrs. Alexander Paul to the Co- 
partnership in War Time Committee, Port 
Sunlight, England. 

The New Prison System. By Hon. William 
H. Wadhams, judge of the Court of General 
Sessions, New York. Prison Leaflet, No. 36. 
Price 10 cents. National Committee on 
Prisons, Broadway and 116 street, New 
York city. 

International Labor Fordm. Price 10 cents. 
Latin-American News Association, 1400 
Broadway, New York. 

Economic Conditions and Juvenile Delin- 
quency. By Samuel C. Kohs, psychologist, 
Chicago House of Correction. Reprinted 
from the Journal of Delinquency. 

Public Service Opportunity and Prepared- 
ness. By J. L. Jacobs, consulting engineer, 
Monadnock Block, Chicago. Reprinted for 
private circulation from the Journal of the 
Western Society of Engineers. 

A Study in County Jails in California. 
1916. Made by the State Board of Charities 
and Corrections, 411 Call building, ban Fran- 
cisco. 

Proportional Representation. A reply to 
Prof. H. G. James. By John H. Humphreys, 
secretary, Proportional Representation So- 
ciety, London. Am. P. R. League Pamphlet 
No. 8. July, 1916. Price, postpaid 4 cents ; 
per dozen, to one address postpaid 30 cents. 
American Proportional Representation 
League, general secretary C. G. Hoag, Hav- 
erford, Pa. Reprinted from the National 
Municipal Review. 

Prostitution and the Police. By Raymond 
B. Fosdick. Price 5 cents. The American 
Social Hygiene Association, 105 West 40 
street. New York city. Reprinted from the 
Boston Medical and Surf/ica! Journal. 

The Prevention of Venereal Diseases in the 
Army. By Otto May, M.D., joint honorary 
secretary, British National Council for Com- 
bating venereal Diseases. Price 5 cents. 
The American Social Hygiene Association, 
105 West -in street, New York city. Be 
printed from The Practitioner. Reprinted 
from the Boston Medical and Surgical Jour- 
nal. 

Tuberculosis. Bulletin of the Russell 

Foundation Library, 130 East 22 street, New 
York city. No. 18, August, 1916. 

The Relation of Syphilis to Mental Dis- 
ease. By Samuel T. Orton, M.D., clinical 
director and pathologist, Pennsylvania Hos- 
pital for the Insane, Philadelphia. Publica- 
tion No. 10. Massachusetts Society for 
Mental Hygiene. Room 313 Ford building. 15 
Ashburton place. Boston. Reprinted from 
the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 

What is Practicable in the Way of Preven- 
tion of Mental Defect. By Walter E. 
Fernald, M.D. Publication No. 6. Massa- 
chusetts Society for Mental Hygiene, Room 
313 Ford building. 15 Ashburton place, Bos- 
ton. Reprinted from the Boston Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 

What Shall Be the Attitude of the Public 
Toward the Recovered Insane Patient? 
Bv H. C. Solomon, M.D. Publication No. 9. 
Massachusetts Society for Mental Hygiene, 
Room 313 Ford building, 15 Ashburton place, 
Boston. Reprinted from the Boston Medical 
and Surgical Journal. 

After-Care of Mental Patients. By Henry 
P. Frost, M.D., superintendent, Boston State 
Hospital, Dorchester Center, Mass. Publica- 
tion No. 11. Massachusetts Society for 
Mental Hygiene, Room 313 Ford building. 15 
Ashburton place. Boston. Reprinted from 
the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 

Preventable Forms of Mental Disease and 
How to Prevent Them. By E. Stanley Ab- 
bot, M.D., pathologist, McLean Hospital, 
Waverley, Mass. Publication No. 12. Massa- 
chusetts" Society for Mental Hygiene, Room 
313 Ford building. 15 Ashburton place. Bos- 
ton. Reprinted from the Boston Medical and 
Surgical Journal. 

Occupations As a Remedial Factor in Hos- 
pitals for the Mentally Sick. By Emily 



L. Haines, supervisor of industries, State 
Board of Insanity, Boston. Publication No. 
13. Massachusetts Society for Mental Hy- 
giene, Room 313 Ford building, 15 Ashburton 
place, Boston. Reprinted from the Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal. 

A Report of Sixty-Four Cases of Epilepsy 
in Patients from Fourteen Years to Forty 
Years of Age. By L. R. Waters, Social 
Service Department, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Trade Unions and Efficiency. By Ordway 
Tead, industrial counselor, 75 State street, 
Boston. Reprinted from tEe American Jour- 
nal of Sociology. 

Meeting the Mentally Sick Half Way. By 
George A. Hastings, executive secretary. 
Mental Hygiene Committee, New York State 
Charities Aid Association, 105 East 22 street, 
New York city. 

The Liquor Question and Municipal Re- 
form. By George C. Sikes, Chicago. Re- 
printed from National Municipal Review, 
North American building, Philadelphia. 

Free Tumor Diagnosis As A Function of 
State Public Health Laboratories. By 
Leverett Dale Bristol, M.D. Bulletin 11. 
July, 1916. Publications of the American 
Society for the Control of Cancer, 25 West 45 
street, New York city. 

Morals and Venereal Disease. By Edward 
L. Keyes, Jr. Morrow Memorial Series. Pub- 
lication No. 58. The American Social Hy- 
giene Associaton, 105 West 40 street, New 
York city. 

Sex in Life. By Donald B. Armstrong, M.D.. 
and Eunice B. Armstrong. Publication No. 
52. American Social Hygiene Association, 
105 West 40 street. New York city. 

A Study of Mortality Statistics of South- 
ern Communities. By Lee K. Frankel, sixth 
vice-president. Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, 1 Madison avenue, New York city. 

Lynching. Removing Its Causes. By W. D. 
Weatherford. Address J. E. McCulloch. South- 
ern Sociological Congress. Nashville, Tenn. 

More Houses for Bridgeport. Report to the 
Chamber of Commerce, Bridgeport, Conn. 
By John Nolen, city planner, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

The Soil of Battle Creek. By Wilfred Gren- 
t'ell, M.D. Reprinted from the Modern Hos- 
pital. Battle Creek Sanitarium, Battle 
Creek, Mich. 

The Simple Life in a Nutshell. By J. H. 
Kellogg, M.D. Battle Creek Sanitarium, Bat- 
tle Creek, Mich. 

A Sanitarium Experience: What the Bat- 
tle Creek Sanitarium Really Is. By Dr. 
Frank Crane, editorial writer. Associated 
Newspapers, New York. Battle Creek Sani- 
tarium. Battle Creek, Mich. 

Some Impending National Problems. By 
Irving Fisher, Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn. Reprinted from the Journal of Polit- 
ical Economy 

Schools of Nursing. Requirements imi 
Curriculum. California State Boanl of 
Health, Bureau of Registration of Nurses 
1916. State Printing Office, Sacramento, 
Cal. 

Annotated List of Text and Reference 
Books for Schools of Nursing. California 
State Board of Health, Bureau of Registra- 
tion of Nurses. 1916. State Printing Office, 
Sacramento, Cal. 

1'eyote or Mescal. As a drug and cult. By Rev, 
Henry Vruwink. Women's Board of Domes 
tic Missions. Reformed Church in America, 
26 East 22 street. New York cTty. 

Rural School Sanitation. By Taliafero 
Clark, and George L. Collins, and W. L. 
Treadway. Public Health Bulletin. No ,7. 
June, 1916. Price 15 cents. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

I'KLl'AREDNESS Plus : THE MEXICAN QUESTION, 

World Peace Programs. Data presented by 
George H. Shlbley, director Research Insti- 
tute of Washington. Price 5 cents a copy ; 
6 copies for 25 cents, or 7 copies if to one 
address. The League tor World Peace, 280 
Madison avenue, New York city. 
Legal Training for Social Workers. By 
Harry J. McClean. Price 15 cents a copy 
Special rates for 5 or more copies. Southern 
California Sociological Society, University of 
Southern California, Los Angeles. 

Exercises and Questions for Use with 
"Principles of Money and Ranking." By 
Harold J. Moulton. Price 54 cents postpaid. 
University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 

Health INSURANCE, its Relation to the Pub- 
lic Health. Second Edition. By B. S. 
Warren and Edgar Sydenstricker. Public 
Health Bulletin, No. 7G. March. 1016. Price 
lo cents a copy. Government Printing Office, 
Washington. 1>. C. 

Unemployment in the United states. Vnited 
states Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bulletin 
No. 195, July, 1918, Price 16 cents a copy 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D C. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER si, 1016 



75 





CALENDAR OF 
CONFERENCES 





Items for the next calendar should reach 
The Survey before November 8. 

October and November 

Blindness, National Committee for the 
Prevention of. New York city, Novem- 
ber 24. Sec'y, Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, 
130 East 22 street, New York city. 

Chamber of Commerce, Western New Eng- 
land. Springfield, Mass., November 22. 
Sec'y. James P. Taylor, Burlington, Vt. 

Charities and Correction, Iowa State Con- 
ference of. Ottumwa, la., October 22-24. 
Sec'y. Miss Bessie A. McClenahan, Iowa 
City, la. 

Charities and Correction, New York 
State Conference of. Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y. November 14-16. Sec'y, Richard 
W. Wallace, Box 17, The Capitol, Albany, 
N. Y. 

Charities and Correction, Ohio State Con- 
ference of. Youngstown, Ohio. Novem- 
ber 14-17. Sec'y, H. H. Shirer, 1010 
Hartman building, Columbus, O. 

Charities and Correction, West Va. State 
Conference of. Clarksburg, W. Va., No- 
vember 20-22. Sec'y, A. E. Sinks, 300 
Board of Trade bldg., Wheeling, W. Va. 

Charities, Massachusetts State Conference 
of. Lowell, Mass., October 25-27. Sec'y, 
Richard K. Conant, 6 Beacon street, 
Boston. 

Child Welfare Conference, Iowa City, 
la., October 25-27. Further information 
may be secured from the State Uni- 
versity, Iowa City, la. 

City Managers' Association, Springfield, 
Mass., November 20-23. Sec'y, O. E. 
Carr, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Civic League, Massachusetts. Springfield, 
Mass., November 21. Sec'y, Edward T. 
Hartman, 3 Joy street, Boston, Mass. 

Civic Secretaries Conference. Springfield, 
Mass., November 23-24. Sec'y, Hornell 
Hart, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teach- 
ers' Association, Iowa. Biennial meet- 
ing. Iowa City, la., October 25-27. Pres- 
ident Mrs. A. O. Ruste, Charles City, la. 

Consumers' League, National. Springfield, 
Mass., November 15-16. Gen. Sec'y, Mrs. 
Florence Kelley, 289 Fourth avenue, New 
York. 

Jewish Farmers of America, The Fed- 
eration of. New York city, November 
28-December 2. Sec'y, J. W. Pincus, 174 
Second avenue, New York city. 

Municipalities, League of Texas. Hills- 
boro, Texas, October 26-28. Sec'y, Prot. 
H. G. James, Austin, Texas. 

Municipal League, Intercollegiate Division 
of National. Springfield, November 22- 

23. Sec'y, Arthur Evans Wood, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Municipal League, National. Springfield, 
Mass., November 23-25. Sec'y, Clinton 
Rogers Woodruff, North American bldg., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Municipal Research Workers, Springfield, 
Mass., November 22-23. Sec'y, L. D. 
Upson, Detroit, Mich. 

Planning Boards, Massachusetts Federa- 
tion of. Springfield, Mass., November 23- 

24. Sec'y, Arthur C. Comey, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Probation Officers, New York State Con- 
ference of. Poughkeepsie, N. Y., No- 
vember 12-14. Sec'y, Charles L. Chute, 
State Probation Commission, Albany, 

N. Y. 



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Notable Articles in the October Number 
of the 

INTERNATIONAL 
JOURNAL OF ETHICS 



The Tendencies and Significance 
of Recent Legislation Ernst Freund 

A striking survey and interpretation of the 
great trends, particularly of social legislation. 

Birth Control and Biological 

EthicS Warner Flte 

A vital question, often ignored or flippantly 
treated, is here given serious discussion and 
viewed in the light of broad ethical principles. 

Magna Latrocinia — The State as it ought to be, 

and as it is L. S. Woolf 

The Making of the Professions, Edward A.Ross 
Legislative Antagonism to Ethical Principles 

Hon. S. H. Allen 

Religion and Life . . S. Radhakrishncn 

Ideals and Institutions . . J. Dashiell Stoops 

Reviews of Recent Books 

Quarterly . . $2.50 a year 65c. a number 

Address all correspondence to 

JameS H. TuftS The University of Chicago 
Chicago, Illinois 




NATION PRESS PATRONS 

Can Answer "Yes" To These Questions: 

Wilt my booklet, circular or stationery be the work of craftsmen? 

Will it be the product of a fully equipped print shop? 

Will it be "decidedly different" ? 

Will the stock, the engraving, the type and the style be just right? 

Will it be done on time? 
If your presenc printing does not measure up ':o "Nation Press" 
standards, we will De glad to show you how to improve it. 

The Nation Press, inc., 7» h ve E se y n k n tfee P t°Ne B w yo"£ 



THE most ENTERPRISING ENGLISH WEEKLY is the 

Cambridge Magazine 

Containing every week a comprehensive SURVEY 
(in 1 pages Survey size) of the 



Contributed by 
MRS. C. R. BUXTON. 
Romain Rolland 
Dr. A. C. Benson 
G. Lowes Dickinson 



WORLD'S PRESS 



Other contributors include: 
Vernon Lee Sir Arthur Qyiller-Couch 

Adelyne More Lady Margaret Sackville 

Gilbert Cannan The Hon. Bertrand Russell 

In addition to university affairs, current problems in Internationalism 
Philosophy and Sociology are dealt with by the leading English authorities. 

MISS JANE ADDAMS 

has rightly quoted it as representing the attitude of 

THE YOUNGER GENERATION 

flp Mail — Two Dollars per annum. 

THE CAMBRIDGE MAGAZINE, Theatre Bldgs., Cambridge, Eng. 



7 6 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 21, i 9 i6 



Public Health Association, American. 
Cincinnati, O., October 24-27. Sec'y, Dr. 
Selskar M. Gunn, 755 Boylston street, 
Boston. 

Public Service, Training School for. 
Springfield, Mass., November 22-23. Su- 
pervisor Charles A. Beard, 261 Broadway, 
New York city. 

Single Tax League, Massachusetts. Spring- 
field, Mass., November 20-24. Pres., Alex 
MacKendrick, 120 Boylston street, Bos- 
ton. 

Social Hygiene Association, American. 
St. Louis, Mo., November 20-21. Gen. 
Sec'y, Dr. W. F. Snow, 105 West 40 
street, New York city. 

Social Welfare, Missouri Conference for. 
Columbia, Mo., November, 1916. Sec'y, 
J. L. Wagner, Columbia, Mo. 

Social Welfare, Pennsylvania Conference 
on. Lancaster, Pa., October 26-28. 
Sec'y, J- Bruce Byall, 419 So. 15 street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Tuberculosis: Sectional Conference on. 
Southern States, Jackson, Fla., October 
30-31. Held under the auspices of the 
National Association for the Study and 
Prevention of Tuberculosis, 105 Hast 22 
street, New York city. 

LTniversities and Public Service. Third 
National Conference. Philadelphia, No- 
vember 15-16. Sec'y, Edward A. Fitz- 
patrick, Box 380, Madison, Wis. 

Welfare, Efficiency and Engineering 
Convention. Harrisburg, Pa., November 
21-23. Further information may be se- 
cured by addressing the Engineers' So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania, 31 So. Front street, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Women's Trade Union League and Na- 
tional Consumers' League (a confer- 
ence on the eight-hour day for women). 
Springfield, Mass., November 15. Secre- 
taries, Agnes Nestor, 166 W. Washington 
street, Chicago. Florence Kelley, 289 
Fourth avenue, New York city. 

International 

Seamen's Union of America, Inter- 
national. New York city, December 4. 
Sec'y, T. A. Hansen, 570 W. Lake street, 
Chicago. 

National 

Charities and Correction, National Con- 
ference of. Pittsburgh, Pa., June 6-13, 
1917. Sec'y, W. T. Cross, 315 Plymouth 
Court, Chicago. 

Churches of Christ in America, Federal 
Council of the. Third quadrennial coun- 
cil. St. Louis, Mo., December 6-13. Gen. 
Sec'y, Rev. Charles S. MacFarland, 105 
East 22 street, New York city. 

Economic Association, American. Colum- 
bus, O., December 27-30, 1916. Sec'y, 
W. G. Leland, 1140 Woodward bldg., 
Washington, D. C. 

Marketing and Farm Credits, Fourth Na- 
tional Conference on. Chicago, 111., De- 
cember 4-9. Sec'y, Charles W. Holman, 
230 So. LaSalle street, Chicago. 

Science, American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of. New York city, December 
26-30. Sec'y, L. O. Howard, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Sociological Society, American. Colum- 
bus, O., December 27-30. Sec'y, Scott 
E. W. Bedford, University of Chicago, 
Chicago. 

Statistical Association, American. Co- 
lumbus, O., December 27-30. Sec'y, Car- 
roll W. Doten, 491 Boylston street, 
Boston. 

State and Local 

Charities, Texas State Conference of. 
Austin, Texas. January 18. Sec'y, M. A. 
Turner, Room 215, City Hall, Houston. 
Texas. 



INFORMATION DESK 

The following national bodies will gladly and freely supply information and advise reading on the subjects 
named by each and on related subjects. Members are kept closely in touch with the work which each organi- 
zation is doing, but membership is not required of those seeking information. Correspondence is invited. Nominal 
charges are sometimes made for publications and pamphlets. Always enclose postage for reply. 



Health 


■QREVENTION OF BLINDNESS National 
T~ Committee for. Objects : To furnish in- 


QEX EDUCATION— New York Social Hy- 

^ giene Society, Formerly Society of Sanitary 
and Moral Prophylaxis, 105 West 40th 
Street, New York City. Maurice A. Bigelow, 
Secretary. Seven educational pamphlets, 10c. 
each. Four reprints, 5c each. Dues — Active 
$2.00; Contributing $5.00; Sustaining $10.00. 
Membership includes current and subsequent 
literature ; selected bibliographies. Maintains 
lecture bureau and health exhibit. 


formation for Associations, Commissions 
and persons working to conserve vision ; to pub- 
lish literature of movement ; to furnish exhibits, 
lantern slides, lectures. Printed matter : sam- 
ples free ; quantities at cost. Invites member- 
ship. Field. United States. Includes N. Y. 
State Com. Edward M. Van Cleve, Managing 
Director : Gordon L. Berry, Field Secretary ; 
Mrs. Winifred Hathaway, Secretary. Address, 
130 E. 22d St., N. Y. C. 






/^ANCER — American Society for the Control 
\^ of Cancer, 25 West 45th St., New York 
City. Curtis E. Lakeman, Exec. Secy. 
To disseminate knowledge concerning symp- 
toms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. 
Publications free on request. Annual member- 
ship dues $5. 


T^UGENCIS REGISTRY — Board of Direc- 
r*, tors, Chancellor David Starr Jordan, Pres- 
■^ ident ; Prof. Irving Fisher, Dr. C. B. Daven- 
port, Luther Burbank, Dr. J. H. Kellogg, Secretary. 
A bureau for the encouragement of interest 
in eugenics as a means of Race Betterment, 
established and maintained for the Race Better- 
ment Foundation in co-operation with the Eu- 
genics Record Office. Address, Eugenics Registry 


/COMMITTEE ON PROVISION FOR THE 


Board. Battle Creek, Mich. 


I, FEEBLE-MINDED — Objects : To dissem- 
inate knowledge concerning the extent 
and menace of feelile-tnindedness and to sug- 


Racial Problems 


gest and initiate methods for its control and 
ultimate eradication from the American people. 
General offices Empire Bldg , Phila., Pa. For in- 
formation, literature, etc., address Joseph P. Byers, 
Exec. Sec'y. 


XTEGRO YEAR BOOK— Meets the demand 
1^ for concise information concerning the 
condition and progress of the Negro 
Race. Extended bibliographies. Full index. 
Price 25c By mail 35c. Negro Year Book 
Company. Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. 

In addition to information in Negro Year 
Book, Tuskegee Institute will furnish other 
data on the condition and progress of the Ne- 
gro race. 


Tl 7TENTAL HYGIENE— National Committee 
[Vl ror Mental Hygiene, 50 Union Square, 
■*■** New York City, Clifford W. Beers. Secy. 
Write for pamphlets on mental hygiene, pre- 
vention of insanity and mental deficiency, care 
of insane and feeble-minded, surveys, social ser- 


vice in mental hygiene. State Societies for Men- 
tal Hygiene. 

\TATIONAL HEALTH -Committee of One 
l/V Hundred on National Health. E. F. Rob- 

* T bins, Exec. Sec. 203 E. ZTtli St., New 
York. To unite all government health agencies 
into a National Department of Health to in- 
form the people how to prevent disease. 


T TAMPTON INSTITUTE. HAMPTON. VA. 

J~l — Trains .Negro and Indian youth. "Great 
educational experiment station." Neither 
a state nor a government school. Supported 
by voluntary contributions. H. R. Frlssell, 
Principal: F. K. Rogers. Treasurer: W H. 
Seoville, Secretary. Free literature on race ad- 
justment. Hampton aims and methods. Southern 
Workman, illustrated monthly, $1 a year: free 
to donors. 




T* UBERCULOSIS — National Association for 
the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, 
■■■ 105 East 22nd St. New York. Charles J. 
Hatfield, M.D., Exec. Sec'y. Reports, pamph- 
lets, etc., sent upon request. Annual transac- 
tions and other publications free to members. 


"R TATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
1^ VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE 

* ^ 70 Fifth Avenue, New York. Publishes 
The, Crisis, a monthly magazine, 63 branches 
and locals. Legal aid. literasare, speakers, lan- 
tern slides, press material, etc President. 


f*}UBLIC HEALTH— American rublic Heallh 
J~ Association. Pres., John F. Anderson, 
M.D., New Brunswick. N. J. : Sec'y, Prof. 
S. M. Gunn, Boston. Object "To protect and 
promote public and personal health." Six Sec- 
tions: Laboratory. Sanitary Engineering, Vital 
Statistics, Sociological, Public Health Adminis- 
tration, Industrial Hygiene. Official monthly 
organ, American Journal of Public Health: 
$3.00 per year. 3 mos. trial subscription (to 
Survey readers 4 mos.) 50c. Address 755 
Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 

"rVTATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUB- 
_T\ LIC HEALTH NURSING — Object: to 
stimulate the extension of public health 
nursing ; to develop standards of technique ; to 
maintain a central bureau of information. Pub- 
lications ' Pub. Health Nursing Quarterly, $1.00 
per year, and bulletins. Address Ella Phillips 
Crandall, R. N. Exec. Sec, 25 West 45th St., 
New York City. 


Moorfield Storey: Chairman of tbe Roard of 
Directors, ,T. E. Splngarn : Vice President and 

Treasurer, Oswald Garrison VIRard: Director 
of Publications and Research, W. E. B. DuBoiS, 
Acting Secretary, Roy Nash 


Social and Economic Problems 


A MERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION- 

f\ Objects : "the encouragement of economic 
research," "the issue of publications on 
economic subjects," "the encouragement of per- 
fect freedom of economic discussion." The mem- 
bership includes the professional economists 
of the country together with many others inter- 
ested in scieutitic study of economic problems, 
Publications : American Economic Review. Pro- 
ceedings of Annual Meetings, and Handbook 
1 hies $5.00 a year. Secretary A. A. Young, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 


Remedial Loans 


qrfHE AMERICAN RED CROSS-Tlirough 
its Town and Country Nursing Service, 
maintains a staff of specially prepared 
visiting nurses for appointment to small towns 
and rural districts. Pamphlets supplied on 
organization and administration of visiting 
nurse associations ; personal assistance and ex- 
hibits available for local use. Apply to Su- 
perintendent, Red Cross Town and Country 
Nursing Service, Washington, D. C. 


f-\EMEDIAL LOANS— National Federation 
re of Remedial Loan Associations, ISO l'.. 
xx, 22nd St.. N. Y. Arthur II. Hani 

Reports, pamphlets, and forms for societies 
free. Information regarding organization of 
remedial loan societies gladly given. 


Work With Boys 


OOCIAL HYGIENE — The American Social 

7S Hygiene Assoc. Inc., 105 West 40th St. N. 
*"* Y. ; Branch Offices: 122 South Michigan 
Ave., Chicago ; Plielan Bldg., San Francisco. 
To promote sound sex education, the reduction 
of venereal diseases, and the suppression of com- 
mercialized vice. Quarterly magazine "Social 
Hygiene." Monthly Bulletin. Membership, $5 ; 
sustaining, $10. Information upon request. Pros., 
Abram W. Harris ; Gen. Sec'y, William F. Snow, 
M.D. ; Counsel, James B. Reynolds. 




nOYS' CLUB FEDERATION — National 
PS Headquarters, 1 Madison Ave.. New York 
*-^ City. Federation Includes Boys' Clubs, 
Boys' Depts, <>f Recreation ''enters. Settlements 

and Community Houses. A clearing house for 
information on subjects relating to work with 
boys. Printed matter distributed; workers fur 
nisheil ; assistance given in organizing. Wm. 
E. Hall. President; C. J. Atkinson. Lxecutlve 
Secretary, 




11 



hi \ % 



C092020 




FOR AN AMERICAN PEACE 
PLATFORM 

WITH one peace organization work- 
ing for one thing, another work- 
ing at cross purposes and some not 
working at all, it has proved difficult to 
define the peace movement in America 
and harder still to gauge its strength. 

Certain societies have yielded, since 
the war began, to intense partisan feel- 
ing among their directors and now exist 
in name only; other societies have been 
born out of the war or have been re- 
vitalized by the chance to practice what 
they have preached for many years. 
Everywhere, however, there is con- 
fusion, duplication of energy in this di- 
rection, hesitancy and sluggishness in 
that. 

The need of finding a substrata of 
common purpose beneath the efforts of 
different organizations has led to the 
calling of a private conference in New 
York city, October 26-27 by the Ameri- 
can branch of the Central Organization 
for Durable Peace, the American Peace 
Society and the Church Peace Union. 
Although the one hundred or more dele- 
gates who are coming to the conference 
will not actually represent peace parties 
or be authorized to act for certain 
bodies, they will include the officers, di- 
rectors and active workers who mould 
the policies and make the decisions for 
some twenty peace organizations. 

The proceedings of the conference, 
which will take place at the Broadway 
Tabernacle Church, Broadway and Fif- 
ty-sixth street, New York city, are di- 
vided into two parts. On the first day 
the sessions will be devoted to a con- 
sideration of World Problems, laying 
emphasis on the part that America may 
play in the settlement of the war. For 
example, such mooted questions as a 
league of nations, non-official conferen- 
ces at the time of the war settlement, 
the action of neutral nations in years of 
war, will be discussed by Frederick 
Lynch of the Church Peace Union, 
Hamilton Holt of the American Branch 
of the Central Organization for Dur- 
able Peace, and James Brown Scott, sec- 
retary of the Carnegie Endowment for 
International Peace. 



On the second day the conference will 
deal with strictly American Problems, 
including the question of military train- 
ing in schools, congressional measures 
to be promoted, Pan-American problems, 
and our oriental policy, Americanization 
of foreign citizens and methods of coop- 
eration between various peace societies. 

Whether a permanent council of these 
diverse agencies, a sort of clearing 
house for ideas and activities, will re- 
sult from the conference cannot be fore- 
told. But it is believed that a minimum 
program which all these societies can 
endorse and which will be a stepping 
stone toward concerted action for re- 
establishing international relations will 
be adopted. 

An appeal for such united prepared- 
ness for peace was made by Senator 
Henry La Fontaine of Belgium in the 
Advocate of Peace and in The Survey 
for August 5. 

"Where are those," asked Senator 
La Fontaine, "who claim that an inter- 
national mind would prevail in this west- 
ern hemisphere? Are they ready to 
combine their forces and to understand 
that no better opportunity will ever be 
given to them for such a decisive, neces- 
sary and redemptory advance?" 



Cesare in the New York Evening Post 




THE WIDOW S MITE 

"More!" 



MRS. O'LEARY'S BARN 
BURNED AGAIN 

IN New York 20,000 signs reading 
"This is Fire Prevention Day. Clean 
up rubbish," were distributed on Fire 
Prevention Day, October 9. Fire Com- 
missioner Adamson made a new thing 
out of the city's fire prevention parade. 
One float represented the annual fire 
waste in the form of a pile of gold. An- 
other illustrated the hazard of benzine, 
gasoline, and naptha, and a third em- 
phasized the importance and value of 
fire drills. Pageantry was called in to 
serve the good cause in quite a number 
of cities. 

Chicago burned Mrs. O'Leary's barn, 
on the waterfront, as a fearful reminder 
of the Chicago fire, 55 years ago to the 
day, starting from the careless hoof of 
the O'Leary cow. About fifty Chicago 
clubs and societies were asked to hang 
out banners and the hotels and restaur- 
ants were invited to print a line or two 
on their menu cards calling attention t© 
the day and its object. A notice was 
issued to 600 theaters requesting them 
to display on their screen a slide setting 
forth a few important precautions that 
should be taken by good citizens. 

In Philadelphia, 3,000 city vehicles 
were decorated with oblong yellow post- 
ers of printed commands and warnings 
and in Cleveland a striking folder set- 
ting out a dozen simple methods of re- 
ducing fire waste was issued by the 
Chamber of Commerce. Reference was 
made in many pulpits to the ethical and 
religious aspects of the question and 
much was done by sympathetic news- 
paper men to impress upon the public 
the importance of the movement. 

The hopeful sign, however, according 
to W. T. Colyer of the National Fire 
Protective Association was the unanim- 
ity with which attention in the schools 
was directed to fire prevention. Mr. 
Colyer writes: 

"A study of the records of fire and 
accident losses a few months hence may 
possibly yield evidences of the good 
work done, but the full effects — particu- 
larly as regards fire prevention — will 
probably not be felt until the children 
whose minds are now being formed, 

77 



78 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, i 9 i6 



come to have votes of their own enabl- 
ing them to secure improved legislation, 
and homes of their own in which they 
can turn to account the lessons they have 
received upon the dangers incident to 
neglected furnaces, heaters and chim- 
neys and untidy basements." 

FEDERATION OF EMPLOY- 
MENT BUREAUS 

ONE of the permanent achievements 
of the Unemployment Committee 
appointed by Mayor Mitchel during the 
crisis of 1914-15 is the formation of a 
Federation of Non-commercial Employ- 
ment Agencies of New York city. In 
a directory of public and other non- 
commercial employment bureaus in the 
city issued by the federation, there are 
listed eighty-five such bureaus, thirty- 
eight of which, including practically all 
those of importance, are members of the 
federation. Two at least of the mem- 
bers are themselves federations of wide 
scope, — the United Employment Bureau, 
a recent combination of two of the 
largest of these agencies; the Alliance 
and the Vacation War Relief Employ- 
ment Bureaus; and the Federated Em- 
ployment Bureau for Jewish Girls, with 
which are affiliated fifteen different Jew- 
ish organizations. 

At a recent dinner of the federation, 
over one hundred superintendents and 
clerks of placement bureaus and others 
interested in their work were present 
and listened to addresses by some of the 
city's foremost experts on different as- 
pects of this important social service. 

The principal needs met by this city- 
wide organization are the prevention of 
overlapping, in so far as this seriously 
affects the efficiency of each bureau, the 
assistance of the members by distribu- 
tion of information of common interest, 
but especially the gradual creation of 
greater uniformity in methods and the 
improvement of general standards. 

Through the generosity of some of 
the members, a central bureau of in- 
formation has been established which 
will investigate and report on employ- 
ment conditions and opportunities, upon 
the request of any individual bureau, 
and maintain a fact center for the fed- 
eration, concerning industrial standards 
observed by particular establishments. 
The bureau, in the beginning, will spe- 
cialize on employment opportunities for 
women and minors, and will pay par- 
ticular attention to the physical and 
moral surroundings and to opportunities 
for advancement and training. 

A committee is at work on the elabora- 
tion of a standard system of records and 
report; and though it is not likely that 
complete uniformity in this matter can 
immediately be secured, the educational 
effect of recommendations made by a 
committee elected by themselves upon 
the members is bound to be consider- 
able. Another committee is working 
out the best practice for the vocational 
guidance and placement of minors. One 



of the colleges of the city, at the request 
of the federation, has placed upon its 
syllabus for the coming winter a special 
course of training for officers of em- 
ployment bureaus. At the monthly meet- 
ings of the federation, addresses on 
various technical aspects of placement 
work are usually arranged for ; and the 
inspiration from a thorough discussion 
of difficult or controversial points has 
been found to raise and maintain intel- 
ligent interest in a service which is al- 
ways apt to become too much one of 
routine. 

MORRIS PLAN DIFFICULTIES 
IN OHIO 

AN interesting incident in connec- 
tion with the promotion of Mor- 
ris plan loan companies is an opinion 
recently rendered by Edward C. Turner, 
attorney-general of Ohio, holding that 
the plan has no place in Ohio under the 
present statutes and that certificates to 
operate the plan may not be granted 
legally by the superintendent of banks. 
In substance the attorney-general 
holds that Morris companies, though 
chartered as banks, are not conducting 
the business of banking; that the cost 
to the borrower on loans made under 
the plan is in excess of the rate allowed 
by the small loan law of 1915, and that 
the sale of "instalment certificates" if 
considered — as contended by the Mor- 
ris companies — as not involved in the 
making or paying of loans, is in violation 
of the law regulating bond investment 
companies. He concludes : "Without 
additional legislation here, companies 
operating under the Morris plan have 
no legal status in this state." 

Up to the present time four Morris 
companies with an aggregate capital of 
$750,000 have been formed in Cleveland, 
Canton, Springfield and Youngstown. 

SENTENCED TO PRISON OR 
STERILIZATION 

ONE of the most respected and ex- 
perienced judges in the criminal 
court at Chicago set a precedent, which 
is said to be the first of its kind, in giv- 
ing a prisoner the choice between going 
to prison for a crime of which he was 
convicted by a jury or of submitting to 
sterilization. In offering this alterna- 
tive from the bench, Judge Marcus A. 
Kavanaugh said to the prisoner, sixty- 
five years of age and a married man 
with children: 

"If I send you to the penitentiary it 
means death to you in your present 
health. At the same time I dare not turn 
you loose upon the public, for fear this 
mania with which you seem to be af- 
fected may cause you to attempt a sim- 
ilar crime, and then I would be at fault. 
If you will submit to an operation, with 
the choice of the best surgeons by next 
Saturday, I will set aside your sentence. 
I cannot compel you to submit and you 
will have a week to think the matter 
over. If you decide to do this, it will 



mean that you do not have to begin 
your sentence of from one to twenty 
years in the penitentiary." 

The prisoner subsequently decided to 
be sterilized. 

In commenting on the case the judge 
said he presumed he would be criticized 
for his proposition to the prisoner, but 
he wished neither to commit him to what 
really would be a death sentence, nor 
to expose the public to a repetition of 
his heinous offenses against little girls. 

"One of my reasons for rendering 
the decision," he added, "was to draw 
public attention to a situation which has 
been disregarded too long. I believe all 
morons, the criminal insane and habitual 
criminals, both men and women, should 
be so treated. To my mind it is a crime 
against society that this class should be 
permitted to propagate their kind. As 
for those who commit outrages against 
women and female children, I advocate 
even more drastic measures, which would 
make repetition of the acts impossible. 
It is my hope that public interest may 
be aroused." 

ON THE ROAD FROM CAPE 
COD TO BROADWAY 

THE Provincetown Players, newest 
of experimenters in drama, begin 
their first New York season early in 
November at 139 MacDougal street. 
There are about thirty of them — journal- 
ists, novelists, short-story writers, paint- 
ers, sculptors, socialists, social students, 
labor agitators, rebels, revolutionists, 
suffragists and reformers, and some with 
all these qualities combined. 

For several summers they have been 
collecting on Cape Cod. Since 1915 
they have been turning to drama as a 
means of expressing their ideas. First 
someone wrote a one-act play, which 
was given on the balcony of a private 
house overlooking the sea. Then orig- 
inal plays, all in one act, followed in 
rapid succession. Then, still in Prov- 
incetown, a picturesque little theater, 
originally a fish-house on an old wharf, 
was fitted up simply and the enterprise 
was launched. 

Now they have come to New York 
for one more experiment in cooperation. 
All the plays are written by members 
of the group; all the plays are judged 
by members of the group; all the plays 
are staged and acted by members of the 
group ; and — which is carrying commu- 
nity drama one step further — all the 
plays are watched by members of the 
group. They guard this togetherness 
with special care. Hutchins Hapgood, 
who is one of them, says: 

"It is up to the members of the Prov- 
incetown Players to prevent the gradual 
usurping of the selection of plays by any 
person or 'committee' within the group. 
If such a usurpation takes place, the 
players will have no special social or 
artistic meaning, though of course some 
good plays may be produced." 

"This Provincetown impulse." he goes 
on, "is an expression of what is stir- 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, i 9 i6 



79 



ring in many other fields today. . . . 
The community center movement, de- 
manding the building of social forms 
from within, is an analogous phenome- 
non. One might call it an aristocratic 
democracy. Not so big that a boss must 
usurp the power in order to be at all 
effective; not so small as to become ster- 
ilized by the mental habits, prejudices, 
and interests of one or two or three ac- 
tive and executively gifted individuals. 
. . . All the problems of democracy 
and of art, at the points where they 
touch, are latent in this little spontan- 
eous and hopeful group." 

According to Mr. Hapgood, the play- 
ers are holding as far aloof from pro- 
fessionalism as possible. They lay 
weight neither upon elaborate stage set- 
tings nor acting efficiency, — "not even 
upon the technique of a play except as a 
means to an end." That end is not 
propaganda of any sort, they say, but 
seems to be "to express a certain modern 
spirit." Their plays will be "in the 
moment of time, vital and spontaneous." 
They will be given four times, running 
for a fortnight, Friday and Saturday 
evenings. 

THREE YEARS OF CHARITY 
FEDERATION 

IN making his report for the third full 
year of the Cleveland Federation for 
Charity and Philanthropy, Charles W. 
Williams announced his resignation as 
executive secretary to take up the pro- 
motion of group and community insur- 
ance for the Kquitahle Life Insurance 
company of New York. 

Two of the federation's achievements 
the past year were the increased con- 
tributions which it secured from those 
who were already contributors, — well-to- 
do men were willing to give more if 
they could sign one check and have done 
with it ; and in the large number of new 
contributors secured. Thus 873 who had 
never previously contributed to any of 
the federated organizations, gave a total 
of more than $5,000. Their awakened 
interest, more than their money, was 
reckoned high among the year's assets. 

Total contributions for the year, Mr. 
Williams reported, are about $410,000, 
an increase of $100,000 over the year 
before, at a cost of 8 per cent. Adding 
to this the cost to organizations for col- 
lections from non-federated givers, made 
a total cost of about 9 per cent, against 
a collection cost of 12 to 14 per cent 
before federation in securing contribu- 
tions some $200,000 less. 

Following his graduation from Oberlin 
and theological study at Chicago Theo- 
logical Seminary and the University of 
Berlin, Mr. Williams became assistant 
to the president of Oberlin College, in 
charge of finance. There he worked out 
theories and plans for the financing of 
large educational enterprises which fell 
in well with the ideas of the Cleveland 
Chamber of Commerce Committee on 
Benevolent Institutions. 



The social agencies of Cleveland need- 
ed an adequate and steady income. The 
business men in the chamber wanted to 
be free of the importunities of countless 
solicitors. The result was the organiza- 
tion in March, 1913, of the Federation 
for Charity and Philanthropy with Mr. 
Williams as executive secretary and 
moving spirit. 

The Cleveland federation followed 
closely the earlier Jewish federations in 
a number of cities. But it was non- 
sectarian, and it was city-wide, including 
57 organizations, or practically all in the 
community. And, while it was preoccu- 
pied with the raising of funds, it was 
consciously attempting to promote co- 
operation among its member societies 
and education of the public through a 
highly organized publicity. 

THE NEW SWEEP O' THE 
WORLD 

THE Call, the Socialist daily in New 
York, has introduced a new Social 
Service department to run as a Sunday 
feature under the charge of A. H. How- 
land, a recruit from The Christian 
Herald. The purpose of this department 
is "to record the doings of the people 
who are trying to push society in the 
right direction, — the direction of 
brotherhood, of neighborliness, of help- 
fulness, who are trying to relieve the 
distress or right the wrongs of the world, 
particularly of America, and most par- 
ticularly of the Call's own city, New 
York." It was not labor in its fight with 
capital that achieved the "amazing vic- 
tory of the railway men at Washington", 
but the "present intense movement for 
social betterment that is gripping 
America." 

The first department gives a rapid 
survey of the advancement Socialism 
owes to the Church. "We hope good 
Bishop Greer will not begin to conduct 
or instigate an investigation to find out 
which half of his clergy are Socialists. 
But, after all, I remember that a clerical 
friend, not an Episcopalian, however, 
told me the other day that as a matter 
of fact the bishop himself was practically 
a philosophical anarchist. He did not, I 
am sure, mean anything more startling by 
that than that the dear bishop is such a 
gentle soul that he cannot bear to use 
force or sanction the use of it in any 
matters, ecclesiastical, social, or interna- 
tional," writes Mr. Howland, and goes 
on : "We see the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America, the 
official body, representing all the Prot- 
estant evangelical denominations of the 
United States, issuing a report on the 
Colorado strike which was almost as 
good as Walsh's own, and putting the 
blame squarely where we Socialists think 
it belongs." 

The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, Henry Ford, Thomas Mott Os- 
borne, Misha Appelbaum, Jane Addams, 



Ben Marsh, the work of the great foun- 
dations, the Russell Sage, the Carnegie, 
and the Rockefeller — for says The Call, 
— "this department will give credit to 
good work even if it is done by Rocke- 
feller !" — all come in for high praise. 

The Sweep O' the World is the name 
of the department and it wants to "find 
what is good wherever it may be." 

THE WHY AND THE WHEN 
OF TUBERCULOSIS 

WHEN the 1915 Legislature ap- 
propriated $100,000 to be expend- 
ed by the State Board of Health in 
studying the extent of tuberculosis in 
Michigan, and to devise a remedy, it 
placed a two year time limit upon the 
expenditure. Yet through the activity 
of those in charge of this campaign 22 
of the 83 counties of the state have al- 
ready been surveyed, and nearly a year 
is left of the period fixed by the appro- 
priation bill in which to complete the 
study. 

Throughout the past year the cam- 
paign has included three weeks duration 
in each county. An organization known 
as the Health First Party was formed, 
consisting of Dr. William de Kleine as 
director; Robert Todd, housing expert: 
Arnold Mulder, publicity agent, and sev- 
eral physicians and visiting nurses. Dur- 
ing the first week in a county, arrange- 
ments were made for full publicity, and 
for the series of free clinics that were to 
follow during the second week. News- 
papers everywhere cooperated generous- 
ly, printing sometimes two columns of 
publicity matter. The second week was 
given over to the free clinics; and dur- 
ing the final week public addresses were 
given on the disease itself, its causes, 
its prevention and cure. The nurses 
visited the homes of those found to be 
tuberculous, in order to tell them how 
best to make a fight for health and to 
protect other members of their family, 
and the records of that county's work 
were compiled. 

Meantime, after the second week, the 
publicity section of the party moved on 
and opened the campaign in the next 
center. 

"These investigations disclosed the 
fact," writes Mr. Todd, of the housing 
section of the campaign, "that a sur- 
prisingly large number of dark, un- 
ventilated living-rooms are found in the 
business streets of Michigan cities. 
One city has 46 houses, which contain 
159 interior rooms, 94 of which have no 
light at all, 66 are too dim to move 
through safely, and 78 too dim to read 
in on a cloudy day. This is the accumu- 
lation of bad living space through long 
years of neglect ; but even new houses 
in these cities are still being constructed 
with dark rooms and unventilated bath- 
rooms and water-closets." 

In view of such findings, the advis- 
ability of a state building code is being 
urged by the State Board of Health. 



The Retirement of Thomas Mott Osborne 

By IVinthrop D. Lane 



AT last the genius of Thomas Mott 
Osborne has caused his retire- 
h ment from the wardenship of Sing 
Sing Prison. For two years those who 
have been close to his work have hoped 
that this tragedy would not occur. They 
have known the possibilities of danger, 
the play of character and temperament 
behind the curtain of events, the tragic 
collision between a mood that knew no 
guidance and the necessities of official 
submissiveness. They have hoped that 
in some way the catastrophe might be 
averted, that wise and friendly councils 
might keep down suspicion and quick 
temper, and that the channels of official 
correspondence might yet be able to 
carry their heavy load of querulousness, 
misunderstanding and distrust. They 
know now that their hope was vain. 

Mr. Osborne is the commanding figure 
in prison reform in his time but official 
station is not the place for the exercise 
of his peculiar genius. What fortune 
the political wheel may bring to him 
is not yet known; the suggestion has been 
made that if Judge Samuel Seabury is 
elected governor, he may again be war- 
den of Sing Sing. Many who are counted 
his warm friends hope that he will not. 
They believe that there are fields of 
greater usefulness for him. His own 
character is the cause of his present re- 
tirement and his character is not likely 
to change. 

That character can be seen clearly dis- 
playing itself during the past months. On 
July 16, Mr. Osborne returned to Sing 
Sing after one of the bitterest experi- 
ences that can happen in this life. He 
had been lied about, slandered and made 
the object of a campaign of calumny 
that has had few parallels in this country. 
He had fought his detractors in court and 
out and had won in both places. 

Legally cleared of the worst charges 
against him, he was even higher in the 
public confidence than he had ever been 
before. Naturally he wanted peace, 
peace to do his work in the way that 
had been denied him long enough. His 
great fight had served only to increase 
his fervor for prison reform and he 
thought that he had earned the right 
to carry on his task free from molesta- 
tion, free, at least, from interference by 
men who ought to be striving for the 
same high ends as himself. 

A new superintendent, James M. Car- 
ter, was directing the destinies of state 
prison administration when he returned. 
He had already seen one superintendent 
perish by the wayside because of in- 
ability to comprehend the new reforms, 
and he hoped that the new chief would 
be open-minded, sympathetic, helpful. 
Then came the first faint evidence of 

So 



disharmony. Mr. Osborne had de- 
termined to expose the conspiracy of his 
enemies and to that end he was pre- 
senting evidence to a grand jury. He 
wanted the testimony of prisoners to be 
taken in Salem county. These prison- 
ers were confined in various prisons of 
the state and Mr. Osborne knew that if 
they were to tell the truth they would 
have to be protected from the harm that 
such an act might bring them. So he 
asked for their transfer to Sing Sing. 

Why, he thought, should not such a re- 
quest be granted? Was he not fighting 
a righteous fight ? Who of the people's 
servants could be safe so long as lies 
could be told about a public man with 
impunity ? He wanted no revenge, but 
he wanted an object lesson taught. He 
wanted slanderers and those who plot in 
the dark to learn that no secrecy could 
hide them, no position, however high, 
serve them as shield. 

His request was refused. To transfer 
prisoners, he was told, is disturbing to 
administration ; moreover, the department 
was well prepared to protect its pris- 
oners itself. Mr. Osborne was even ask- 
ed if he felt certain of the advisability 
of his court proceedings. Surely, he 
thought, this was a slap in the face. 
Moreover, what prospect of harmony 
could there be with a chief who wrote 
to the attorney asking for the transfer : 
"It is not good procedure for this de- 
partment to keep whipping around the 
stump endless convicts at the beck and 
call of anyone who may wish to make 
this request." 

THE second harbinger of ill was 
even more provoking. On Septem- 
ber 14, Superintendent Carter issued "to 
all agents and wardens" an order con- 
demning the frequent appearance of 
prison stories in the press. He referred 
slightingly to "the struggle for pub- 
licity," and while admitting that some 
kinds of information might do much 
good, declared that "the practice of fea- 
turing convicts and indiscriminate prison 
advertising cannot be helpful." 

It is easy to see how this order chafed 
Mr. Osborne's sensibilities. He believes 
intensely in the pitiless light of publicity. 
So he wrote an immediate reply. Agree- 
ing to the main doctrine — that publicity 
can be both excessive and of the wrong 
kind — he called his chief's attention to 
the fact that newspapers are not to be 
controlled in what they print, and asked 
how the manufacture of sensational 
stories out of whole cloth is to be 
stopped. He defined his own policy as 
having been to tell the truth so that 
falsehood would not be published. He 
declared that the prisons belong to the 



people and that "every reputable citizen 
of New York has the right to know what 
is going on" in them. 

Nor could he stop with abstract argu- 
ment. To his sensitive mind, fresh from 
warring with grafters, there was some- 
thing sinister in an order that proposed 
silence. It savored of deliberate secrecy, 
and to a policy of that sort he could not 
lend himself. He must let his superior 
see that he, for one, could not be duped 
by such simple means as that. So he 
added : "Whatever may be the case in 
other prisons, at Sing Sing we have notli 
ing to conceal. We are not afraid of 
the truth. We open our doors to the 
owners of the prisons and say, 'Look in- 
side. See all there is. We want every- 
one to know the facts.' " 

Then came an order that struck still 
nearer home. Escapes by prisoners had 
lately been increasing. On September 20. 
Superintendent Carter urged that greater 
care be taken in granting liberty to in- 
mates and enumerated recent escapes 
from each prison: sixteen from Auburn 
in less than five months, one from Clin- 
ton, five from Great Meadow, ten from 
Sing Sing, — a bad showing for the two 
prisons where the Mutual Welfare 
League existed. Mr. Carter did not fail 
to suggest the inference. "It has bee:i 
my desire," he said, "to see the experi- 
ments tested before submitting a de- 
cision, but I have now come to a definite 
conclusion that either the new ideas are 
not workable or that lax methods are 
employed in their development." Here- 
after, he warned, unless it could be 
proved that ample precautions had been 
taken in the instance of escapes, he would 
be forced to "decisive action" for the 
management of the institutions under his 
control. 

There was no escaping, to Mr. Os- 
borne's mind, the meaning of this. It 
was a wanton and uninformed attack 
upon his cherished plan of reform. For 
one thing, the figures, he believed, were 
not true: there had been four escapes 
from Clinton instead of one. Doubtless 
some deliberate purpose lay behind this 
falsifying of the records; Clinton may 
not have wanted its full number of es- 
capes to be reported. Moreover, he 
knew, whether others did or not. that 
the large number of escapes from Sing 
Sing and Auburn had nothing to do with 
the Mutual Welfare League. Many oi 
them were made by men engaged in farm 
work or road-making outside the prisons 
and Mr. Osborne knew that there had 
been unwise selection of men to be so 
trusted. 

Moreover, what did his superior mean 
by suggesting that the new ideas were 
not workable? Had he not seen them 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, i 9 i6 



81 



work? Did he not know that discipline 
on the whole had been vastly improved 
and that men were going out of prison 
determined, as never before, to lead use- 
ful, law-abiding lives? What hope of 
sympathy or of cooperation could be ex- 
pected from such blindness as this ? 

FROM reasoning of this sort Mr. Os- 
borne turned to regard a new and 
still more sinister order. Two escapes on 
October 1, both from the Sing Sing farm, 
were too much for the business-trained 
man at the head of the department. A 
new decree read that "all 'lifers' and 
those having long terms to serve must be 
confined inside the walls of the institu- 
tion." To the superintendent this doubt- 
less seemed the most promising way of 
preventing escapes. To Mr. Osborne it 
was a cruel and heartbreaking attack up- 
on a vital part of his whole system ; and 
it was unwarranted interference with a 
prison head. 

Consider what the order meant. Mr. 
Osborne had made large use of inmate 
services about the prison grounds and 
building. He had employed prisoners in 
the stable, in the comptroller's and other 
offices, in the Bertillon gallery, in the 
kitchen and laundry of the warden's 
house, as runners and errand men, in the 
package and visiting rooms and as "spot- 
ters" to prevent the importation of drugs 
and other contraband. Many of these 
men worked in places that were not tech- 
nically "inside the walls" of the prison. 

At Sing Sing the walls do not enclose 
the warden's house and administrative 
offices, though they run up to them and 
apparently the whole structure is one. It 
is easy, therefore, to see what the new 
order meant. It meant that over fifty of 
the eighty-four men whom Mr. Osborne 
was using in these different ways would 
have to give up their work. They would 
have to go inside the prison and stay 
there. 

Nor was this the only evil of the new 
decree. It was to become operative at 
once. A copy of it had been supplied to 
the press (strange conduct for a man 
who disbelieved in publicity !) and it had 
actually been printed before Mr. Osborne 
received it. Notice had thereby been 
served upon every long-term man outside 
the walls to make good his escape before 
he could be locked up. To be sure none 
had done so; but this was only one more 
tribute to the very system that Mr. 
Carter was trying to destroy. 

Never had there been such blindness 
and folly. Mr. Osborne's whole adminis- 
tration was being undermined — without 
his opinion being asked and all because 
of a little increase in escapes ! No man 
could put up with things like these and 
retain his self-respect. He would resign 
at once. He would let the people know 
what was afoot in their prison system. 
Not once had the Mutual Welfare League 
been given a fair trial and he for one 
was through working with men whose 
promises seemed to be made only that 



they might be broken. 

This picture is not presented as a cari- 
cature of Mr. Osborne's reasoning. I 
have been at some pains to study the man 
and what is here written seems to me a 
true account of the operations of his 
mind. His psychology is quite under- 
standable. At the same time I do not 
believe that he has taken the large or 
reasonable view. 

What matter if a state superintendent 
does hold opinions differing from those 
of his wardens on the subject of pub- 
licity? Mr. Carter did not say there 
should be no publicity, he did not forbid 
his subordinates the right of free utter- 
ance through the press ; he merely asked 
that the frequent featuring of convicts 
and "prison advertising" be stopped. 
Prison reform does not depend upon 
newspaper headlines for success ; not 
even so far-reaching and interesting an 
experiment as that of Mr. Osborne re- 
quires its daily or weekly story for ad- 
vancement. 

Mr. Osborne should have realized this. 
He should have said to himself: "My 
chief and I differ in regard to the merits 
and uses of the press. I believe him to 
be wrong. The matter has not yet gone 
far enough, however, for me to accuse 
him of insincere conduct. His judgment, 
not his motives, may be at fault. I can 
afford to wait. Meanwhile, there are 
other things on which agreement between 
us is essential. If no clash comes on 
these, the issue of publicity, provided 
there be no suppression of important 
facts, may be too small to be pressed 
farther." 

SO, too, he might have reasoned when 
the order came sending "lifers" and 
long term men inside the walls. Doubtless 
this was a particularly vexing regulation 
under the circumstances. Putting aside 
the possibility that an adjustment might 
have been reached amicably, (and such 
an adjustment has in fact been reached 
by Calvin Derrick, acting warden since 
Mr. Osborne's retirement), one fails to 
see where the question of these fifty 
helpers went to the heart of Sing 
Sing's self-government scheme. Doubt- 
less it was an interesting manifestation 
of that scheme ; the selection of these 
aids was one of the ways in which the 
Mutual Welfare League expressed itself. 
But it was only one of the ways. It in no 
sense involved the fundamental method 
of prison control that Mr. Osborne was 
trying out. 

That method was the most hopeful ex- 
periment in prison regeneration that the 
world has ever known. Mr. Osborne was 
taking men too ignorant or too weak to 
know any law but their own necessity or 
their own desire, and educating them to 
a new loyalty. He was making them 
members of a self-conscious group. To 
many of them he was giving a strange 
and thrilling sense of new powers and 
new modes of self-expression. He was 
teaching them to govern their own wills, 



to exercise judgment, initiative, control 
in both their individual and their collec- 
tive lives. 

Moreover, he was about to carry for- 
ward a new phase of this reform. He 
was on the eve of regenerating the in- 
dustries of the prison, so that men could 
not only learn habits of work and thrifti- 
ness but could also be given new means 
of self-support. 

All this should have brought him 
pause ; it should have suggested patience 
and a willingness to make light of tem- 
porary setback and inconvenience. If 
ever a man needed the enduring spirit it 
was Thomas Mott Osborne. He did not 
have it and because he did not his great 
reforms are left to the chance of finding 
new leaders and new friends. To see 
that they do find them is now the high 
duty of those who have befriended these 
reforms in the past. 

I HAVE said that Mr. Osborne has no 
place in official life. This is uttered not 
in hostility but. with friendliness both 
to Mr. Osborne and to Sing Sing. I 
am well aware that he himself does not 
share this view; he continues to believe 
that nothing in the exacting demands of 
official life need prevent him from being 
both happy and useful. Yet the past 
three months are not the only disproof 
of this. 

Ever since Mr. Osborne became ward- 
en of Sing Sing in December, 1914, his 
friends have grown increasingly disheart- 
ened at the evidence of his unfitness. He 
has been tactless, moody, credulous. He 
has refused to answer, and in some in- 
stances even to read, letters from his 
former chief, Superintendent Riley, be- 
cause he suspected that those letters 
would displease him. He has alienated 
many an earnest worker in prison re- 
form by his frequent changes of mind 
and inability to remember his own words. 
He has frequently threatened to resign 
and thought better of it over night. He 
has believed one death-house denial of 
guilt after another, from that of Charles 
Becker to Thomas Bambrick. Indeed, 
one form his credulity has taken has 
been an extreme readiness to accept the* 
statements of convicts, especially friend- 
ly convicts. He has, moreover, been: 
easily influenced by praise and blame. 
Those who know Mr. Osborne best are 
best aware of all these faults, difficult as 
they are, of course, to prove in single 
instances. 

He has shown himself to be a poor 
judge of men. Witness his dismissal of a 
former deputy, Charles H. Johnson, well 
nigh universally regarded as an able and 
upright administrator, who nevertheless 
was found by Mr. Osborne to be dis- 
loyal and self-seeking. Witness also his 
dismissal of L. C. White, former super- 
intendent of industries, whom close ob- 
servers at Sing Sing found to be a care- 
ful and honest department head. 

Mr. Osborne takes most of his advice 
from persons who either believe wholly 



82 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, ipi6 



in his genius or are willing to pretend 
they do. He cannot endure half-hearted 
loyalty. Allegiance to him knows no 
middle ground; if you do not believe that 
he is always right, you are bound, in his 
eyes, to be plotting for his undoing. Once 
he has cause to suspect a man, nothing 
that man can do will wear a friendly 
aspect. Governor Whitman's dismissal 
of Mr. Riley, following a promise to Mr. 
Osborne, was not, in Mr. Osborne's eyes, 
a keeping of that promise, but the 
avengement of a personal offense that 
Mr. Riley had committed against the gov- 
ernor. 

This is a strong indictment. It is not 



here made lightly. There are few sadder 
stories than that of Mr. Osborne's slow 
unveiling of himself. Yet too much im- 
portance need not be attached to the 
indictment. I would not minimize Mr. 
Osborne's strength, his wonderful appeal 
to the harassed soul, his genius for per- 
sonal relationship. He has penetrated 
the American consciousness with a sense 
of the importance and hopefulness of 
prison reform that no man living or dead 
has ever done. More than that, he has 
demonstrated the practicability of re- 
forms that may well be epoch-making in 
penological advance. What reason is 
there that his work should not go on ? 



His power of moving utterance is vast; 
he can make the blemishes of the old 
prison system — not yet old in many of 
our states, alas — stand out as needless 
and barbaric cruelties. It is not for 
others to mark out his future, but I for 
one am hopeful that as lecturer, as 
writer, as leader and inspirer of others, 
— in short, as that most condemned and 
most useful of men, an agitator, he will 
still perform a high and continuing ser- 
vice. His friends may well wish him 
Godspeed and their only regret need be 
that his sore disappointment may for a 
time cloud his mind to the clearness of 
the call before him. 



THE DEAD LABORER 

By J. Corson Miller 

AS ONE who walks with reverend steps and slow 
Before a king laid low, 
And sees the light of greatness flood the room. 
So I approach thee now. 
Freed from life's bitter doom 
And pitiless array 
Of burdens thou dids't shoulder night and day. 
Across thy patient brow 
That soon must greet the tomb, 

No more the snows 
Nor ruthless rains shall stray, 
Stabbing thy face like grim, relentless foes, 
Ah, would the world might come 
To thee here, heedless, dumb, 
And kiss thy faithful hands, sun-browned with toil. 

Earth's flowering soil 
That sends its grateful fragrance up to God 

Through the spring-pulsing sod, 
Ne'er gladdened thee ; the thrush's vesper song, 
And rapture keen, 
Where evening lingers long, 
Were to thine ears an alien mystery. 

Life crooned for thee 
But songs of sorrow, choked with ruth and wrong. 

Ah ! let from out my heart some fragrance steal, 

Pure as a lily's breath, to feel 
Of kindly hands commending thee now cold, 
And one with all thy vanished sires of old. 

Would I might lift a song 
To pierce the brooding walls of tragic night, 
Whose roof is gemmed with swinging star-worlds bright. 

That unborn centuries 
Might hear my hymn of praise to thee, a man, 

King of Creations plan ! 
That Earth might take and nourish with her breast. 
Thy children, and their children's children best : 
That all the universe might hear my call. 
And in true brotherhood, 'mid work and rest. 
Men might be turned to love the toiler more, 

And on him justice pour, 
In creed of "One for one, and all for all." 



The Social Aspect of Thrift 



By Graham Taylor 



THROUGH most of these hundred 
years, thrift has been proclaimed 
the American's private god and 
Benjamin Franklin his prophet ! But 
during the last half of the century the 
human situation has so rapidly and radic- 
ally shifted, that thrift can no longer be 
regarded only as an individual habit or a 
personal virtue, but must also be dealt 
with as a far more complex and public 
problem. The individual independence 
of the pioneering and colonial Americans 
has become more and more impossible, 
as craft has become dependent upon 
craft, class upon class, country upon city, 
nation upon nation, each one of us upon 
the many, in the inextricable inter- 
dependence of modern life. 

While, therefore, thrift is still rightly 
to be considered and encouraged as an 
individual habit and a personal virtue, 
yet this hour demands the interpretation 
of those human situations which compli- 
cate and enlarge the single and simple 
meaning of the term and impose thrift 
as a public duty upon every group, com- 
munity and nation. 

Thriftless is the thrift that sacrifices 
the life to the livelihood, the person to 
possessions, the family to its heritage, 
the community to personal greed and the 
national loss of the many to the gain of 
the few. In encouraging economy and 
"savings," the individual's own interests 
should be safeguarded from a foresight 
which becomes oversight, overlooking the 
further future in providing for the im- 
mediately impending needs and oppor- 
tunities. For have we not all seen far 
too much of the waste of life and the 
stagnation of wealth when thrift de- 
generates into the consuming habit of 
hoarding? 

The failure of hoarding wealth luridly 
lighted its own warning beacon in the 
empty lives and the despairing cries of 
two rich, old hoarders. One of them de- 
spairingly deprecated the approaching 
end of life by the lament over his bur- 
densome wealth — "It is so hard to let 
go." The other, lying on his death-bed 
which was littered with the certificates 
of his invested "savings," desolately com- 
plained of the loss of his children's love 
and companionship, while admitting that 
he had never taken time to pick them up 
in infancy or play with them in child- 
hood. 

An individual's thrift is thriftless when 
it is at the expense of the group. The 
family has human rights which the thrift 
of its individual members is morally and 
economically bound to respect. A fath- 
er's "savings" often cost the loss of the 
mother's health, the children's physical 
and educational equipment, and the suc- 
cess, even the very function, of the home, 



/UST one hundred years ago 
the first American savings bank 
was opened in Philadelphia. The 
centennial was observed last month 
it the annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Bankers' Association in special 
papers and discussion on thrift. 
Outstanding among these was the 
address by Professor Taylor on the 
newer social aspects of thrift, as 
contrasted with the conventional 
ideal of individual savings, which 
is here published for the first time. 
— Editor. 



are made impossible by the unfitness of 
the house. 

Family thrift is a common feature of 
home life among the laboring poor. 
Many a mother receives the unopened 
pay envelope, not only from the children 
of working age but from the husband 
as well, all trusting her to be the spender 
and the saver for the family. The pro- 
motion of thrift by the encouragement of 
a family savings fund is worthy of our 
best thought and effort. The vacation 
and Christmas savings encouraged by 
savings banks, and still more by "penny 
savings" agencies, are beginning to help 
the family to capitalize itself. And yet 
the discouragement of a boy from with- 
drawing his penny savings died away 
from one's lips when the little fellow ex- 
plained, "Mother needs a new set of false 
teeth." And the little hero's spendings 
proved thriftier than his savings. 

Society's Stake 

The community is put in many situa- 
tions in which it is found necessary to 
regulate and even restrict individual 
thrift, in order to protect and promote 
the thrift of the group from that of one 
of its members, the thrift of the many, 
from the greed of the few, the safety 
and progress of the town, county, state 
and nation from the exploitation of 
thriftless thrifts. Thus laws restricting 
the hours and conditions of women's 
work are enacted and declared constitu- 
tional on the ground of public welfare, 
notwithstanding the objection of oppon- 
ents against interfering with the thrift 
of the woman who wants to overwork, 
and that of the employer who profits by 
overworking her. The very birth-rate 
and birthright of the nation are thus de- 
fended. 

Compulsory schooling is now a preval- 
ent public policy, with penalties for par- 
ents who seek the earnings of their chil- 
dren at the cost of their growth and edu- 
catijn. Child labor laws are firmly 



based upon the proven thriftlessness of 
robbing the child of its schooling, play, 
strength and efficiency, for the sake of 
small temporary gains. But it required 
the recruiting sergeant's rejection of so 
large a proportion of men as unfit for 
military service, in order to bear home 
the wanton waste of child labor as the 
shame of modern industry and the folly 
of the nation. But now many of our 
states are even pensioning dependent 
mothers, rather than to deprive their chil- 
dren of the mother's care and of their 
right to free childhood, either by being 
put away to be cared for by institutions, 
or by the necessity of earning the liveli- 
hood of the home. 

The sanitary inspection and condem- 
nation of tenement houses and shops 
have been found necessary in order to 
curtail the thriftiness of their owners at 
the expense of their tenants and em- 
ployes, as well as at the peril of the pub- 
lic health and safety. The "new law" 
tenements of New York city let sun- 
light and fresh air into the living and 
sleeping rooms of a million people, who 
otherwise would have lived and died in 
dark rooms whose only opening toward 
the light and air was through other 
apartments. The abuse of property rights 
in real estate by renting nouses for dis- 
orderly resorts has become such a men- 
ace to the morals of the community and 
such a danger to its youth, that the ex- 
traordinary interference of the law in 
the injunction and abatement act has 
been found necessary and declared con- 
stitutional on the grounds of public 
safety and welfare. 

The abuse of thrift by the few at the 
expense of the many and at public cost 
has led to many legal measures and gov- 
ernmental policies protecting and pro- 
moting national thrift. Thus parasitic 
trades are prevented by minimum wage 
laws from making their profits at the 
expense of other trades or of the body 
politic. Other people in other trades 
and the taxpayers as well, are thus re- 
fusing to bear the cost of eking out the 
living of those at work for less than a 
living wage and in seasonal occupations. 
Sweated industries are also being purged 
of their blood sweat, both by the revolt 
of their organized workers and by legal 
measures for their relief. The sweating 
of tenant farmers by absentee "retired" 
landlords as desperately needs to be dealt 
with. None knows better than the rural 
banker how the retirement of farmers 
thwarts the thrift and progress of many 
retired farmers' towns. 

"Safety first" is not only the nation's 
indignant protest against the wanton 
waste of life, of which America has been 
more guilty than any other nation, but it 

83 



84 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, i 9 i6 



is the rallying cry of a new national 
economy, conservation and preparedness. 
The steadily decreasing railway dangers, 
the ever lessening casualties in factories 
and shops, the protection of life and 
property at sea by Plimpsoll's water line 
on freighters and by our own seamen's 
act, all show what is being done and can 
be attempted through private and public 
measures alike to prove that dangerous 
economies are wasteful and death-dealing 
greed is thriftless. 

Uniform safety legislation is still re- 
quired to standardize thrifty conditions, 
to protect progressive states and indus- 
tries, especially the mining interests, 
from the unfair competition of those dis- 
regarding life and limb, and to conserve 
the nation's greatest assets in the lives, 
the health and the efficiency of its people. 
Even this fails to protect life from the 
most dangerous of all occupations. For 
the death every year of at least 300,000 
children under two years of age from 
preventable causes still rates being a 
baby as the most dangerous of all occu- 
pations. No national thrift is more 
fundamental than the conservation of 
child life by the federal Children's Bu- 
reau, the American Association for the 
Prevention of Infant Mortality and the 
National Child Labor Committee. 

The public ownership of some public 
utilities, and the public control of all 
others, is now recognized to be the legiti- 
mate thrift of every community. The 
protection of immigrant labor from ex- 
ploitation is a national safeguard, as 
well as justice to the immigrant. The 
tardy recognition of unemployment as a 
problem far beyond the capacity of the 
unemployed or of private charity to 
solve, is at last proving it to be public 
economy for the city, the state and the 
nation to assume as the problem of each 
and all of them — not only the relief, but 
the prevention of unemployment. 

Thrift that Spends 

The progress of mankind is measured 
by the multiplication of wants and by in- 
creasing the ways and means of satisfy- 
ing them. As surely as the charity of 
today is the justice of tomorrow, so 
surely are the luxuries of today the ne- 
cessities of tomorrow. This creation of 
human wants, not their curtailment, is 
civilization. The thrift that spends as 
well as saves, is what makes the com- 
munity a going concern. 

Difficult and delicate therefore is the 
task to define thrift so as to make it ap- 
ply equally to the personal and public 
values of the one human life each of us 
lives and the common life all of us live 
together. It is a good sign of better 
times that industrial and commercial, 
professional and civic, educational and 
religious groups realize tnis to be their 
problem. Associations of commerce are 
becoming schools of citizenship, training 
commercial men to trust their best serv- 
ice of the city in the long run to serve 



their trade the most. 

Lumbermen's associations discuss in 
their papers and in their conventions 
their opportunity to be "community 
builders," especially in country counties, 
where the lumber yards are the points of 
contact and distribution for the surround- 
ing countryside. The retail merchants' 
association is linking up the country store 
with the country town for the protec- 
tion and advancement of both. Country 
ministers recognize and utilize the coun- 
try store as an exchange, not only for 
commodities, but for the interchange of 
intelligence and discussion and the crea- 
tion of public opinion, so that some of 
them are using the store to meet the men 
for religious instruction and appeal. 
Manufacturers are finding it to be good 
business to care for the human elements 
at least as much as for the raw ma- 
terials and the finished products of their 
plants. Commercial establishments are 
becoming like great households, holding 
employers and employes together best by 
promoting their community of interests. 

Exchange in Human Values 

But the question arising out of these 
human situations which we have been 
considering and that is put up to the 
banks and the bankers to solve, is how 
to make private thrift and public welfare 
supplement and serve each other. No 
one in the community is so well situated 
to do this service. The bank itself is a 
clearing house of more common interests 
than those which we call commercial. 
It is the exchange where other than 
money values change hands and through 
which other values than commercial 
paper are cleared. 

As a community center for the ex- 
change of such values, the bank shares 
and exceeds the informational and in- 
spirational function and influence of the 
country store, the village blacksmith 
shop, the lumber and building material 
yards, in rural communities; and in town, 
it supplements the newspaper, the stock 
and other exchanges, the executor or 
guardian, and it is often the substitute 
for one or all of them. 

Few have a function to fulfil so vital 
alike to individuals and to the local com- 
munity as the banker. He is the trustee 
of so much confidence. His confidants 
range all the way from the widow and 
the orphan to the treasurers of vast 
trust funds and of great public deposits. 
The bankers' responsibilities are as seri- 
ous as his opportunities are inspiring to 
promote personal and public thrift and 
make each advance the progress of the 
other. None so well as he knows, or can 
know, how necessary the progress of the 
community is to the prosperity of every 
one of the people living in it, and how 
impossible it is for the community to 
prosper if its citizens are not progres- 
sive. 

Therefore bankers individually and 
collectively »re more and more inciting 



and supporting the promotion of com- 
munity interests through surveys, by 
agricultural, mercantile and manufactur- 
ing developments, in providing better 
schools, more time and equipment for 
recreation, good roads and transportation 
facilities, more participation in public 
affairs and greater efficiency in the ad- 
ministration of public institutions, busi- 
ness and local government. 

Thrift is the point of contact between 
the multitude who know you not and you 
who should know them better. To inter- 
pret thrift not only, from your point of 
view, but to broaden your view of it by 
sensing the human situations of the 
greater multitude that are still strangers 
to banks and bankers, is the appeal and 
hope of this hour. 

By virtue of your double function as 
the friendly, confidential counselors of 
so many individuals, and as officials of 
an institution that is or ought to be under 
public control, you bankers have a 
greater obligation and opportunity than 
any other citizens to protect both the 
individual and the community from 
thriftless thrift and to promote the 
thriftiness of both, by proving that 
neither can succeed if the other fails. 

The State a Guardian 

Yours also is the patriotic trust to con- 
serve the confidence of the people in the 
government and to safeguard the finan- 
cial honor of the state and the nation. 
For you are so much regarded as repre- 
senting the state's guardian care of its 
people's interests that you have the right 
and duty to consider yourselves to be in 
the semi-official service of your country. 

Either the state should have such over- 
sight and control of banking as will safe- 
guard the people's confidence in the 
banks, or they should at least be pro- 
hibited from using the name of the state 
in the title of the bank, or from posing 
as a public institution. When the Mil- 
waukee Avenue State Bank in Chicago 
was looted, my poor foreign-born neigh- 
bors, who had entrusted to it the scant 
savings of their hard toil, could not be- 
lieve that the state which loaned its 
name to the bank would not protect them 
from loss and justify their confidence in 
the state. Then I realized as never be- 
fore what treason it is for a banker to 
play false to the people and what a bul- 
wark of the state and an inspirer of 
patriotism a bank could and should be. 

Out of the appalling thriftlessness of 
this most destructive of all wars, the 
banking interests of the nations will be 
called upon to restore the financial 
bonds of a new internationalism, and 
something of its spirit as well. No such 
world-wide exchanges of international 
credits have ever been negotiated as in 
America during the war. Perhaps this 
necessity to which we have thus minis- 
tered may be the mother of invention 
adequate to establish the thrift of inter- 
national peace. 




THE COUNTY HOTEL AND ITS BARN WERE BOUGHT BY THE PEOPLE AND TURNED INTO A COMMUNITY HOUSE AND 

A HALL FOR MEETINGS 

Community Vision and a Country Hotel 

By Rdmund de S. Brunner 



SECRETARY MORAVIAN COUNTRY CHURCH COMMISSION 



BURIED in the heart of the Po- 
cono mountains, thirteen miles 
from the nearest railroad station 
and connected with the outside world 
only by an uncertain stage route, is a 
rural community, Newfoundland, which 
has caught the vision of neighborhood 
efficiency and which in a fine way is 
realizing that vision day after day. 

Newfoundland is in that section of the 
Poconos near where Wayne, Pike and 
Monroe counties (Pennsylvania) meet. 
Originally the land was settled by hardy 
and industrious Germans and the de- 
scendants of these people are still the 
predominant element in the population. 
Religiously it was a community minis- 
tered to by the Moravians, and in later 
years by the Methodists also. The soil 
is mediocre and no superficial observer 
would pick this locality for a rural 
demonstration field. 

However, such it has become. Just 
about a year ago the community, acting 
as a social unit, bought out its country 
hotel and converted the hostelry into a 
community house and the barn into a 
community hall and gymnasium. 

The beginnings of this work can be 
traced to the patient campaign of the 
W. C. T. U., which even in a locality 
such as described found that rural peo- 
ple are willing to lend their support to 
the temperance movement. But there 
have been other sources of inspiration 
and leadership. For some years New- 
foundland has been blessed with strong 
pastors whose spiritual leadership con- 
cerned itself with the hallowing of all 
of life. There has also been of more 
recent years a strong school favored 
with exceptionally good teachers. In 
some instances the pastor has also been 



the principal or at least one of the 
small faculty. This has tied together 
home, school and church in a most ad- 
vantageous way. 

Finally, for the last twenty years there 
has been a steady increase in the num- 
ber of city people who have spent their 
summers in this region, and who have 
mingled with the residents both in their 
play and worship. This has been of 
mutual advantage. 

About eighteen months ago the only 
resident pastor succeeded in bringing 
into the community Professor and Mrs. 
Varney, who staged a welfare week 
which proved a big factor in starting 
the movement to establish the welfare 
center, because of the way in which so- 
cial service was linked up with funda- 
mental spiritual motives. 

Thus it was that in the minds of 
pastor and people there formed and 
gradually came to fruition the concep- 
tion of a community house in which 
would focus all the activities of the re- 
gion and which would prove a center 
furnishing recreation through the long 
winter, binding the people together and 
holding some of the younger folks to 
their home. It was decided to form a 
Community Welfare Association. Any 
person over fourteen years of age with 
an interest in the community and a dol- 
lar with which to pay the annual dues 
was allowed to join. 

One of the first steps was to have the 
association incorporated and soon after- 
ward the hotel was purchased for 
$3,800 and fitted up as described at a 
further cash cost of about $1,200. Over 
half the money was raised in a short 
time and it was a big sum for these 
people. Contributions were not large 



measured by the standards of city or- 
ganizations but measured by the re- 
sources of the people they were most 
generous and proved how deeply inter- 
ested and thoroughly in earnest the com- 
munity was. The remainder of the sum 
was raised by selling shares of stock and 
a small mortgage was also placed on 
the property. 

The community house contains rooms 
for all the various church and communi- 
ty organizations, for reading, playing 
games, etc. There is also a free library. 
Adequate supervision is secured by hav- 
ing the high school principal and his 
wife live in the second story which has 
the added advantage of furnishing a 
comfortable home for them. Newfound- 
land is thus one of the very few Penn- 
sylvania communities that has a "teach- 
erage." 

The old barn, now rebuilt and turned 
into a community hall contains a large 
dining-room and kitchen on the top floor 
while the main floor is given over to a 
gymnasium-auditorium with a raised 
stage at one end, together with dressing 
rooms and all accessories necessary for 
its double purpose. 

It is perhaps too soon to record defi- 
nite results other than a cleaner, better, 
more progressive community life such 
as always comes when religion takes on 
new meanings, and opportunities for 
service are multiplied. But some idea 
of the widening scope and influence of 
the work may be gained by mentioning 
a union men's bible class which meets 
every Monday evening in the communi- 
ty house under the leadership of the 
resident pastor, the Rev. G. Max 
Shultz of the Moravian church. Even 
on some of the stormiest evenings of 

85 



86 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, i 9 i6 



last winter the attendance did not fall 
below twenty. 

The work is beginning to attract at- 
tention and deservedly so. Ex-Mayor 
Blankenburg of Philadelphia, is an in- 
terested contributor who visits the com- 
munity at times. Governor Brumbaugh 
made a special trip to the little hamlet 
and congratulated the people on their 
progressiveness. Others have also come 
to gain inspiration from the fine work 



being done. 

There has been opposition, there al- 
ways is to such efforts, but it is weak- 
ening. The day's meetings in connec- 
tion with the dedication fused the com- 
munity into one. As the evening meet- 
ing drew to a close the Scoutmaster 
asked every boy and girl in the com- 
munity to stand and with considerable 
emotion said to the adults, "These, your 
boys and girls, thank you from their 



hearts for your splendid generosity." 
The audience could only rise and sing 
Praise God from Whom All Blessings 
Flow, and with bowed heads received a 
richly deserved benediction. From that 
time on the work has been gaining in its 
usefulness and in its grip on the people. 
It has been a great year. Another ex- 
perience has been added to the sum total 
of those which shall some day bring 
abundant life to rural America. 



Where Both Bullets and Ballots are Dangerous 

By William E. Leonard 



WHITMAN COLLEGE 



THE most recent act in the politi- 
cal drama of the Rio Grande has 
been played in the federal courts 
at Corpus Christi, Tex. The star per- 
formers were old line politicians; the 
supporting company, ignorant, unnatural- 
ized Mexicans. The former were 
charged with buying the votes of the 
latter in the election of 1914. At that 
time several members of Congress were 
elected, which fact gave the federal 
courts jurisdiction. 

In July, 1915, forty-two citizens of 
Nueces county were indicted on the 
charge of conspiracy to corrupt the bal- 
lot box, and this group of men came to 
be known locally as the "Forty-Two 
Club." In the trial court about one-half 
of these men were released. Of the re- 
mainder, five have been found guilty 
as charged. In the case of one, the fore- 
most personage of them all, the jury 
was unable to agree and he awaits a 
new trial. 

In this case some twenty or thirty wit- 
nesses were called to the asserted fact 
that each of them had been "given a 
present," ranging from two to five dol- 
lars in amount. Before this present was 
delivered, however, each voter had to 
bring his poll tax receipt showing that 
he had voted, and at the same time to 
give assurances that he had voted "in 
the proper way." 

These Mexican voters constitute a 
most interesting study. Only one, so far 
as the writer knows, was able to give his 
evidence in the English language. Sev- 
eral attempted to do so but failed, and 
they, like the rest, had to resort to an 
interpreter. This is significant because 
all of them had been in the state ten 
years or more. One man, sixty-six years 
old, and forty years in the state, spoke 
no English. Some did not know for a 
certainty where they were born, whether 
in Old Mexico or in Texas. None, ap- 
parently, had ever declared their inten- 
tion to become citizens of the United 
States, while some appeared to think 
their poll tax receipts constituted such a 
declaration. No one had any conception 
of the Democratic or any other ticket. 



The only ticket of which they had any 
notion was the so-called "Old Ticket." 

It seems that "the committee" had ap- 
propriated $3,000 to carry "the hill," 
which is the Mexican quarter of Corpus 
Christi, and to secure this fund a levy 
of $150 was made upon each candidate 
for office. 

The particular charges in this case 
may or may not be absolutely true. 
Nevertheless, in southwest Texas there 
exists the common belief that corrup- 
tion at the polls is constantly being prac- 
tised, not only in Neuces county, but 
more or less generally throughout the 
whole border country. 

Two Race Problems 

This suggests a fact not well known. 
The Southwest, particularly Texas, is 
the only region which has two distinct 
race problems, each of sufficient im- 
portance to invite attention. States im- 
mediately east have their Negro prob- 
lem; states to the west an asserted 
oriental problem; the northern states 
have to deal with a European immigra- 
tion which is sifted ana regulated at 
the ports of entry. 

In contrast, Texas, for instance, has 
both a Negro problem and a Mexican 
problem. The Negroes in Texas num- 
ber 700,000, which is 17 per cent of the 
whole population. There is an unknown 
Mexican population conservatively esti- 
mated at 400,000, which is 10 per cent 
of the entire population. It is unknown, 
because Mexicans may enter the state 
without effective restraint at almost any 
point along the 800 miles of inadequately 
protected Rio Grande border. It is be- 
lieved that fully 75 per cent of all Mexi- 
cans coming to the United States come 
to Texas. 

Society in the Southwest cannot easily 
adapt itself to the handling of a second 
race problem. It does well in taking the 
one it already has and attempting to 
solve it in some humanly just way. The 
Negro is accepting the place which has 
been granted him, and to the credit of 
both white and black, the latter is slowly 
lifting his standard of living. But un- 



fortunately for Mexican immigrants, 
there is no congenial social group to 
welcome them on this side of the 
frontier. They are not Negroes, and 
they resent being so classified. They 
are not accepted as white men, and be- 
tween the two, the white and the black, 
there seems to be no midway position. 
They thus remain strangers in the land. 

In admitting them to this country 
without limitation we are adding a 
second group of servile people. They 
are less capable of a vigorous self-de- 
fense than even the Negro. This has 
repeatedly been shown when the two 
races have come into economic competi- 
tion. Against injustice, they are, as a 
class, singularly nonresistant. Their 
past history makes them such. In all 
Mexican history these people have never 
known the meaning of free opportunity, 
for they have never had any but op- 
pressive governments and barbaric in- 
dustrial systems. Is it any wonder that 
they seem to have no aspirations beyond 
peonage, nor is it strange that they 
readily drop into conditions equivalent 
to it upon crossing the Rio Grande into 
this land of free opportunity? 

The Southwest seems to be unwilling 
to give these people the full chance of 
white men. They resent taking the place 
accorded the black man, and yet by 
force of economic necessity they are 
compelled to take less. This is due to 
their ignorance of the law, which might 
protect their persons and their prop- 
erty; it is due to their ignorance of the 
language; it is due to an utter lack of 
guidance and opportunity for education. 

I shall not soon forget the tragic ap- 
peal made to me by a bright-eyed, whole- 
some Mexican girl of fifteen as she 
sought my help that she might be ad- 
mitted to the white school scarcely a 
stone's throw beyond the miserable cabin 
m which she lived. But to her and to 
all Mexican children in that community 
the school offered no avenue of escape. 
They are generally denied admittance to 
white schools, and exclusively Mexican 
schools, outside the cities, are few in- 
deed. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, 1916 



87 



Out of the above conditions two clear- 
cut ill results have already appeared, 
one economic, the other political. Upon 
agriculture the coming of large num- 
bers of Mexicans into any community 
has a most disastrous effect. First there 
goes the American tenant farmer, for 
he cannot meet the competition of the 
low standard Mexican worker. Then the 
small land-owning farmers, finding the 
country a less desirable place in which 
to live because of the small number 
of neighbors, sell to the larger owners, 
who most frequently are either nonresi- 
dents or live in some adjacent town or 
city, going out almost daily to oversee 
laborers working on their farms. The 
community life loses its natural leaders, 
and because of this, both churches and 
schools die a lingering death. In this 
way whole neighborhoods, once support- 
ing a happy and prosperous life, are 
slowly passing into decay. 



Not less dangerous is the Mexican as 
a political menace. And of this no better 
illustration can be found than the Cor- 
pus Christi case. These people do not 
desire or appreciate citizenship. They 
do, however, retain vestiges of the 
primitive man's willingness to attach 
themselves as followers to any one who 
may have shown them a kindness. In 
this way they easily become the prey 
of the politician. Time and again, it is 
asserted, the Mexican vote has been 
mobilized against certain questions, 
notably against prohibition. How often 
the craftier politicians have gone into 
office through the influence of the Mexi- 
can vote is impossible to say. 

The question will assume even greater 
importance when the Southwest begins 
to reform its land system, of which there 
are so many premonitory evidences at 
the present time. The border country 
is still in the big ranch stage of agricul- 



ture, the workers being largely Mexi- 
cans. If progressive land legislation 
should be proposed it is almost certain 
that the large land owners, who would 
undoubtedly suffer most, would not fail 
to use every possible weapon to defeat 
it. The most natural weapon to use 
would be the complete organization of 
the Mexican vote. 

There is a third aspect of this ques- 
tion. As yet, between these two races, 
the Mexican and the Negro, we have 
seen only the preliminary skirmishes in 
economic competition. The Negroes are 
moving towards the Southwest, but very 
slowly; the Mexicans are coming north- 
ward from the Rio Grande rapidly. In 
due time they must meet in large num- 
bers. When that time shall have ar- 
rived we may expect the real conflict to 
begin. Then will the Southwest realize 
the full scope of her complicated race 
problems. 



Drugs: A World Problem 

By Charles B. Towns 



THERE is prevalent in this coun- 
try an impression that the con- 
ferences on the international 
drug situation held at Shanghai in 1909 
and at The Hague in 1911 and 1913 ac- 
complished something. They accom- 
plished nothing — except to furnish out- 
ings for the delegates and their families. 
The childish discussions and plans of the 
delegates upon those several occasions 
revealed a crass ignorance and proved 
absolutely barren of results, so far as 
any alleviation of the traffic in and the 
use of habit-forming drugs is concerned. 
The identical conditions exist now which 
existed before the international confer- 
ences were held. 

There is a second impression, held in 
some quarters, that the outbreak of the 
great war halted a well-defined interna- 
tional movement toward a solution of the 
problem of drug addiction throughout the 
world; a movement of which the inter- 
national conferences, even though negli- 
gible so far as practical results went, 
were symbolical, or even representative. 
Nothing could be more erroneous. The 
war did not hold up a movement which 
if unhindered would have succeeded in 
adequately solving the world's drug prob- 
lem, because there was no such move- 
ment. What purported to be such a 
movement was rather a distinct and pro- 
longed pause. 

First and last, the only real solution of 
the world's drug problem must come 
through an understanding between all 
countries which produce habit-forming 
drugs that shall in effect regulate foreign 
import and export of such drugs. The 
one way in which this can be satisfac- 
torily done is for each country to make 
the traffic in habit-forming drugs a gov- 



rHE second of three articles 
in which Mr. Towns argues 
for preventive legislation on the 
basis of his fourteen years' experi- 
ence with drug-users. The first 
article was published in The Sur- 
vey for October 14. — Editor. 



ernment monopoly and to become the sole 
purchaser and dispenser of such drugs. 

The greatest stumbling-block in the 
way of executing such a plan is China. 
This is because Great Britain has al- 
ways wanted to control the opium situa- 
tion in the Far East and has heretofore 
been unwilling to consent to government 
monopoly in China. And as long as 
China is thus estopped, other countries 
will find it impossible to create the sort 
of strict accounting they should have. 

In view of China's importance in the 
matter, it may not be amiss to outline the 
history and scope of her drug problem. 
In China, opium smoking dates back to 
the middle of the seventeenth century, 
when the Dutch from Java introduced 
into Formosa the smoking of tobacco 
mixed with opium and arsenic as a 
remedy for malarial fever. So rapid was 
the growth of the habit that in 1729, the 
Chinese ruler forbade by imperial edict 
the sale of opium and the keeping of 
opium divans. 

After the Tai-ping rebellion, revenue 
was needed. The opium trade, which had 
proved impossible to suppress, was legal- 
ized. Poppy-growing then spread 
throughout the empire until, by 1906, at 
a moderate estimate, China numbered 
among its people fifteen million opium 
smokers, and was producing six-sevenths 



of the drug consumed by them. Opium 
was the national narcotic, stimulant, and 
medicine; opium smoking was every- 
where openly practised by both men and 
women — the indulgence of the rich, the 
luxury of the poor, the pastime of the 
idle, the solace of the wretched and the 
necessity of millions. 

In 1906, the Empress Dowager, at- 
tributing to this vice the increasing weak- 
ness and poverty of the nation, issued 
an edict for the total suppression of the 
production and consumption of opium 
throughout the empire, within ten years. 
The crusade that followed this edict was 
unique of its kind. Anti-opium societies 
hunted out divans and destroyed many 
thousands of pipes. The press, the novel 
and the drama preached reform. Car- 
toons held up to ridicule the users of 
the drug, or portrayed the miserable end 
that awaited them. Every available 
means was used to rouse public opinion 
against opium-smoking as being both dis- 
reputable and unpatriotic. 

But although progress was made, — a 
heroic thing in itself under the circum- 
stances, — it was clearly demonstrated 
that no matter how greatly home pro- 
duction of opium might be curtailed, nor 
how strictly the prohibition on smoking 
might be enforced, China would never 
be able to stamp out the habit until im- 
portations were stopped and the sale 
of the drug made a government monopo- 
ly. This is an important thing to re- 
member, because it is morally certain 
that if that country, with the nation-wide 
efforts and sacrifices it made, was unable 
to accomplish its purpose, no other 
country in similar circumstances could 
do so. 

The first international opium confer- 



88 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, i 9 i6 



ence at Shanghai, in 1909, was called by 
our government with a view to getting 
Great Britain to concur with China in 
trying to stamp out opium-using in that 
country. This Great Britain did but has 
never consented to a government 
monopoly in China. 

But the Shanghai conference, although 
of no utility in furthering directly the 
cause of drug-control, was, it is true, 
valuable to some extent in making public 
certain facts concerning the situation 
which, while well known to those in 
touch with the subject, received a mea- 
sure of general publicity through the con- 
ference's findings. 

Perhaps the most important of these 
facts is, that while opium smoking in 
China was greatly diminished by the 
campaign against the drug, the habit 
remained in the form of opium eating, 
or in some use of medicinal opium, or 
in the use of a host of so-called "anti- 
opium remedies" all containing the drug. 
Morphin was coming into common use, 
for not only was it cheaper than the 
smoking opium, but it could be more 
readily obtained, easily concealed, and 
quickly administered. Cocain and Indian 
hemp (hashish) were widely used. 
Cigarettes and alcohol furnished other 
vicious substitutes. 

A Chinese authority, in describing the 
prevalence of the morphin and cocain 
habits at this time, offers an interesting 
analogy to the experience of investiga- 
tors in the United States by tracing such 
habits to the use of the hypodermic 
syringe upon rich patients by well-mean- 
ing medical men seeking to relieve their 
patients' craving for opium. From the 
master of a household the knowledge of 
the process quickly spread to the ser- 
vants and then to the rickshamen and 
coolies, until morphin and cocain injec- 
tions became the common resource of all 
classes. Among the advertisements in 
Chinese newspapers, at this time, could 
be read the alluring promise : "Opium 
smoking cured with a golden needle !" 

These new forms of the habit proved 
far worse for the victims than the origi- 
nal opium smoking. Under the influ- 
ence of morphin and cocain, or like sub- 
stitutes, a marked and increasing physical 
deterioration was manifested. While the 
first effect of the change from smoking 
to swallowing the drug was the use of a 
smaller quantity, that quantity had to be 
steadily increased. Discontinuance of it, 
under any treatment then in current use, 
was practically impossible. For the 
dealer, the drug-taker was a customer 
for life. 

It was in (1908-9) that I visited China 
and opened three hospitals for drug ad- 
dicts at Shanghai, Tientsin and Peking, 
and I treated many drug victims. Among 
these patients was one, the governor of 
a province, who had actually been in the 
habit of buying his pills by the peck, or 
its Chinese equivalent. 

During this period I was able to ob- 
serve personally the utter impossibility 



of any permanent solution of this drug 
problem for China, without the sincere 
cooperation of other countries. Added 
to the ease of smuggling across the 
country's immense boundary, there was 
a simple and sure way to procure such 
drugs. From the existence of so many 
foreign concessions and leased territor- 
ies within her limits, it was useless for 
China to expect relief through her own 
laws. All one had to do was to step 
from Chinese territory into one of the 
concessions or lease lands, which was to 
all intents foreign territory and where 
foreign laws prevailed, and purchase all 
the drug of one's addiction that was de- 
sired. Any promises by the foreigners 
there not to sell drugs, amounted to 
nothing. 

So Chinese money went to the foreign 
merchant; and opium, morphin, cocain 
were forthcoming. The earnest inten- 
tion of the drastic Chinese edicts issued 
against the use of habit-forming drugs, 
has been greatly hindered. 

With the case of China compare the 
case of Japan ! In 1858, the very year 
in which China was forced to consent to 
the entry of Indian opium, Japan was 
able by treaty with Great Britain to 
prohibit its importation. Had China been 
able then to secure similar conditions 
with Great Britain, she would have no 
drug problem today. In subsequent 
years, repeated enactments laid heavy 
penalties on opium-smoking in Japan, and 
all traffic contributing to it. The medi- 
cinal use of opium was permitted. As 
early as 1870, druggists and physicians 
were ordered to report to the authorities 
the quantities of the drug sold for such 
purposes. In 1879, the purchase of all 
the opium for the country was assumed 
by the government, which still holds the 
monopoly. 

Still, the local supply being inadequate, 
the production of opium was all the time 
being carried on in Japan, and was even 
encouraged by the government ! The 
climate, however, has never been favor- 
able for poppy-growing, and almost all 
the opium Japan now uses is imported. 
What amount of raw opium is produced 
in Japan, is delivered to the government, 
examined for quality, and all falling 
under a fixed standard is destroyed with- 
out compensation to the producer. By 
such measures Japan, in spite of her 
location in the opium-ridden Far East, 
has managed so to control the use of the 
drug in her home territory that its 
abuse there is practically unknown. 

But Japan has had a different experi- 
ence in Formosa, ceded to her by China 
in 1895. There the opium habit had 
been taking root for over two centuries. 
With the island in open rebellion, it was 
at first impossible to secure a complete 
register of the opium users, in order to 
apply the policy of gradual reduction 
that had been decreed. By 1900, more 
than 169,000 smokers had been licensed 
to purchase the drug in specified amounts 
from the government, which, as we have 



seen, alone had the right of importation 
and sale. In 1907, about 113,000 re- 
mained on the list. 

But on the other hand, it was found 
necessary to register 30,000 new cases in 
1904-5, and in 1908, nearly 16,000 more. 
On the last occasion an inquiry was made 
into the cause of this increase. It was 
found that 93 per cent of the number had 
taken to the drug in sickness or pain, as 
the traditional remedy for all ailments, 
rather than go to a physician. 

To this tendency of the Formosans, 
the Japanese attribute most of the diffi- 
culty they are having in carrying out 
their opium policy in the island. Others 
better apprised think that Japan has 
found opium so financially profitable, 
that she is in no hurry to terminate its 
use. With the strict control of the drug 
in Formosa, Japan could abolish its un- 
necessary consumption within three 
years at most. 

The four chief opium-producing na- 
tions are Great Britain (principally 
India), China, Persia and Turkey. The 
amount produced by the latter two is 
inconsiderable compared with the former 
two. In its Bengal monopoly, Great 
Britain controls directly an opium pro- 
duction which in 1906, amounted to more 
than seven million pounds. She also 
has a restrictive power over exports 
from native states of India not under 
her governmental control, in which the 
yield of opium in 1906 amounted to half 
her own production. It is true that 
much of the East Indian product is con- 
sumed in India. Nevertheless, when 
Great Britain consents to limit or to 
withhold exports of the drug at the wish 
of a receiving country, a large part of 
the world's opium supply can be safe- 
guarded from misuse. 

Great Britain has not yet had this drug 
problem to deal with at home. France 
has never before considered the problem. 
Other European countries have brushed 
it aside. But the conditions growing out 
of the existing war will make the drug 
problem of as vital importance to these 
nations as we have found it here. And 
during the last ten years it is a fact that 
drug habits in this country have grown 
at such an alarming rate that we are 
now the worst drug-ridden nation on the 
face of the earth. 

Great Britain realizes her position 
now. France faces the issue squarely. 
I have already been invited to try and 
help that country, as soon as the war is 
over, to work out a plan for eradicating 
the evil before it develops overwhelm- 
• ingly. A similar condition exists in all 
the other countries at war. 

We are not at war. We need to clean 
house more than any other country in 
existence. Pending a final international 
solution through standard laws and real 
cooperation between nations, there is 
much that we can set about to do today. 
In a closing article I am going to show 
what that is and just why it is of the 
very greatest importance to have it done. 




WHERE GERMAN SAILORS WERE INTERNED IN CHARGE OF THE BRITISH SAILORS UNION 

A British Labor Union's Internment Camp 

By y. Havelock Wilson 



THE Sailors' and Firemen's Union 
of Great Britain is to a large 
extent international in charac- 
ter as a considerable number of alien 
seamen are employed on British ships, 
and these men become members of the 
union with a view to protecting their in- 
terests. 

At the outbreak of the war there were 
employed on British ships some 4,000 
or 5,000 German and Austrian seamen. 
These men were thrown out of employ- 
ment, as it was felt that it was not safe 
to employ alien enemies on board British 
ships. This raised a serious problem, as 
the men who were members of the union 
could not obtain employment and they 
soon became destitute. 

The Sailors' and Firemen's Union 
after consideration decided to establish 
a camp to provide for the German and 
Austrian seamen food and shelter. At 
this time aliens were not compulsorily 



interned — as a matter of fact, there 
were no aliens interned. The union ap- 
proached the government with a view to 
getting assistance in providing for the 
unemployed aliens, and ten shillings per 
man per week for every alien seaman 
who was interned under the union's care 
was granted. 

The union purchased a small estate at 
Eastcote, Northamptonshire, which 
comprised an old-fashioned dwelling 
house with out-buildings, cottages and 
about 40 acres of ground. The writer, 
as president of the union, had full 
charge of the venture. I arrived at 
Eastcote on September 14, 1914, and 
within twelve hours was able to provide 
for fifty alien seamen. 

If the thing was to be a success it was 
clear that there must be a plentiful sup- 
ply of food, that every man should be 
given a job of some kind, and that he 
should perform a certain amount of 



work per day. In addition to food, the 
men were supplied with tobacco four 
times a week and an allowance of beer 
on Sundays. It was wonderful to see 
what those sailors and firemen were able 
to do — all kinds of buildings were erect- 
ed of a permanent and substantial na- 
ture, and the cook-house and bakery 
were models of ingenuity, capable of 
supplying 3,000 to 4,000 men. Hospitals 
and lavatories were built, and a large 
field was taken for growing garden prod- 
uce. Life at the camp went pretty 
smooth although at one period there were 
850 men to be provided for. 

Eventually an order came for the 
compulsory internment of all aliens, and 
the government insisted on the erection 
of a fence around the camp at Eastcote. 
A police guard of thirteen policemen to 
keep watch of the 850 men was pro- 
vided, but their duties were very light 
and they were not allowed inside the 





MINIATURE PORTS AND HARBORS B 



THE MEN ON THE BANKS OF A LITTLE STREAM THAT RAN THROUGH THEIR CAMP. 
AT THE RIGHT, A CORNER OF THE CAMP 



8 9 



9° 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, ipi6 



camp. During fourteen months only 5 
aliens escaped, and they were captured 
within a short time after leaving camp. 

The men had full liberty to roam 
about the forty acres of ground. There 
was a stream running through the 
estate with sloping banks, and it was a 
delightful surprise to see how the sea- 
men made miniature ports and harbors 
on its banks. There was Heligoland 
Bight, Fort Hindenberg, etc. Many of 
the Germans erected little wooden huts 
and kept rabbits and other pets. Gener- 
ally the men were very happy, that is to 
say as happy as men can be who are 
deprived of their liberty. 

However, there were in the camp a 
number of non-unionists and other sail- 
ors who, although members of the union, 
did not like trade union principles. They 
at once demanded payment for their 



work — not only that, but they conspired 
to stop other men from working. For 
instance, when the camp was first start- 
ed the men were under canvas, which 
was perfectly all right in the summer 
months, but as the damp and wet 
weather came it was impossible for the 
men to remain under canvas. The union 
purchased wood and erected wooden 
huts with three tiers of bunks. Very 
excellent huts they were, fitted with hot 
water heating pipes, and the whole of 
this was done by the interned men on 
the understanding that if the men would 
do the work the committee would pur- 
chase the materials. The non-unionists, 
however, started revolts and it became 
necessary to clear some of the trouble 
makers out of the camp. Some 150 men 
of this class were sent away. The great 
body of seamen, however, went at this 



land task with spirit, some digging, 
others building and others painting. 

Eventually, the law with regard to in- 
terned aliens became more strict, and 
the military insisted upon more stringent 
regulations with regard to the guarding 
of the prisoners. The union then felt 
that the maintenance of the camp was 
becoming more than it could reasonably 
shoulder, and the government decided to 
take it over and put it under military 
control. Generally speaking, both the 
police and military authorities testified 
to the splendid manner in which the 
camp had been conducted. 

Altogether the men built themselves 
two excellent halls 100 feet long by 65 
feet wide; these buildings were erected 
inside of twenty-five days. One build- 
ing had some 40,000 bricks in the foun- 
dation. 



"WANTED— A PLAYGROUND 

By Mildred Weston 

DINGY hills 
No tree, no blade of grass — 
But a tipple rears a gaunt scaffolding 
To proclaim them not barren. 
The coke gas circles heavily and falls 
Wreathing the miners' homes. 
Houses — row on row 
Ugly red shacks 
Rust spots on a grimy earth. 

Where the children play 

A sewer feels its unclean way 

And flashes to the sun its iridescent scales of filth. 

In this foul path a pig lies dead 

With its stark legs upstuck. 

A small girl spies it and with shrilling voice 

Calls to the rest — 

"See, see," she points with outstretched hand, 

"Tony's peeg what died on heem." 

And they come running. 

The babies in their dust bath on the road 

Raise small white-lidded faces to the noise. 

Then with black dirt-trains flying in their wake 

They scuttle crab-wise to the sewer's edge. 

A boy wades out to where the carcass lies 

And ties a string to each upstanding leg. 

Gathering up the reins he scrambles back 

And quick assumes command — 

"Hi, youse two cross to tother side 

Un' take these reins wid youse. 

Ted un I'll lead over here. 

Youse other kids kin be th' band." 

Ashoving, screeching line 

The band draws up behind the prancing four. 

With both hands to their mouths they play the horn 

And one must be the drum. 

So to the sound of tootle-tootle-toot 

And joyous shrieks and booming of the drum 

They draw the dead pig barge-like through the slime. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, i 9 i6 



91 



BOOKS 



A WEEK with WAR BOOKS 

By Emily Greene Balch 



THE war has naturally — inevit- 
ably — brought with it a great 
output of books and pamphlets 
dealing with its complex roots, its 
varied aspects, its vast and uncertain 
issues. The review copies of war books 
which have reached The Survey dur- 
ing recent months have not by any 
means exhausted the list, but they have 
been fairly representative ; and at re- 
quest of the editors, the writer took ad- 
vantage of the week on shipboard en 
route to Stockholm to give them a fairly 
consecutive reading, and to share with 
Survey readers the impressions which 
such a bird's-eye view affords. 

I 

The Spirit of France 

By Owen Johnson. Little Brown & Co. 

256 pp. Price $1.35 ; by mail of The 

Survey $1.46. 
The Log of a Noncombatant 

By Horace Green. Houghton Mifflin Co. 

243 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of The 

Survey $1.35. 
The Undying Story 

By W. Douglas Newton. E. P. Dutton & 

Co. 383 pp. Price $1.35; by mall of 

The Survey $1.47. 
Between the Lines 

By Boyd Cable. E. P. Dutton & Co. 

258 pp. Price $1.35; by mall of The 

Survey $1.43. 

FIRST we have the story of the eye- 
witness, setting forth with greater 
or less skill his impressions of the events 
he has seen, whether by chance from a 
"hilltop on the Marne" or with the fever- 
ish effort to be "on the spot" of the 
professional correspondent. 

There is Owen Johnson, like other 
visitors to France, intoxicated with her 
tragic bravery; Horace Green who gives 
a sense of a genuine desire to be fair 
(borne out by his very reasonable ap- 
pendix on atrocities) ; W. Douglas New- 
ton's vivid story of part of the British 
campaign in France; Boyd Cable's set 
of newspap-r sketches, among which A 
Hymn of H;.;e touches almost the depths 
of moral degradation in war, a degrada- 
tion above which one must have hoped 
the English might rise. 

II 

The Development of the European Na- 
tions 

1870 -1914. Bv J. Holland Rose. G. P. 

Putnam's Sons. 410 pp. Price $2.75 ; 

by mail of The Survey $2.93. 
How Diplomats Make War 

Anonymous. B. W. Huebsch. 376 pp. 

Price $1.50 ; by mail of The Survey $1.60. 
The New Map of Europe 

By Herbert Adams Gibbons. The Century 

Co. 412 pp. Price $2; by mail of The 

Survey $2.10. 
Economic Aspects of the War 

By Edwin .1. Clapp. Yale University 

Press. 360 pp. Price $1.50 ; by mail of 

The Survey $1.62. 



An Intebpbe- 



The Monroe Doctrine : 

tation 

By Albert Bushnell Hart. Little Brown 
& Co. 445 pp. Price $1.75 ; by mall of 
The Survey $1.93. 

Modernizing the Monroe Doctrine 

By Charles H. Sherrill. Houghton Mif- 
flin Co. 203 pp. Price $1.25 ; by mail of 
The Survey $1.35. 

The Diplomacy of the Great Was 

By Arthur Bullard. Macmillan Co. 344 
pp. Price $1.50 ; by mall of The Sur- 
vey $1.62. 

The Export of Capital 

By C. K. Hobson. Thesis, University of 
London, Constable, London. 261 pp. Price 
$2 ; by mail of The Survey $2.20. 

Socialism and War 

By Louis B. Boudin. New Review Pub- 
lishing Association. 267 pp. Price $1 ; 
by mail of The Survey $1.08. 

The Socialists and the War 

By William English Walling. Henry Holt 
& Co. 512 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of 
The Survey $1.62. 

Belgium, Neutral and Loyal 

By Emile Waxweiler. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 324 pp. Price $1.25 ; by mail of 
The Survey $1.35. 

Italy's Foreign and Colonial Policy 
By Senator Tommaso Tittoni. Smith 
Elder & Co., London. 323 pp. Price 
$1.82 ; by mall of The Survey $2. 

Government and Politics of the German 

Empire 

By Fritz-Konrad Kriiger. World Book 
Co. 340 pp. Price $1.20 ; by mail of 
The Subvey $1.28. 

Imperial Germany and the Industrial 

Revolution 

By Thorstein Veblen. Macmillan & Co. 
324 pp. Price $1.50 ; by mail of The 
Subvey $1.62. 

AT THE other extreme there are the 
. histories general and special. 
Rose's Development of the European 
Nations, reissued with chapters bringing 
it up to date, is a standard work. 

How Diplomats Make War is a bitter 
attack on British foreign politics by an 
unnamed "British statesman" which does 
not carry full conviction. 

Gibbons' New Map of Europe is read- 
able and full of information, and ob- 
viously tries to be impartial. 

Edwin J. Clapp's study, Economic As- 
pects of the War, dealing with interna- 
tional law and the acts of the belliger- 
ents as they affect American commerce, 
should be read by every easy thick-and- 
thin believer in the doctrine that all the 
wrongs, especially the wrongs against in- 
ternational law, lie at the door of Ger- 
many. 

Professor Hart's study of the Monroe 
Doctrine has preparedness for its moral. 

If Charles H. Sherrill in his Modern- 
izing the Monroe Doctrine also advo- 
cates a strong navy, his interest, based 
on diplomatic experience in South 
America and commercial exportise, is 
primarily enlisted for Pan-Americanism 
as "the most practical agent for inter- 
national peace yet devised." 

Arthur Bullard, perhaps better known 
as "Albert Edwards" has given us in The 



Diplomacy of the Great War an inter- 
esting and well-written book which also 
finds its moral in a consideration of the 
problem of constructive internationalism 
as it confronts America. It is full of 
good ideas, such as an international con- 
ference on the difficult questions involved 
in naturalization laws, and the last twen- 
ty pages on National Defense and The 
United States and Peace should be wide- 
ly read and considered. The United 
States must take its own medicine. 

In view of the stress laid by Brails- 
ford and others on the export of capital 
(as contrasted with export of goods) as 
a cause of war, special importance at- 
taches to the doctoral thesis by C. K. 
Hobson in The Export of Capital. 

In regard to the intensely interesting 
question of the war and Socialism — So- 
cialism which its severest critics now ap- 
pear to have relied on to prevent the 
war — Mr. Boudin's very general lec- 
tures, delivered in 1914 and published 
under the title Socialism and War, can- 
not give much material for concrete 
study. It is just this that is supplied by 
Mr. Walling's collection of documents, 
issued without comment — a valuable 
service. The scope of this volume is in- 
dicated by the title, The Socialists and 
the War. It was published a year ago 
and it is to be hoped that it will be fol- 
lowed by a continuation on the same 
lines. 

Waxweiler's book, Belgium, Neutral 
and Loyal, is the Belgian case by a Bel- 
gian — sad enough in any telling. Italy's 
case is represented by a collection of 
parliamentary addresses delivered by 
the minister of foreign affairs, Senator 
Tittoni, during his six years of office, 
from 1903 to 1909. 

Dr. Kriiger has produced what should 

be a very useful handbook of facts as 

to the government and politics of the 

German Empire, written with no relation 

to the present war. Contrast with this 

Veblen's characteristically brilliant study 

of Imperial Germany and the Industrial 

Revolution. 

Ill 

Ukraine's Claim to Freedom 

By Bjorkman, Pollock, and others. 
Ukrainian National Association and Ru- 
thenian National Union, New York. 125 
pp. Price 75 cents ; by mail of The 
Survey $.81. 

The War and the Balkans 

By Noel and Charles Roden Buxton. Al- 
len & Unwin, London. 112 pp. Price 
$.50 ; by mail of The Survey $.62. 

Bohemia Under Hapsburg Misrule 

By Thomas Capek. Fleming H. Revell 
Co. 187 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The 
Survey $1.10. 

Nationality and the War 

By Arnold J. Toynbee. Dent & Co. 511 
pp. Price $2.50 ; by mail of The Sur- 
vey $2.75. 

The Blackest Page of Modern Histoby 
By Herbert Adams Gibbons. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. 71 pp. Price $.75 ; by mall 
of The Survey $.79. 

The Problems of the Coming Peace 
By Felix Mlynarski. Polish Book Im- 
porting Co., New York. 172 pp. Price 
$.75 ; by mail of The Survey $.81. 

ANOTHER group of studies relate:- 
. to special questions of nationality 
Of these some are pleas for individual 



02 



THE SURl'EY TOR OCTOBER 28, ip/6 



national groups — the Armenians, the 
Bohemians, the Poles, the Ukrainians — 
and as such deserve the most patient and 
candid hearing, the most active sympathy 
— and also a study of the other side (or 
sides) of the often very complex cir- 
cumstances. Consider, for instance, 
eastern Galicia where the claims of the 
Polish gentry conflict with those of the 
Ruthenian (Ukrainian) peasantry, be- 
sides the special problems presented by 
the Jews, to say nothing of the Rouman- 
ian minority. 

Of these books the widest in scope is 
Arnold J. Toynbee's extraordinarily use- 
ful Nationality and the War. Whether 
his particular solutions prove the most 
practicable, or even the wisest theoretic- 
ally, is beside the point. The attempt to 
work out, on the basis of the actual data 
and with reference, not alone to nation- 
ality but also to natural economic af- 
filiations, to customs-boundaries and 
other elements of the situation, the re- 
arrangement that one would make, if 
one could, of the map of Europe from 
Schleswig to Koweit — this attempt is 
one that must be made systematically 
and carefully not by one but by many 
minds and from many points of view. 
Such books as this, modest but daring 
to come to grips with the actual, help to 
make history. 

IV 

Aristocracy and Justice 

By Paul Elmer More. Houghton Mifflin 
Co. 243 pp. Price $1.25 ; by mail of 
The Survey $1.35. 

War and the Breed 

By David Starr Jordan. The Beacon 
Press, Boston. 265 pp. Price $1.35 ; by 
mall of The Survey $1.42. 

Is War Diminishing? 

By Frederick A. Woods & Alexander 
Baltzley. Houghton Mifflin Co. 105 pp. 
Price $1 ; by mail of The Survey $1.08. 

Social Progress and the Darwinian 

Theory 

By George Nasmyth. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. 417 pp. Price $1.50 ; by mail of 
The Survey $1.60. 

Germany vs. Civilization 

By William Roscoe Thayer. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 238 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of 
The Survey $1.08. 

In Times Like These 

By Nellie L. McClung. D. Appleton & 
Co. 218 pp. Price $1 ; by mall of The 
Survey $1.09. 

ANOTHER group of books, hard to 
. define, might be called interpreta- 
tions of war. Paul Elmer More treats 
it as a philosopher with little patience 
for those who are stunned or surprised. 
In the last two essays of his Aristocracy 
and Justice he critizes the "new moral- 
ity" of Jane Addams and advises a mid- 
dle way of justice between Nietzscheism 
and "absolute humanitarianism." 

Dr. Jordan writes as a biologist in 
War and the Breed of the fateful ef- 
fects of racial selection through war, 
killing out the chosen. 

Dr. Woods (Is War Diminishing?) 
doubts this thesis, and sets himself as an 
"historiometer" to a quantitative study 
of the prevalence of war, with an ex- 
traordinary blindness to the unscientific 
character of his procedure. It is inter- 
esting, however, to note that, little as the 



fact serves in itself as a basis of judg- 
ing the future, the fact appears to be 
that the prevalence of war has been 
diminishing, and chiefly among the 
smaller powers. 

Dr. Nasmyth in a more substantial 
volume, Social Progress and the Darwin- 
ian Theory, considers the whole prob- 
lem of the role of force in human rela- 
tions, mutual aid as a factor in social 
progress, and justice as a prime social 
need. The superficial appeal to Dar- 
win as though he had taught that evolu- 
tionary progress rested on brute amoral 
struggle needs to be again and again ex- 
posed. 

The character of Professor Thayer's 
volume is perhaps sufficiently indicated 
by its title, Germany versus Civilization, 
Notes on the Atrocious War. 

Nellie McClung's In Times Like 
These is a series of essays by a Can- 
adian feminist, with the normal woman's 
reaction against war. 

V 

The A. B. C. of National Defense 

By Julius W. Muller. E. P. Dutton & 
Co. 215 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The 
Survey $1.08. 

The Invasion of America 

By Julius W. Muller. E. P. Dutton & 
Co. 352 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of 
The Survey $1.37. 

West Point in Our Next War 

Bv Maxwell Van Zandt Woodhull. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. 266 pp. Price $1.25 ; by 
mail of The Survey $1.35. 

Selected Articles on National Defense 
Compiled by Corinne Bacon. Debaters' 
Handbook Series. H. W. Wilson Co. 
243 pp. Price $1 ; by mall of The Sur- 
vey $1.08. 

MILITARISM, on the other hand, is 
represented by four books, two 
by a Mr. Muller (one of which is the 
counterpart in print of the Battle Cry of 
Peace movie show), one by an army of- 
ficer, giving his views on West Point in 
Our Next War and including a chapter 
on the diplomacy of national defense and 
playing with the ill-omened phrases, 
"creation of a balance of power in the 
Pacific" and "a sphere of influence of the 
United States" to "cover as with a 
shield [to quote the publisher's note on 
the cover] the nations facing the Gulf 
of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea." The 
fourth is a Debaters' Handbook on Na- 
tional Defense, giving selected material 
on both sides of the preparedness ques- 
tion. 

VI 

Outline of International Law 

By Arnold Bennett Hall. La Salle Ex- 
tension University, Chicago. 255 pp. 
Price $1.75 ; by mail of The Survey $1.87. 

Professor Hall's Outline of Interna- 
tional Law is a boon. In little over a 
hundred readable pages the main out- 
lines are given, and it is surprising how 
far the phrases and legal points that 
have puzzled the layman in his news- 
paper reading are here made intelligible. 
No one interested in public affairs and 
not already posted on international law 
can afford not to read through this most 
convenient handbook. 



VII 

Women at the Hague 

By Jane Addams, Emily G. Balch and 
Alice Hamilton. The Macmillan Co. 171 
pp. Price $.75; by mall of The Survey 
$.80. 

The World Crisis and Its Meaning 

By Felix Adler. D. Appleton & Co. 233 
pp. Price $1.50 ; by mail of The Survey 
$1.60. 

The Maze of the Nations and the Wai 

Out 

By Gaius Glenn Atkins. Fleming H. 
Revell Co. 128 pp. Price $.75; by mall 
of The Survey $.81. 

The Future of World Peace 

By Roger W. Babson. Babson's Statistical 
Organization, Boston. 142 pp. Price $1 ; 
by mail of The Survey $1.10. 

Neutral Conference Publications 

Appeal to Neutral Governments and 
Parliaments (Proposals) to Governments, 
Parliaments and Peoples of the Belliger- 
ent Nations (March 9). (Easter, 1916) 
Stockholm. Louis P. Lochner, secretary. 

Selected Articles on World Peace 

Debaters' Handbook Series. By Mary 
Katharine Reely. The H. W. Wilson Co. 
256 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The Sur 
vey $1.07. 

League to Enforce Peace 

American Branch. By William Howard 
Taft. League to Enforce Peace, New 
York, 64 pp. Price $.25 ; by mail of The 
Survey $.30. 

The War and What After? 

Bv Raymond Unwin. Garden City Press. 
63 pp. Price $.36 ; by mail of The Sur- 
vey $.41. 

Christ and Wab 

By William E. Wilson. Clarke 4 Co., 
London. 207 pp. Price $.50 ; by mail of 
The Survey $.60. 

The Great News 

By Charles Ferguson. Mitchell Kenner- 
ley. 278 pp. Price $1.25; by mall of 
The Survey $1.34. 

The Western Hemisphere in the World 

of Tomorrow 

By Franklin Henry Giddings. Fleming H. 
Revell Co. 48 pp. Price $.35 ; by mall 
of The Survey $.39. 

Called to the Colors and Other Stories 
By Caroline Arwater Mason and others. 
Christian Women's Peace Movement, West 
Medford, Mass. 199 pp. Price $.75 ; by 
mail of The Survey $.82. 

Toward a Lasting Settlement 

By Charles Roden Buxton. The Mac- 
millan Co. 216 pp. Price $1; by mall 
of The Survey $1.07. 

Problems of Readjustment After the 

War 

By Albert Bushnell Hart. D. Appleton & 
Co. 186 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The 
Survey $1.09. 

When the Lads Come Home 

By Harry Jeffs. Joseph Johnson, London. 
80 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of The Sub- 
vey $1.05. 

Ways to Lasting Peace 

Bv David Starr Jordan. The Bobbs Mer- 
rill Co. 255 pp. Price $1 ; by mall of 
The Survey $1.07. 

The Overthrow of the War System 
By Jane Addams, Fannie Fern Andrews, 
Liicia Ames Mead, Rose Dabney Forbes, 
Denvs P. Myers, Ruby G. Smith, Anna 
Garlin Spencer. Edited by Lucia Ames 
Mead. 137 pp. Forum Publications, Bos- 
ton. 

Toward International Government 

Bv John A. Hobson. The Macmillan Com- 
p.inv. 216 pp. Trice $1 ; by mall of 
The Survey $1.09. 

SOLLEN WlR ANNEKTIREN 

By Bund "Neues Vaterland" (New Father- 
land League). Svensks Andelsforlaget, 
Stockholm. (Reprint.) 64 pp. 

Wenn rCH WlLSOK WARE 

Bv Maximilian Harden. Die Zukunft, 
April 22, 1916. 

THE most interesting and important 
books called forth by the war are 
the forward-looking ones, those that deal 
with constructive problems. The world 
is thinking as it never thought before of 
the questions involved in the relations 
between nations. Those with the most 
highlv developed social consciousness 
were, before the war, mainly occupied 
with problems of social and economic 
betterment within the country, problems 
ranging from systematic Socialism to 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, i 9 i6 



93 



charity case-work. Politics — foreign 
policy seemed something rather remote, 
rather arid. We had been reading his- 
tory for the sake of the condition-of-the- 
people question, and found political and 
diplomatic history a little unreal. Then 
the storm broke. 

In the revulsion, one of our dangers 
has been that energy and interest would 
be available only for war relief and war 
policies, and that we of America, the 
one great civilized power (besides 
China) free from the confusion of war, 
would fail to measure up to our trust of 
keeping the lamp burning, of forwarding 
art, scholarship, reform during the 
European interruption of the works of 
culture. 

It is a case of "this ought ye to have 
done and not to have left the other un- 
done." The old familiar work should 
not be neglected for the new, but where 
choice must be made the emergency call 
has the right of way. The whole task 
of constructive internationalism is in- 
deed prior to the social task as we have 
known it; prior, not only because we are 
in the throes of a planetary emergency, 
but because, as we now more fully see, 
the economic and social conditions of 
each country are indissolubly bound up 
with the questions that determine the 
nature of international relations. 

Not only is the whole world thinking 
of the international problem; the strik- 
ing thing is how markedly these thoughts 
converge. This very fact may make it 
less interesting to read a large number 
of books dealing with the subject, but 
the fact is profoundly encouraging. 
From Holland, from Switzerland, from 
America, from England, from Belgium, 
from Germany and from France, come 
individual voices and concerted programs 
which have the same hall-mark. For 
this, the designation "European" is too 
local, even to call it that of "western 
civilization" is to limit it too narrowly. 
It is the voice of the humanity of our 
age. 

The neutral conference now gathered 
at Stockholm is in some degree the chan- 
nel for expression of this voice but its 
work is only just beginning. Dr. Jor- 
dan's little book, Ways to Lasting Peace, 
is a convenient compilation of the im- 
portant proposals hitherto put forth. 

Of these the most definite and the one 
that has secured the greatest momentum 
is the plan of a league to secure peace 
initiated by Hamilton Holt and now rep- 
resented by the powerful League to En- 
force Peace, the American branch of 
which is headed by ex-President Taft. 
While many pacifists must regret what 
seems to them an overemphasis on the 
use (or at least, the threat) of force, 
the very fact that an international 
police force represents a middle way is a 
large part of the undoubted strength of 
the scheme. 

Social, moral and economic pressure 
brought to bear on any nation which re- 



sorts to arms, instead of referring its 
case to arbitration and conciliation, was 
the solution offered by the women at 
The Hague and detailed suggestions for 
such economic pressure worked out by 
E. A. Filene may be found in Mrs. 
Meade's little volume, The Overthrow 
of the War System (pp. 120-2) and 
brief criticisms of it quoted in Jordan's 
Ways to Lasting Peace (pp. 53-4). 
Lowes Dickinson's discussion is also 
there [see pp. 89-90]. 

Among the most careful and technical 
studies for international organization 
after the war are that made for the 
Fabian Society by Mr. Woolf (publish- 
ed as supplements to the New Statesman 
of July 10 and 17, 1915) and John A. 
Hobson's Toward International Govern- 
ment. They are neither of them easy 
reading and neither of them has yet re- 
ceived in America anything like the at- 
tention it is bound ultimately to com- 
mand. It is not Utopian, it is impera- 
tive common sense to think as definitely 
and painstakingly as possible on this 
problem, and while we cannot all be 
architects we all are going to have to 
live in the new house and we ought to 
see how we like the rival plans and vote 
for the specifications that we want. 

And while it is true that men cannot 
be made good (sc. friendly or interna- 
tional-minded) by act of Parliament (or 
Hlague conventions) the complementary 
tact is that neither does good will alone 
suffice. The ignorant mother may kill 
her baby in sheer mistaken love. Five 
million saints could not govern New 
York and provide water, sewerage, fire 
protection and regulate traffic if they 
had no governmental machinery — not 
even a town meeting nor a set of rules 
of order. They would have first to con- 
struct an intelligently ordered mechan- 
ism for common action. And with such 
a mechanism, through which good will 
and enlightened selfishness would both 
act, the men of ill will and the men of 
unenlightened selfishness would be neu- 
tralized. 

All signs point to the hope that the 
nations are on the threshold of far more 
effective organization than has been yet 
achieved. We have had the bloodshed 
and the moral horror of the war, let us 
see to it that this travail is not in vain — 
And his name shall be called Prince of 
Peace ; and the government shall be upon 
his shoulder. 

But these are questions of reconstruc- 
tion after peace has come. The earlier 
question, pressing on every feeling, think- 
ing spirit, is When — above all, how — 
will peace be made? It is, as has been 
said above, very striking how converg- 
ent are the thoughts of men approaching 
the problem from different points of 
view. Not, of course, of imperialists, 
militarists and all their sort, but of those 
who are trying to think in universal 
terms. Most striking are the thoughts 
on peace of members of belligerent coun- 



tries, like Vernon Lee, for instance; 
and, above all, to Americans, because 
less expected, of Germans like the au- 
thors of the pamphlets of the Bund 
Neues Vaterland and others. 

Conspicuous among these others is 
Maximilian Harden whose magazine Die 
Zukunft for April 22, 1916, contains an 
essay, If I Were Wilson, which honors 
the German name and reinvigorates our 
belief in the German capacity for high 
and impartial thinking. Militarism, he 
says, must go. World armament is dead. 
Annexation is no longer compatible with 
our time. Revenge, punishment, indem- 
nities are out of the question if the 
revolution that will flame through 
Europe after the war is not to be a 
bloody one, if it is to be kept on the 
spiritual plane. 

A truce is possible today, for nothing 
remains to be fought for that can pos- 
sibly repay the fighting. But the truce 
must bring in a peace in which the 
rights of the weakest are recognized. 
Hate must be buried quickly and thor- 
oughly. 

An international organization should 
fund the united war debts of Europe and 
make them the basis of an international 
credit currency with which the rehabili- 
tation of Europe would be financed and 
which would also give effective powers 
of control to the international adminis- 
tration. 

It is a document as difficult to repro- 
duce as it is interesting. It is to be 
hoped that it will soon be available in 
full for English readers. 

vm 

The Healing op Nations and the Hidden- 
Sources of Their Strife 

By Edward Carpenter. Chas. Scribner's 
Sons. 266 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of Thi 
Survey $1.07. 
Above the Battle 

By Romain Rolland. Open Court Pub- 
lishing Co. 194 pp. Price $1 ; by mail 
of The Survey $1.08. 

IN CLOSING let me refer to Romain 
Rolland's Au Dessus de la Melee, so 
fine and so tragic, and to Edward Car- 
penter's The Healing of the Nations, 
tonic, comforting and reassuring. The 
last part of the book is made up of 
quotations and anecdotes ranging from 
Liebknecht's protest in the Reichstag to 
the story of three officers, a Frenchman, 
a Scotchman and a German, dying side 
by side after mutual good offices. The 
German gave the others an injection of 
morphia, then, "feeling wonderfully at 
ease, spoke of the lives we had lived be- 
fore the war. We all spoke English, 
and we talked of the women we had left 
at home." "I wondered, and I sup- 
pose the others did, why we had fought 
at all. I looked at the Highlander who 
was falling to sleep exhausted. . . . 
Then I watched the German who had 
ceased to speak. He had taken a prayer- 
book from his knapsack, and was trying 
to read a service for soldiers wounded in 
battle." The letter was found beside the 
dead officer. 



94 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, i 9 i6 



Carpenter's point of view is that the 
war is a breaking forth, in overt inter- 
national strife, of evils long festering 
within. That is, he stresses its social — 
economic — moral causes, and he looks 
forward to radical social regeneration. 
Besides fine human feeling unclouded 
and unchilled by war miasmas, he shows 
an undaunted philosophy recognizing 
the relativity of the evils and sufferings 
even of this time. Without idealization 
of war or callousness to its evils he is 
not dismayed by it. It is, of course, to 
his fellow countrymen in war racked 
England that he is speaking, but his 
words may be helpful to others as well. 
He says: 

"While these present war-producing 
conditions last we have to face them 
candidly and with as much good sense 
as we can command (which is for the 
most part only little) ! We have to face 
them and make the best of them, though 



by no means to encourage them. Per- 
haps after all even a war like the pres- 
ent one, monstrous as it is, does not de- 
note so great a deviation of the old 
earth from its orbit as we are at first in- 
clined to think. Under normal condi- 
tions the deaths on our planet (and 
many of them exceedingly lingering and 
painful) continue at the rate of rather 
more than one every second — say 90,000 
a day. The worst battles cannot touch 
such wholesale slaughter as this. 

"Life at its normal best is full of 
agonizings and endless toil and suffer- 
ings ; what matters, what it is really 
there for is that we should learn to con- 
duct it with dignity, courage, good will — 
to transmute its dross into gold. If war 
has to continue yet for a time there is 
still plenty of evidence to show that we 
can wrest — even from its horrors and in- 
sanities — some things that are 'worth 
while,' and among others the priceless 
jewel of human love and helpfulness." 



Conferences 



INFANT MORTALITY 

THAT economic, educational and 
medical resources must be yet 
further drawn upon before the 
problem of infant mortality can be 
solved, was the thesis demonstrated by 
the American Association for Study and 
Prevention of Infant Mortality at its 
convention in Milwaukee, October 19-21. 
A new significance in old facts, a grow- 
ing alertness to needs that have long 
awaited remedy, was characteristic of 
the meeting, rather than any sensational 
plans for new lines of work. For exam- 
ple, the federal method of protecting 
against the spread of poliomyelitis was 
described, but a whole session was given 
up to measles and whooping cough. 

That at least 15,000 women in this 
country die each year from causes con- 
nected with childbirth, was stated by Dr. 
Grace L. Meigs, of the federal Chil- 
dren's Bureau. The death-rate from 
these causes has not changed during the 
past thirteen years. 

It is in country districts that condi- 
tions are worst, Dr. Meigs said. There 
the struggle for existence too often 
means a foregoing of even necessaries, 
to say nothing of conveniences and 
luxuries. The Children's Bureau will 
issue shortly a study of some such rural 
conditions made in Wisconsin and in 
North Carolina. Dr. Meigs urged a 
"county unit plan," with a county hos- 
pital and proper nursing and medical 
attendance. 

More children die from measles and 
whooping cough annually than from 



scarlet fever; many more than from in- 
fantile paralysis, said Dr. Borden S. 
Veeder of St. Louis. Each of these 
common diseases kills from 9,000 to 
10,000 children annually, and the young- 
er the child the greater the fatality. 
Hence the widespread idea that it is 
well for children to have these diseases 
while they are young "and to be done 
with it," is most erroneous. 

How it has been possible to keep 
measles from spreading among the hun- 
dreds of children housed during every 
year at Ellis Island, was told by Dr. 
J. G. Wilson, one of the federal Public 
Health Service officers at the immigra- 
tion station. By daily inspection and the 
prompt isolation of every child having 
any degree of fever, outbreaks of 
measles are being successfully prevented, 
even though new cases are brought in 
nearly every day. The plan could, Dr. 
Wilson believed, be easily adapted to a 
civil community. 

Abby L. Marlatt, head of the home 
economics department of the University 
of Wisconsin, and Amy L. Daniels, of 
the same department, discussed some 
educational aspects of infant mortality. 
To supply every college woman with in- 
telligent information upon the world 
problems of eugenics is the ideal which 
Professor Marlatt holds out. 

HOUSING REFORM 

THE National Housing Conference 
at Providence, October 9-11, 
brought up for discussion on a national 
stage a question which has had little 



study from other angles than that of the 
lot owner's profit, though even from this 
angle it has as yet been studied only 
superficially — the significance of the 
multiple dwelling. There were other 
papers of great value, such as that of 
Lawson Purdy, seconded by Robert H. 
Whitten and Frank B. Williams, on the 
districting of cities, which should leave 
convinced everyone in the audience ex- 
cept the New Yorkers — who were al- 
ready convinced — and that of James 
Ford of Harvard on housing and dis- 
ease, an old subject and a connection 
in which all housing workers believe, 
however difficult they may find it to 
prove. Professor Ford gave them new- 
evidence. 

But valuable as these and other con- 
tributions were, the beginning of 
thoughtful discussion of the multiple 
dwelling, be it a wooden three-decker, 
an expensive fireproof apartment house 
or a brick walled tenement house, is of 
greater significance. For it shows that 
we are at last awakening to a knowl- 
edge that sanitation is only a part of 
housing, that the tvpe of dwelling has 
economic and social effects "uite aside 
from whether it has dark rooms or in- 
adequate toilet facilities. 

There were differences of opinion, as 
those who believe the multiple dwelling 
a menace hoped there would be, to 
stimulate public opinion to the point of 
digging out the truth. Bernard J. New- 
man of Philadelphia painstakingly mar- 
shalled all the arguments pro and con. 
seconded by Prescott F. Hall of Brook- 
line, Mass., but his adverse conclusion 
failed to carry conviction to James H. 
Hurley, president of the Providence 
Real Estate Exchange, who, however, 
confined his defense to the high priced 
and well planned apartment house; or 
to Edwin H. Marble of Worcester, birth- 
place of the three-decker, who presented 
figures showing fewer fires originating 
inside three-deckers than inside two- 
family houses. But this is only a begin- 
ning, and the importance of the event 
lies in the fact that it is a beginning. 

The program of the conference cover- 
ed a wide field, from such perennial sub- 
jects as housing and health, to which 
Professor Ford and Dr. Frank A. 
Craige of Philadelphia made real con- 
tributions, to the latest methods of se- 
curing economy in house building. Gros- 
venor Atterbury described in detail, il- 
lustrating his description with lantern 
slides, the method of building with con- 
crete slabs that he has employed at For- 
est Hills Gardens. 

Between these extremes there were 
discussions of garden suburbs, industrial 
housing, the city and housing, the es- 
sentials of good management, focusing 
community interest and educating the 
tenant. 

Local interest in the conference had 
been stimulated by a housing survey of 
Providence made during the preceding 
five months by John Ihlder. Madge 
Headley and Udetta D. Brown. The 
printed reports of this survey were dis- 
tributed among the delegates and a ver- 
bal report was made at one of the ses- 
sions, where it was discussed by Dr. 
Charles V. Chapin. superintendent of 
health of Providence: Paul N. Colwell. 



THE SURVEY FOR OCTOBER 28, 1916 



95 



secretary of the Insurance Association 
of Providence, and Prescott O. Clarke, 
chairman of a committee appointed to 
draft a housing code in line with its 
recommendations. 

HOURS FOR WOMEN 

THE movement for interstate co- 
operation in the campaign for 
shorter hours for women wage-earners, 
initiated in New England in the spring 
[see The Survey for June 3], is spread- 
ing to other parts of the country. The 
Women's Trade Union Leagues of the 
Middle West, backed by the central labor 
bodies of many cities, by branches of 
the National Consumers' League, wom- 
en's clubs, suffrage organizations and 
the Women's Church Federation, held 
a conference in Chicago on October 6-8 
at which the states of Illinois, Missouri, 
Kansas, Ohio, Kentucky, and Wiscon- 
sin were represented by ninety delegates 
from fifty-one organizations. 

It was clear from the talks that it 
will not be long before Congress is asked 
to pass a bill for the limitation to eight 
hours labor a day of all women en- 
gaged in the manufacture of goods 
transported from state to state, exactly 
on the lines of the new federal child 
labor law. 

At the business sessions the principal 
speakers were trade union women, who, 
knowing from experience the value of 
organization, urged its spread as the 
indispensable means of ensuring the 
strict administration of any protective 
legislation. As to the bill to be en- 
dorsed by the conference for presenta- 
tion in the various states in as nearly 
as practicable the same form, was an 
eight-hour law and a forty-eight-hour 
week, this to be considered the mini- 
mum demand of the women, both or- 
ganized and unorganized. A few pled 
for the inclusion of the Saturday after- 
noon as well, but it was decided not to 
press that point, the all important ques- 
tion being the attainment of the shorter 
workday. 

A dinner at Hull House and a public 
meeting on Sunday afternoon were ad- 
dressed by Victor Olander, of the Il- 
linois Federation of Labor, Mrs. Ray- 
mond Robins, national president of the 
Women's Trade Union League; Mary 
E. McDowell, vice-president of the 
Chicago league ; Agnes Nestor, glove- 
worker; Julia O'Connor, telephone op- 
erator; Sarah Spraggon, shoe-worker, 
and Sarah Green, waitress, presidents 
of the leagues at Chicago, Boston, St. 
Louis, and Kansas City, Mo. Mrs. 
Green was one of a number of women 
sent by their central labor bodies. 

Mary Anderson, the league's fraternal 
delegate to the Canada Trades and 
Labor Council, spoke of the increasing 
industrial pressure upon women and 
even little children, as a result of the 
war conditions in the dominion. Dr. 
Bayard Holmes touched on the medical 
side ; Myra Richardson of the Ford 



Motor Company at Detroit, gave strik- 
ing evidence on the invigorating effect 
on girls of reducing work within the 
limit of an eight-hour day and a forty- 
five-hour week. Mrs. John R. Com- 
mons, of Madison, Wis., represented the 
Madison Consumers' League, and Mrs. 
Florence Kelley, secretary of the Na- 
tional Consumers' League made a mov- 
ing appeal for humane and consistent 
legislation. 

THE third regional conference on 
the eight-hour day for women, 
met in Wilmington, Del., October 17, in 
all day session. The following resolu- 
tion, unanimously adopted, is the basis 
of the nationwide campaign for simul- 
taneous legislation in the states and in 
Congress. It is identical with the reso- 
lution adopted in Chicago on October 7, 
by the regional conference reported 
above : 

"Whereas, the Supreme Court of the 
United States has upheld as constitu- 
tional the California eight-hours law for 
women; and 

"Whereas, the Congress of the United 
States has established the eight-hours 
day for women wage-earners of the 
District of Columbia ; and 

"Whereas, four states have passed 
eight-hours laws for women ; and 

"Whereas, forty legislatures will be 
in session and can pass similar laws in 
1917; therefore 

"Resolved, that it is the sense of this 
meeting that we urge the men and 
women here present to promote in their 
own states the passage at the earliest 
possible date of laws based upon the 
California statute creating the eight- 
hours day and forty-eight-hours working 
week for women ; and 

"Resolved, that we approve the intro- 
duction in Congress of a federal eight- 
hours bill for women founded on the 
principles embodied in the federal child 
labor law." 

"So long as mothers work in factor- 
ies, so long will babes go to their 
graves," said Dr. Robin of Wilmington, 
speaking for the physicians, in favor of 
reducing working hours for all women, 
and most urgently for mothers of young 
children. 

"If we do not get shorter hours soon 
for the young girls, there will not be 
much left to save !" exclaimed a young 
textile worker from the Kensington 
region of Philadelphia, describing the 
ravaged nerves of the mill girls under 
the present ten-hours law of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Mary Van Kleeck, of the Russell 
Sage Foundation, described the effect 
of war contracts upon state laws, show- 
ing how women in Connecticut have 
been deprived of all protection against 
night-work and overtime, and proving 
from a new angle the need of a federal 
law. 

Prof. Thomas I. Parkinson, of Colum- 
bia University, closed the conference 
with a powerful argument for the con- 
stitutionality of an eight-hours law for 
women, modeled upon the federal child 
labor law. 



Classified Advertisements 

HELP WANTED 

VISITING TUBERCULOSIS nurse. 
Salary $75.00. Anti-Tuberculosis Society, 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 

VISITING, beside nurse, southern moun- 
tains. Settlement headquarters Primitive 
hardship. Mule-back travel spirit of service 
essential, moderate salary. Address 2400, 
Survey. 

WANTED: A first-class institutional 
carpenter and wife; man to instruct in 
furniture and cabinet making during winter 
months and buildings of all kinds during 
summer; wife to act as cottage matron. 
Permanent positions with good salary to 
right parties. Address 2404, Survey. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

EXECUTIVE or FIELD SECRETARY, 
Young man, Clergyman. Twelve years 
platform experience also in organizing and 
propaganda work. Address 2401, Survey. 

POSITION as visitor for church or re- 
lief organization by experienced worker. 
Address 2402, Survey. 

HEADWORKERSHIP or Assistant 
Headworkership of Settlement within 300 
miles of New York by gentleman with sev- 
eral years experience in social settlement 
work. Best of references. Address 2403, 
Survey. 

WANTED — A few more classes in sew- 
ing, dressmaking, drafting, designing or 
millinery by experienced teacher; day or 
evening. Address 2380, Survey. 

The Problem of Illegitimacy 

The Society for Helping Destitute Moth- 
ers and Infants offers leaflets and Reports 
giving the substance of what they have 
learned in more than forty years of suc- 
cessful work for mothers and infants, in- 
cluding many unmarried mothers. For 
these address, Miss L. Freeman Clarke, 
5 Brimmer Street, Boston, Mass. (Secre- 
tary of The Society for Helping Destitute 
Mothers and Infants.) 



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Louis Stongliton Drake, Inc., 991 Watertmvn St., W. Xcwton, Mass, 



THREE VOLUMES 

By Edward T. Devine 

THE NORMAL LIFE 

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in maturity, in old age. Price $! ; by mail $1 .07. 

THE SPIRIT OF SOCIAL WORK 

Nine of Mr. Devine's addresses, delivered 
at various times and places, full of the author's 
inspiring conviction that "ancient wrongs shall 
be righted." Price, postpaid, $1 .00. 

SOCIAL FORCES 

Twenty-five editorials from THE SURVEY 
in which Mr. Devine focuses on American prob- 
lems the world-wide experience of social work 
and theory gathered intc the news columns of 
the magazine from week to week. Price, post- 
paid, $1.00. 



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PAMPHLETS 

[Seventeen pamphlets of the National Confer- 
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Public Outdoor Relief in Chicago. By Eu- 
gene T. Lies, general superintendent. United 
Charities, Chicago. No. 59. Price 8 cents 
and postage. 

The Municipality and Public Welfare. Bj 

D. Prank Garland, director of public wel- 
fare, Dayton, O. No. 60. Price 8 cents and 
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A State Plan fob the Cabe of the Feeble- 
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retary, Committee on Provision for the 
Feebleminded, Philadelphia. No. 61. Price 7 
cents and postage. 

The Relation of the Workingman to the 
Alcoholic Problem. By Rev. Charles 
Stelzle, New York. No. 62. Price 7 cents 
and postage. 

Alcoholic Insanity in a Prohibition State. 
By Philip B. Newcomb, M.D., State Hospital, 
Osawotomie, Kansas. No. 63. Price 7 cents 
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Wider Use of Case Records. By Carol Aro- 
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Seybert Institution, Philadelphia. No. 64. 
Price 5 cents and postage. 

Shaping the Record to Facilitate Research. 
By Katharine P. Hewins, general secretary, 
Church Home, Boston. No. 65. Price 7 
cents and postage. 

The Relation of Insurance to Povebty. By 
Lee K. Frankel, sixth vice-president, Metro- 
politan Life Insurance Company, Madison 
avenue, New York city. No. 66. Price 7 
cents and postage. 

Report of the Committed on Stimulating 
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E. R. Johnstone, superintendent, The Train- 
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cents and postage. 

The New Colony Plan for the Feebleminded 
By Joseph T. Mastin, secretary, State Board 
of Charities and Corrections, Richmond, Ya 
No. 70. Price 8 cents and postage. 

Mental Disease and Mental Defect, A Stats 
and National Problem. By Owen Copp, 
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for the Insane, Philadelphia. No. 71. Price 
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The Schools of Children's Societies as 
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Aid Society, New York city. No. 72. Price 
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Coordination of Civic Effort in Small 
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age. 

Importance of Organized Libraries in In- 
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Xo. 74. Price 7 cents and postage. 

Venereal Diseases in their Relation to 
Private and Public Health. By C. S. 
Woods, M.D., superintendent, Methodist Hos- 
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cents and postage. 

Disease, Ill-Health and Sickness and Their 
Bearing Upon Insanity. By S. E. Smith, 
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Longer and More Effective Living. By Eu- 
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What the Episcopal Church is doi'no in 
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city. 

Charity Inspector and Social Investigator. 
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Health Conservation at Steel Mills. By 
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United States Public Health Service. Tech- 
nical paper, Bureau of Mines. No. 102. Price 
5 cents a copy. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, 1). C. 

Bulletin of the Vermont State Board of 
Health. September 1, 1916. Brattleboro, 
\ ermont. 

EtBORGANIglNQ A COUNTY SYSTEM OF RURAL 

Schools. Report of a study of the schools 
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ment of Interior, Bureau of Education. 
Price 10 cents. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. 



Three New Books 
For Thinking People — 

POVERTY AND RICHES 

By SCOTT NEARING. Ph.D. 

Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, 
Toledo University 

Scott Nearing tells why the rich are getting 
richer and the poor poorer. He argues that 
there is no justice in the present distribution 
of wealth, and he points out a new regime 
which he claims will abolish poverty. 

Dr. Nearing presents an array of facts and 
arguments which are worthy of attention and 
are sure to arouse interest and sympathy. 
293 pages. Cloth. $1.00 Net. 

THE CRY FOR JUSTICE 

An Anthology of the Literature of 
Social Protest 

This is one of the most interesting books 
ever published. The Review of Reviews says: 
"It is a new world's history, and a vision of 
hope for the world's future." The Chicago 
Evening Post calls it "the book of the year." 
It is a Gospel of the new hope of the race. 
950 pages. Illustrated. Cloth. $2.00 Net. 

THE FACTORIES and other poems 
By MARGARET WIDDEMER 

Contains the widely-quoted poem of "The 
Factories," and many other notable poems 
which mark Miss Widdemer's gift of sponta- 
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$1.00 Net. 

Go into any bookstore and see these 
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tive circulars and our Book Catalogue. 

THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY 
1005 Winston BIdg. Philadelphia 



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READ "THE UNHEARD CRY" 

BY JOE F. SULLIVAN 

"Something new under the sun" in constructive charitable 
and philanthropic work, including economic and sociologi- 
cal principles and phases. Highly endorsed by the largest 
foundations, organizations, sociologists, humanitarians, 
ministers, lawyers and public officials. The argument of 
the age against the neglect of the nation. Bound in red 
cloth, over 200 pages, illustrated, postpaid $1.00. First 
edition nearly sold out. Money refunded if not satisfied. 
Address: Managing Editor, VAN LEUVEN BROWNE 
NATIONAL MAGAZINE, DETROIT. 



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WHO'S WHO 

IN THIS ISSUE 



OURSELVES AND EUROPE is the first of a 
series of brief articles by Edward T. Devine, 
which crystallize the impressions and strong 
convictions he brings back from abroad. Mr. 
Devine went to Russia in March under a special 
commission from the State Department to assist 
the American Embassy at Petrograd in connection 
with matters arising out of the disturbed political 
conditions in Europe. His mission took him as far 
east as Vladivostock, and a group of twelve young 
men are now at work, in association with the 
American consuls, in the relief of civilian prisoners 
in the different provinces. His articles have 
nothing whatever to do with that work, but with 
the general social aspects of war and settlement, 
for which his stay in Russia and visits to France 
and England afford a background. They are a 
challenge to American thought and action to make 
themselves felt abroad as well as at home, now as 
well as at the close of the war. 



VEVERIT MACY is a member of the National 
Council of Survey Associates. That hasn't 
stood in the way of our attempt to treat ob- 
jectively in a staff article (A Rich Man in The 
Poorhouse, by Winthrop D. Lane) the work of 
a man who has come to grips with a rejected and 
haphazard sphere of public service. Westchester 
county is one of those great outlying flanges of 
an urban center which, while not lacking in the 
social and economic needs of the city itself, are 
proverbially lacking in self-conscious community 
spirit. This week Mr. Macy is candidate for re- 
election on the Democratic, Republican and Pro- 
gressive tickets. During the month, also, he was 
named to fill the presidency of the National Civic 
Federation, left vacant by the death of Seth Low; 
for he is one of the few men of large affairs whose 
interest in charitable work and the labor problem 
is equally keen. 



J\_ author's designation of a group of whimsi- 
cal papers, some of which have been ap- 
pearing in the Medical Pickwick. The author is 
Walter M. Brickner, M.D., F.A.C.S., editor- 
in-chief of the American Journal of Surgery, and 
associate surgeon of Mt. Sinai Hospital; who, in 
spite of this impressive array of professional dis- 
tinctions, shows a very human approach to the prob- 
lems of hospital administration, by helping us see 
them through the eyes of Ignatius Phelan, patient. 
This sketch is a mixture of the satire of reform 
(witness the interminable "laying on of hands" in 
the wards) and the ripe humor of a medical man 
(mark his description of anesthesia delirium). It 
was originally given before the alumni of Mt. 
Sinai; and we are hopeful that Dr. Brickner will 
have more like it to give to them — and to us. 

TT^NGLISH army men and Porto Rican public 

= Pj officials, French school teachers and Chinese 

missionaries, are reading C. M. Goethe's 



nun cemer, jusi uuisiue <~aicuua, maiciinig wiuse 
of Chicago or Boston. It was set up and main- 
tained by Mr. and Mrs. D. H. Lee of Calcutta and 
Mr. and Mrs. Goethe — a new type of "infant in- 
dustry," if you will — in the literature of importing 
and exporting. 

OCTOBER 21 and 22 were the days set aside 
by proclamation of the President for collec- 
tions for relief to Armenians and Syrians. 
The time has been extended for a ten days' cam- 
paign. It is both the misery and ministration in 
the lands to the east of the Mediterranean that are 
the subject of this installment {Red Cross and 
Red Crescent) of Mr. Bicknell's series on the 
great phases of war relief. 

E^DWARD A. STEINER, like Jacob A. Riis, has 
j made The Trail of the Immigrant stand out 
in the imagination of Americans with some- 
thing of the distinction and human appeal of the 
old wagon roads to the west. Amid the confused 
outgivings, provoked by the war and its racial 
antagonisms, his new book — "Nationalizing 
America" — should strike a clarifying note. It is 
published this month, and The Face of the 
Nation is an advance chapter. 

HEALTHY it is that engineers and psycholo- 
gists, doctors and manufacturers and brick- 
layers are all taking a fresh interest in boys 
and the education of boys. And healthy it is thaf 
they disagree. In The Mind of a Boy, Dr. 
Woolley takes issue with a fellow townsman, Dean 
Schneider, of the College of Engineering of the 
University of Cincinnati, and describes for the 
first time the results of the first psychological 
laboratory in a vocational bureau of a city depart- 
ment of education. Of this bureau, Dr. Woolley 
is director. 



| IMPORTANT BOOKS FOR j 
SURVEY READERS | 

War, Peace and | 
the Future 

A Consideration of Nationalism and M 

Internationalism and of the M 

Relation of Women to War M 

By ELLEN KEY 

Author of "Love and Marriage," "The 
Century of the Child," etc. 12°. $1.50 net. 

At the end of August, 1914, Ellen 
Key was asked : "In what way can 
humanity prevent war?" "Is it, ac- 
cording to your opinion, possible, and 
if so, by what means?" 
This is a detailed answer to that in- 
quiry. The author tackles the prob- 
lem with characteristic thoroughness 
and brings it into relation with edu- 
cation and the needed readjustment 
of traditional viewpoints. 



The Home Care of 
Consumptives 

By ROY L. FRENCH 

12°. $1.00. 
= In understandable language, the 

§j author sets forth truthfully and con- 

H scientiously that hope and encourage - 

= ment combined with sound advice 

H which are essential to improvement 

= in all tubercular cases. The instruc- 

s tions are very clear, not only as to 

H how to avoid acquiring tuberculosis, 

g but how to avoid giving it to others. 

g All Booksellers— All Prices Net 

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 
= New York London § 



Conference on Social Hygiene 

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 

November 19-20-21, 1916 

All who are interested in social hygiene work are 
invited. Topics for discussion include vice repres- 
sion, control and reduction of venereal disease, 
and practical methods in social hygiene work. 
Annual Meeting of the American Social Hygiene 
Association, November 20th. For information ad- 
dress, 

The American Social Hygiene Association 

105 West 40th Street, New York City. 



BASKETRY For Schools and Craft Workers 

MflTFBI Al ? Send for free catal °z ! 

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11.50. 

Orders by Mail Given Special Attention 

James McCutcheon & Co. 

Fifth Avenue, 34th & 33rd Sts., New York 




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leaf binder, made with board sides. It is covered with stout buckram, 
THE SURVEY stamped in gold letters both on the back and on the 
side. Put in each issue as received. It does not mutilate issues, which 
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Classified Advertisements 

HELP WANTED 

WANTED — A first-class institutional 
carpenter and wife; man to instruct in 
furniture and cabinet making during winter 
months and buildings of all kinds during 
summer; wife to act as cottage matron. 
Permanent positions with good salary to 
right parties. Address 2404, Survey. 

VISITING TUBERCULOSIS nurse. 
Salary $75.00. Anti-Tuberculosis Society, 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 

WANTED — An interne for a tubercu- 
losis hospital on Long Island. Good pay 
and maintenance. Reply to Tuberculosis 
Committee, 69 Schermerhorn St., Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 

WANTED — Experienced and trained 
workers in the field of Home 
Economics 

to represent a food manufac- 
turer on a salary basis. Will be 
required to give occasional talks 
or lectures and to give informa- 
tion to teachers and others. Ad- 
dress applications to Box 2406, 
Survey. 

situations wanted 

WANTED — A few more classes in sew- 
ing, dressmaking, drafting, designing or 
millinery by experienced teacher; day or 
evening. Address 2386, Survey. 



ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE 

Training: School of Philanthropy, Mu- 
nicipal Research Training School, post- 
graduate work in social sciences. 

Experience: Education, business, chari- 
ties, recreational work, investigations. 

Available for executive position in organiz- 
ing, propaganda, research, or general welfare work. 
LEEBRON. 1 105 Amsterdam Avenue. N. Y. City. 



HOUSE- MOTHER desires position 
child-caring institution. Address 2405, 
Survey. 



FOR THE HOME 



BULLETINS: 



" Five-Cent Meals," 10c: "Food 
Values,"' 10c; " Free-Hand Cook- 
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10 per cent- on two lives This plan makes you your 
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The American Baptist Home " -'Ion Society 
IViarlniont 11. iS East mil Street. New York 









3R€ SOT&W 

CONTENTS for NOVEMBER 4, 1916 The GIST of IT 



Volume XXXVII, No. 5 



FRONTISPIECE 



CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

Ourselves and Europe— No. I - - - - edward t. devine 99 

A Rich Man in the Poorhouse - winthrop d. lane 101 

Ignatius Phelan at the Hospital. A "Rod and Serpent" Story - - 108 

WALTER M. BRICKNER, M. D. 

Exporting the American Playground — V. Nirman Singh - - - 111 

C. M. GOETHE 

Red Cross and Red Crescent - - - ernest p. bicknell 118 
The Mind of a Boy. The Future of Experimental Psychology in 

Vocational Guidance - - - - helen Thompson woolley 122 

The Face of the Nation edward a. steiner 126 

THE COMMON WELFARE 

The Month - 128 

Mr. Strong's Report on State Charities 130 

Shall Steel-Makers Work Seven Days? - 131 

The Plans for a Peace League - - 134 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., Publishers 



ROBERT W. de FOREST, 
ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Secretary 
PUBLICATION OFFICE 
112 East 19 street, New York 



President 
FRANK TUCKER, Treasurer 

WESTERN OFFICE 
2559 Michigan ave., Chicago 



NATIONAL COUNCIL 

ROBERT W. de FOREST, Chairman 






JANE ADDAMS, Chicago. 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL, Washington. 

RICHARD C. CABOT, Boston. 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS, St. Louis. 

EDWARD T. DEVINE, New York. 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, Boston. 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND, Boulder, Colo. 

SAMUEL S. FELS, Philadelphia. 

LEE K. FRANKEL, New York. 

TOIIN M. GLENN, New York. 

C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, Calif. 

WILLIAM E. HARMON, New York. 

WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego. 



MORRIS KNOWLES, Pittsburgh. 
JOSEPH LEE, Boston. 
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V. EVERIT MACY, New York. 
CHARLES D. NORTON, New York. 
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JULIUS ROSENWALD, Chicago. 
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GRAHAM TAYLOR, Chicago. 
FRANK TUCKER, New York. 
ELIOT WADSWORTH, Washington. 
LILLIAN D. WALD, New York. 
ALFRED T. WHITE, Brooklyn. 



Survey Associates, Inc., is an adventure in cooperative journalism, incorporated under the laws of the 
state of New York, November, 1912, as a membership organization without shares or stockholders. 
Membership is open to readers who become contributors of $10 or more a year. It is this widespread, 
convinced backing and personal interest which has made The Survey a living thing. 

The Survey is a weekly journal of constructive philanthropy, founded in the 90's by the Charity Organi- 
zation Society of the City of New York. The first weekly issue of each month appears as an enlarged 
magazine number. 

From the start, the magazine and its related activities have been broadly conceived as an educational 
enterprise, to be employed and developed beyond the limits of advertising and commercial receipts. 

PRICE 

Single copies of this issue, 25 cents. Cooperating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular subscriptions 
weekly edition $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.50 extra. Canadian 75 cents. Regular subscription once- 
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is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. Copyright, 1916, by Survey Associates, Inc. 
Entered a* iecond-class matter March 25, 1909. at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the act 
of March 3. 1879. 



JUST as we go to press word comes of 
municipal grants for the fourth and the 
fifth playgrounds in Calcutta, made possible 
by the Young India Club, organized at the 
Ballighata playground, described in this 
issue. The club conducted a whirlwind cam- 
paign in true American style. This first 
appropriation from tax revenues marks the 
opening of the second phase in the develop- 
ment of playgrounds in India, and comes 
directly as a contribution of effort by young 
Hindu manhood. Page 111. 

" Proposition no. i" and so on down 

*■ to No. 19, in some states, plague the 
voter who is impatient to vote for Wilson 
or Hughes and have done with it. But many 
of the referendums are of prime social sig- 
nificance. Page 128. 

Commissioner strong's report 

^ finds that the New York State Board 
of Charities "lacks vision; it lacks drive. 
It does not know its real job. It is not 
doing its real job." He proposes a thorough 
reorganization, but he would not change to the 
board-of-control system of some other states. 
And he rebukes sharply the side issues in- 
jected into the controversy by the Farrell 
and Moree pamphlets. Page 130. 

ACKA WANNA STEEL wants to work 
-*— ' its men seven days a week because other 
steel companies are doing it. A hearing 
on its application brought out sturdy testi- 
mony against seven-day work for war-time 
profits or for any other reason. Page 131. 

AV^AR has not destroyed life alone in 
' * Europe, but much of injustice, class 
hatred and self-love along with the good. 
Edward T. Devine finds an exaltation of 
spirit in the trenches that is lacking among 
those safe at home, who hate their neigh- 
bors and pass by suffering. Page 99. 

A VERY rich man resigned three years 
■T ■*• ago from thirty corporations all over 
the United States to take care of the very 
poor people in a single county. In his office 
as superintendent of the poor, V. Everit 
Macy's "extravagance" has not only saved 
the taxpayers thousands of dollars, but has 
changed the almshouse from a "charitable 
catch-all" to the center of social service in 
the county. Page 101. 

EXAMINE, plague and massacre, rather 
*■ than enemy invasion, cause the problem 
of war relief in Turkey. Yet while Moslem 
Turk is persecuting Christian Armenian, 
Red Crescent and Red Cross are cooper- 
ating to send American aid to the Syrians 
in the empire. Bulgaria, too, must care for 
war sufferers. Page 118. 

I'ERTAIN kinds of brains succeed in cer- 
^-* tain kinds of business. While mental 
tests don't pretend to single out the efficient 
baker and successful railroad president, they 
give a boy a clue to type of ability and a 
reason for his continuing some studies and 
discarding others. Page 122. 

npHE melting pot of America blends to- 
*■ gether the traditions and the standards 
of life and conduct of myriads of people. 
Out of it may come a civilization finer and 
richer than any of its elements, if we cherish 
the best and throw out the dross. Page 126. 



,^^ir» r\mimmm^m 




Reproduced from the Fourth 
Series of the artist's war drawings 



ONE WHO CAN'T CONCEIVE THE BEAUTY OF WAR 

By Louis Raemaekers 



VOLUME XXXVII, No. 5 




NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



Ourselves and Europe 



By Edward T. Devine 



IN Europe and its dependencies there is still but one sub- 
ject of thought and speech. If from this one subject, 
the war, men turn their thoughts at moments to the 
time after the war, they are brought sternly back. Look 
after the war, a fighting statesman tells a public meeting in 
England, and after the war will look after itself. He is 
wrong, of course, but it is the popular mood. If, on the other 
hand, with a perceptible effort, men turn their minds to the 
time before the war, to the abiding interests of our common 
humanity, it is, whether they will or no, only to rewrite their 
history, reshape their politics, revise their judgments of men, 
recast their educational ideals and even re-examine their re- 
ligious creeds and revalue what they have held dear and what 
they have rejected as trash, if by any such re-examining, re- 
casting, revising and transvaluation, they can escape defeat 
and secure victory. 

However it may be at the end, or may have been at the 
beginning, this war at its present stage is not like other wars. 
The nations are not "conducting a war." They are literally 
in a death struggle into which they must throw all their 
national resources. They are fighting for homes and children, 
for liberty and life. Never have great ideals enlisted such all 
consuming and unquestioning devotion, transformed so com- 
pletely ordinary human beings into self-forgetful, willing 
instruments of the common will, the will to power, the will 
to remain alive and free — not in the individual life but in 
the organic life of the nation, of civilized society. 

By an unhappy inspiration, a gifted and patriotic French 
author residing in Switzerland named his new book Above the 
Melee. No Frenchman writing while his countrymen are 
bleeding to death can easily be forgiven for feeling himself 
to be elsewhere than at the heart of the melee. Lord Cromer 
in a weekly review quotes a story of the failure of an English 
officer to settle a tribal feud in Arabia. In the midst of his 
appeal, one of the chieftains whispered in his ear that it was 
quite impossible that he could do otherwise than hate his 
enemy. "A dog is always a dog, though he wear a collar of 
gold," said an Arab at another time, and the reply was, "A 
slave remains a slave, though his turban's fringe be daily 
lengthened." What Lord Cromer does not point out is that, 



as his Arabs reason and feel in their tribal feuds, so after two 
years of war Europeans, except perhaps Russians, reason and 
feel about their enemies. Three elderly respectable people 
in a first class railway carriage in England were discussing 
their neighbors. One of them told of a workingman in an 
exempt industry who refused to take advantage any longer of 
his exemption. "I have made up my mind," he said to his 
employer, "to go to the front and to kill seventeen Germans 
before the war ends." Asked why he did not say fifteen or 
twenty, he only repeated that he had thought it all over and 
had decided in his mind that seventeen would be just about 
right. The elderly respectable passengers in the first-class 
compartment relished and approved his decision, though his 
employer, who needed his services, did not. Nor have we any 
reason to condemn him above others. The favorite French 
explanation — c'est la guerre — covers his case as it does the re- 
ciprocal case of the similar resolution on the part of each of 
his seventeen Germans to kill seventeen or more Englishmen. 
There is much meaning in the French phrase. It is not war 
in the abstract, but this war, the war beyond all experience 
and imagination, the war to which we Americans must not 
become so accustomed that our feelings are dulled to its 
vast sufferings, its vast heroisms, and its vast consequences 
to every belligerent nation and to every neutral nation on 
earth. 

THE war is a ghastly fact, Its shell-fire deaths and wounds, 
its prisoners and homeless refugees, its ambulances and hos- 
pitals, its submarines and submarine traps, its zeppelins and 
anti-air-craft guns, its broken treaties and food blockades, its 
depreciated currencies and dislocated industries, its harvests 
of shameful disease and horrible cripplings and debts and taxes 
and widowhood and childless old age and orphanage, are al- 
ready present actual experiences, not remote possibilities. They 
cannot be whistled down the wind. They cannot be con- 
cealed by war profits of bankers, shippers and munition 
makers, by high wages or war charities. They are the stub- 
born reality of more than two years of the twentieth cen- 
tury of our era. Christianity is abashed before the incredible, 
indisputable facts and will keep another advent season in the 

99 



100 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



spirit of Lent. Socialism and democracy are downcast, for 
there has been no salve in their medicine chests for the heal- 
ing of the wounds of the nations, or if so socialists and 
democrats have ceased to care about them. Science is dumb 
while her secrets are rifled to make more devilish the arts of 
slaughter, scarcely having the heart to point to the healing 
and protective devices, magnificent in themselves, but insig- 
nificant in comparison with the destruction. Physical injuries 
are not the worst of the war, inconceivably terrible as they 
are. What Europe is losing of political and civil liberty, of 
the capacity for seeing things in due proportion, of the power 
of forming rational judgments of men and measures, no one 
has yet even tried to tell. Whipped-up hatred of enemies and 
hot-house affection for allies are deliberately encouraged as 
military assets. Reasonableness and good-will are for the time 
being postponed and in the long period of their disuse, chil- 
dren are growing into manhood and men are passing their 
prime. In this respect compensations, it is true, are not en- 
tirely absent. The war is something more than destruction and 
even in its destruction there is compensation. For a part of 
what has been destroyed was pernicious. Injustice and do- 
mestic class hatred and local tyranny have been partly de- 
stroyed along with the good. A fellowship has been created 
in every army, to safeguard which has been called Europe's 
first task of peace. A freedom from old prejudices and limi- 
tations has been secured, a new liberty of thought, an oppor- 
tunity for which there was no room in the old days before 
the war — so long ago— more than two whole years ; the crusts 
of tradition have been broken ; the horizons widened ; the souls 
of men shaken to their depths. The most frequent testimony 
of soldiers visiting at home is that, as never before in their 
lives, they have felt at the front a serious purpose in life. That 
the compulsion of war means freedom of the spirit may seem 
a paradox, but to those of Christian teaching it should not 
be strange. Acceptance of sacrifice is the escape into liberty. 
At the moment of offering their lives soldiers may feel them- 
selves to have become the rulers of their destiny. Even those 
who do not serve in the armies may share this spiritual eman- 
cipation. Those who give a son to the common cause are 
full partakers in its communion. The bad old traditions 
broken for some are broken for all. The personal and class 
hatreds and prejudices and misunderstandings blown to pieces 
by the big guns no longer choke the fellowship whether in 
the trenches or at home. 

THE supreme question remains — and it is a question of 
after the war — What will citizens and soldiers do with 
their new freedom? During the war they are believing in 
something. They may express it as a decision to kill seventeen 
of the enemy or more characteristically as a mere willingness 
to do one's bit. They may sing it as they march with the 
swinging Russian stride, after reverently receiving a blessing 
from the priest, of whom perhaps in his private character they 
may not at all approve. They believe this something in com- 
mon with a conviction so sure that it is positively futile, per- 
haps even dangerous, to question it. Their views are so pro- 
nounced and so unanimous that lynch law and martial law 
are but alternative aspects of civil law, of the common will. 
Among them for the time being all the conventional distinc- 
tions of despotism, aristocracy and democracy are obliterated. 
In all lands the best available, who are not necessarily by any 
means supermen, govern despotically in a democratic spirit 
by common consent. It is a thrilling experience even as a 
guest to witness such national unity, such exalted patriotism, 
such a fellowship of spirit. It would succeed permanently 
only in hell or in heaven ; and Europe in these days is strangely 



compounded of the two empires. Of absolute virtue, purged 
of all selfish elements, there is abundant evidence. The fel- 
lowship of the armies, of the hospitals, of the prison camps, 
prophesies a new and better social order. Will it really come ? 
Will such faith as the soldier now feels in his country and his 
cause one day inspire the peoples who toil at the tasks of 
peace and enjoy the fruits of their labor? Will the national 
unity and the mutual confidence which are now to be seen 
among allies survive the occasion of their origin and become 
genuine international respect, understanding and good-will? 

It is not a question of one more Utopia. No dreamer or 
lonely prophet has seen this vision. What has happened is that 
out of the blackest, most infernal experience through which, 
as far as we know, the race has ever passed there has seemed 
to come literally to millions of men a redeeming conviction, 
a healing and transfiguring assurance, that brotherhood is not 
a delusion; that life has a meaning; that resolution and cour- 
age and discipline and simple faith in fellowmen and loyalty 
to ideals are now, as they have always been, within that 
meaning; that these things are, as they will be forever, with- 
in man's heritage, to be displayed in war until the better 
way is found. 

It is not betrayal of a peace ideal to hope that this in- 
tensity of feeling and thought and action will come again 
when other motives, comparable with those of war, call forth 
the best that is in us. Men will be free hereafter to live larger 
and more beautiful lives than we knew before the war. How 
will they use that freedom? 

Why may not Americans give immediate answer? The 
freedom which will come in Europe when the war clouds lift 
is ours now. We are near enough to understand if we have 
imagination and sympathy. The experience of the war, its 
human meaning, can be understood and absorbed. It is neither 
outside our interests nor beyond our comprehension. These 
men in the trenches are our brothers. They are of our genera- 
tion, of our race, of our religion, of our fellowship. They 
cannot if they would deny us a share in their trials, their 
griefs, their triumphs. The war is not sheer anarchy. It is 
not all madness. It is tragedy and its end is not yet. The 
spirit of those whom the war dominates, of those who kill in 
the trenches, who fly in the air with bombs, who swim in the 
depths with torpedoes, is better than the spirit of those who, 
safe at home, hate their neighbors, or pass by suffering, or 
thank God that they are not like the Germans — or the Cos- 
sacks. From these evils of our generation, Europe is for the 
time being relatively free, though they are paying dearly 
for that freedom. We who hate war and who labor and 
hope, and it may be pray, for peace have to discover whether 
it is true, as we believe, that there are moral substitutes for 
war, whether by gentler means the good Lord will deliver 
us from the evils of selfishness, sordidness, slothfulness, petti- 
ness of soul, sectarianism, sectionalism, provincialism, and 
above all from the conceit of ignorance. 

WE ourselves, citizens of the great republic of the West, 
will have a nation's part to play in this ending of the 
war, in the reconstruction of shattered homes and industries, 
in the establishment of an honorable and just peace and the 
creation of a real if not at firs*: a nominal world federation. 
We are greatly in danger of underestimating our part. It is 
not to be played exclusively by the government and the war- 
relief agencies. In the informed and crystallized public opin- 
ion of the neutral countries, finding sober and emphatic ex- 
pression through responsible channels, lies the best hope of the 
world's restoration. That obligation is one of the present, 
not exclusively of the indefinite future. 



A Rich Man in the Poorhouse 

Behind That Another and Bigger Story- 
What Any American County Can Do 

By JVinthrop D. Lane 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



THERE is a fashion in this country to belittle the 
work of rich men in public office. If the rich man 
has paid for part of his work out of his own pocket, 
the disparagement grows stronger. If he has taken 
on new duties, served new ends, done things for people that 
other men in like positions have not done, and if any 
of this has been at his own expense, his work is not regarded 
as significant. It may be curious and interesting, but it is 
not instructive. Such a man, it is said, has had advantages; 
he has had means and opportunities that are unique. No one 
need study his work; it is too exceptional. There is no object- 
lesson in it, nothing that other communities can follow, un- 
less they, too, get rich men in public offices. 

This criticism has been directed against the work of V. 
Everit Macy in Westchester county, New York. Three 
years ago Mr. Macy became Superintendent of the Poor. He 
overthrew the old conception of the function of that office. 
He created a new point of view toward problems of depend- 
ency and relief. He stretched his position to cover new ac- 
tivities; he strengthened and systematized the work that it 
had done before. He obtained appropriations undreamed of 
by his predecessors and has just succeeded in securing not 
only a new site and new buildings to cost $2,000,000, but 
also the passage of an act that will go far to reduce misery 
and its consequences in that county. 

For some of this work he raised money from private funds ; 
for parts of it he paid himself. When families were being 
needlessly disintegrated and held apart because there were not 
enough children's visitors to go round, Mr. Macy employed 
more. When children were being brought up in institutions 
and paid for by the county, while scores of private homes stood 
ready to receive them, Mr. Macy employed agents to see that 
the transfer should be made. When a wealth of material that 
might throw light on the causes of pauperism was being neg- 
lected because there were no investigators and clerks to bring 
it together, Mr. Macy hired them. All of this he did, not 
because the county could not, but because it had not yet seen 
the necessity. The quickest way to show the necessity was 
to show effective results. 

This does not mean that Mr. Macy has not made a valua- 
ble demonstration of the way to run an office of Superintend- 
ent of the Poor. Many of the experiments that he began have 
already been taken over by the county; more, unquestionably, 
will be. He has done the work, or parts of it, faster because 
of his private means. But he has educated the county as he 
went along. He has done nothing that the county cannot 
afford to do and few things, probably, that it will not even- 
tually do. Therein lies his demonstration, not only for his 
own successors, but for other counties in other states that are 
willing to bring their own offices up to the same high level 
of efficiency and service. Not all counties can make such large 
appropriations as Westchester, but all counties can build in 
proportion to their needs. They need not employ rich men 



to make their demonstrations, for the travail of experimenting 
has now been done for them. 

Mr. Macy will again come before the voters for election 




V. EVERIT MACY, SUPERINTENDENT OF THE POOR 



101 



102 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



on November 7 ; not this time as Superintendent of the Poor, 
for that office he has himself abolished, but as County Com- 
missioner of Charities and Corrections, a new post that has 
grown out of his own work as superintendent. Unless the 
skies fall, he will be elected, for the Republican, Democratic 
and Progressive parties have united upon him as their candi- 
date. This is the first time in twenty years, and is said to be 
the second time in the history of the county, that the two 
major parties have found themselves in such agreement. 

Mr. Macy was already known for his philanthropic activi- 
ties when he took office January 1, 1914. He had helped to 
found the New York Provident Loan Society and the Na- 
tional Employment Bureau. He had served as director or 
trustee of the University Settlement, Teachers' College, the 
American Association for Labor Legislation, the National 
Child Labor Committee, the George Junior Republic and 
other agencies. At the age of seventeen he was teaching wood 
carving to boys in New York city ; from that time on his 
interest in social enterprises was fixed. 

As a business man he has helped to direct the policies of 
banks, public service corporations and railroads. The basis 
of the family fortune was laid when Mr. Macy's ancestors 
discovered a market for whale oil in New England, and 
from that branched out into a general shipping and commis- 
sion business. Three years ago Mr. Macy resigned from some 
thirty corporations, boards and committees, both philanthropic 
and business, to devote himself to the administration of the 
poor law in Westchester county. 

Mr. Macy's First Campaign 

In the campaign of that year, 1913, he was the candidate 
of the Democrats and Progressives. Opposed to him was 
the machine that has always held Westchester county in its 
grip. The candidate of the machine was a man well iden- 
tified with his party but possessing no special fitness for the 
position he was seeking. The fight between them was decent 
but intense. Mr. Macy was called a theorist ; it was said that if 
elected he would be merely an absentee office-holder. His wealth 
was, of course, a drawback. What sympathy, it was asked, 
could a rich man have with the misery and problems of the 
poor? Moreover, he did not need the salary — always a handi- 
cap to a local political aspirant. His opponent, it was argued, 
had always befriended the party and deserved the job. 

For his part, Mr. Macy promised to take the office out 
of politics and to give it a business-like administration. He 
said little about his real reason for accepting the nomination, 
which was the opportunity he hoped he would have to study 
the causes of dependency and to secure data for social legisla- 
tion. He soon felt the nature and force of the elements he 
was fighting. Seventy-five per cent of the press of Westches- 
ter county is Republican; Mr. Macy could not buy space for 
an advertisement in a single Republican newspaper! 

His arguments, however, apparently convinced the voters. 
When the returns were in, the normal Republican majority 
of 4,000 or 5,000 (the total vote cast was 55,000) had 
been converted into a victory for Mr. Macy of over 5,000. 
Two other candidates on the combined Democratic and 
Progressive ticket had won with him. 

The election was the first step. Mr. Macy found himself 
holding office not only in the most backward unit of American 
government, the county, but in a county which in spite of 
recent awakenings had long been fond of being boss-ruled. 
Westchester is the northern gateway to New York city ; thou- 
sands of commuters living in it pay no attention to local affairs. 
It has, on the other hand, a local population ranging all the 



way from four teeming cities to nineteen towns and twenty- 
four villages. Though no part of it is more than fifty miles 
from New York city, nearly half its area is in farm land and 
300 and 400 acre farms abound. The population is 325,000, 
over a fourth of which is of the first generation of immi- 
grants. The county thus presents in large numbers all grada- 
tions of wealth, intelligence and civic interest. Local political 
power is left for the most part in the hands of machine-made 
bosses and, though better days are dawning, local offices are 
still too much run for profit and influence. It is the county 
in which Sing Sing reached its undisturbed height of graft. 

When Mr. Macy became Superintendent of the Poor he 
found the office not one that the people had held in high 
esteem. His opponent in the late campaign had been a 
plumber by trade; his predecessor, who had held the job two 
terms, was a successful small-town butcher. No sooner had 
Mr. Macy been elected than upwards of a hundred applica- 
tions for positions flowed in, each mentioning the names of 
sponsors who, the applicant seemed to think, would make fur- 
ther recommendation unnecessary. Mr. Macy answered these 
by asking about the applicants' qualifications. In most in- 
stances this closed the correspondence. 

The plant that Mr. Macy found was archaic, disjointed, 
inadequate. The Westchester county almshouse is a descend- 
ant from the days when almshouses were the "charitable 
catch-alls" of the community. The present site has been used 
for one hundred years. The central building, in which all 
the inmates eat and where some of them still sleep, was erected 
eighty-five years ago; it belongs to the period when lunatics, 
epileptics, feebleminded, sick people and even children were 
dumped into a common institution with paupers and sometimes 
with delinquents. The buildings are unsafe and insanitary. 
Several rooms still contained, when Mr. Macy arrived, the 
iron window bars formerly used for restraining the insane 
and other persons who proved unmanageable. 

The prevailing conception of the superintendent's duties 
was very primitive. By law this officer is charged with 
the management of the almshouse, the county hospital and the 
poor farm ; he had also been given two agents whose function 
it was to find family homes for children living at public ex- 
pense in institutions. In practice these duties had devolved 
into the merest routine. If the superintendent kept the in- 
mates well fed, made a show at cultivating the farm, and left 
the hospital to take care of itself, he was sure of approval. 
He bought supplies where and how he liked ; if he changed 
dealers frequently enough he could keep them all satisfied. 
He had no budget and paid for his purchases by signing drafts 
on the county treasurer. Once a year the almshouse com- 
mittee of the Board of Supervisors visited the institution and 
compared the amounts of these drafts with the bills them- 
selves ; this was the only check on the superintendent's honesty. 
If the superintendent was persuasive enough, he could induce 
the supervisors to pay many bills direct, so that the amounts 
of bills so paid never appeared on the books of his office. This 
he had habitually done. Mr. Macy found that his prede- 
cessor, for example, had estimated the per capita cost of caring 
for inmates during his last year of office at $2.41 a week, 
whereas if he had included all the amounts paid by the super- 
visors themselves the per capita cost would have been $3.47. 

Graft and Inefficiency in the Almshouse 

Petty graft was considerable. In the almshouse an inmate 
cobbler, who was given hide and nails with which to repair 
the inmates' shoes, used a fellow inmate to solicit trade from 
neighboring workmen and farm hands, and charged them for 






THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



103 



his work. The man who hauled ice from the institution's 
ice house kept a local ice-cream parlor supplied the year 
round. Sugar and other articles from the almshouse kitchen 
found willing buyers on the outside. 

Graft was less an evil than neglect and inefficiency, how- 
ever. 

The superintendent's staff consisted of the almshouse 
keeper and one clerk. Inmates were admitted without medical 
examination of any sort, though the hospital was less than 
two hundred feet from the administration office. The only 
evidence that an inmate had left was the little red card, given 
him on admission, which he was supposed to relinquish when 
he went away; no count or census was apparently ever taken. 

Mr. Macy was not surprised, therefore, to find that thirty 
inmates were on the records of the institution, charged to their 
respective towns, who were not in the almshouse at all. Some 



built above the furnace in a dust-filled basement. The place 
was a fire-trap for 180 inmates. 

It will be seen that if Mr. Macy intended to make ma- 
terial changes in these things, he had to begin at the beginning 
One of his first moves, of course, was to improve his staff. 
This he has slowly built up until now he has around him a 
group of competent, trained men and women, many of them 
college bred, who are as unlike the staff commonly found with 
a county poor-law officer as the faculty of a university is un- 
like that of a one-room country school. He systematized the 
keeping of records, so that accounts with towns are now accu- 
rate and complete. He required physical and medical exami- 
nation of all incoming inmates and segregated those needing 
treatment. He startled the county as well as the inmates by 
requiring that all able-bodied men should work. 

He weeded out mental defectives and either sent them to 




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BITS OF THE HUMAN DRIFTWOOD MR. MACY TURNED TO ACCOUNT 



of these had died ; one had been dead two years and was still 
being paid for by the town he had lived in. Thirty others, 
however, were in the institution and not upon the books. Bad 
methods seemed to carry their own corrective, but unfortu- 
nately not all of these mischarges were against the same 
towns, so that some communities were paying more than their 
share. 

These are only a few of the archaicisms Mr. Macy found. 
The hospital furnished others. Its X-ray machine was too 
broken to be of use. It had only one room for confinement 
cases, so that occasionally mothers and their new-born infants 
had to be moved about. No record was kept of the effect 
of food upon inmates ; scientific dietaries were, of course, un- 
known. Inmates cooked for the patients, and retarded rather 
than advanced their health. Gauze and sponges used in oper- 
ations were sterilized by being boiled on the kitchen stove and 
then laid out to dry on the fire escape or on wooden racks 



state custodial institutions or put them on the waiting lists. 
He started competitive bidding and modern business methods 
in the purchase and accounting of supplies, and though this 
entailed an annual expenditure of nearly $1,000 more than 
before, in one year he had saved $18,000 to show for it. He 
reduced the weekly per capita cost of keeping inmates from 
$3.47 to $3.13 the first year, to $2.78 the next. He 
accompanied this reduced cost with an improved diet, scien- 
tifically arranged, which not only raised the health level of 
the inmates generally, but decreased the cases of acute Bright's 
disease by 50 per cent. He put a check, for the first time 
in the history of the institution, on all foods and supplies given 
out from the store-room, thereby ending petty thievery and 
graft. He improved the cultivation of the farm, not only 
raising $10,000 worth of produce where $3,000 worth had 
been raised before, but also stocking it, out of proceeds, with 
pigs, cattle and other live-stock. 



104 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



He gave new purpose to the hospital. Heretofore this insti- 
tution, inadequately staffed and poorly supervised, had taken 
care of obvious illness as best it could. Under Mr. Macy it 
has become not only as efficient as plant and funds allow, 
but it has drawn to itself functions that affect the whole life 
of the inmates. Periodic measurements and examinations of 
individuals afford a basis for adjusting the amounts and vari- 
ety of food. Work is assigned only in accordance with the 
doctor's recommendation. For the first time qualified physi- 
cians and surgeons visit the institution regularly, charging no 
fees, and a dentist, oculist, orthopedist and other specialists 
call when needed. A paid bacteriologist is employed full time. 
So able has the hospital become to do its work effectively that 
indigent sick who are not inmates of the almshouse proper 
are now admitted, and it even cares for a few patients who 
pay small sums for the treatment they receive. 

These reforms laid the groundwork ; others have been more 
far-reaching in effect. When Mr. Macy entered office he 
found nearly two hundred authorities in the county commit- 
ting or with power to commit children as public charges to 



broke up too many families needlessly. At this point the 
local justice came in. If an appeal by a family to have its 
child committed failed before the poor-law authority, the 
family could usually go round the corner and find a justice 
who would sign a court commitment on the ground of "incor- 
rigibility." Records found by Mr. Macy's assistants show 
children of six to have been committed as "ungovernable." 

The overseer method of commitment was productive of still 
another evil. Usually this official is paid by the day, or on a 
commission basis. In either case, the signing of a commitment 
order was money in his pocket. If paid by the day, to sign 
such an order was easily made to constitute a day's work; if 
five orders were ready to be signed at once, they were quite 
likely to take their turns on five successive days. If paid 
on the commission basis, the overseer received so much for 
every order signed. Nor did his profits end there. Mileage 
was granted to him for accompanying the child to the insti- 
tution ; the amount nearly always exceeded his actual expendi- 
ture. Five children were therefore sure to mean five different 
trips, though they might all be going to the same place. This 



THE ALMSHOUSE 

says Warner, "is the 
guarantee against 
starvation which the 
state offers to all." 
This one was a fire- 
trap, as well as the 
scene of some astound- 
ing reforms 




private charitable institutions. The commissioners of charity 
in three cities had that power; all local (township) overseers 
of the poor had it; four justices of the peace in each of nine- 
teen towns had it; and, finally, police justices and city judges 
had it. 

Many abuses grew out of this scattering of authority. In 
the first place, it was to the interest of the local commissioner 
or overseer to commit children whenever he could find 
excuse. He is the person charged by law with the relief 
of poor people in their homes. Such relief is paid for 
from the funds of his department, whereas the county itself 
pays for children in institutions and the expense is then passed 
on to the towns in the form of taxes. By putting children 
into institutions, thereby relieving their families of the burden 
of supporting them and himself of supporting the families, he 
could keep down his own expenditures considerably. Hence, 
he welcomed the opportunity to make commitments. 

This, of course, meant nothing more than the break-up of 
families for the sake of an official's vanity. Nor did the evil 
stop there. These officials were sometimes watched ; private 
charitable agencies were likely to call them to account if they 



beautiful scheme of things is not peculiar to Westchester. It 
exists throughout the state, and is still followed. 

In these commitments of children the superintendent of 
the poor had no hand ; they were made direct to the institu- 
tions by the local authorities. Since the county paid the bills, 
however, it was to its interest to see that the number of chil- 
dren in institutions was kept down. Mr. Macy found when 
he entered office that two agents were employed to do this. 
These agents visited the institutions, saw the children who 
were public charges, and tried to place them in private homes. 
They were under the authority of the superintendent himself. 
Their work, of course, though better than leaving the children 
in the institutions indefinitely, began at the wrong end of the 
process. Instead of trying to find homes for children before 
commitment or keeping them in their own homes, the county 
waited until they had been put into institutions and then 
virtuously tried to get them out again. 

One of the agents visited Catholic institutions exclusively 
and had about 650 children to look out for. The other visited 
only Protestant homes and usually had about fifty children on 
her list. Each had the whole county for her area, so that 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



105 



one of them, visiting an institution in one end of the county 
one day, was likely to be followed the next day by the other, 
visiting a different institution in the same locality. In this way 
they ate up both money and time in needless travel. Five 
agents are today traveling for what these two spent. 

The first thing that Mr. Macy did was to employ three 
more agents. The separation of Catholic from Protestant in- 
stitutions was discarded and the county was divided into four 
geographical districts. No agent had work outside a given 
area. A director, Ruth Taylor, formerly assistant superintend- 
ent of children's agencies of the State Charities Aid Associa- 
tion, was put in charge, and a stenographer employed to keep 
records. A next step was to secure cooperation of commit- 
ting authorities to notify the superintendent before actually 
committing children to institutions. This was fairly success- 
ful. The superintendent's agents then investigated each case 
and were able in many instances to keep the child in its home, 
to place it with relatives, or to find another home for it. Two 
years ago a law was passed, at Mr. Macy's suggestion, provid- 
ing that no justice of the peace in Westchester county could 



were placed in free homes. One hundred and seven were 
recommended for acceptance as public charges, and the cases 
of sixteen were pending when the year closed. 

Not only were unnecessary commitments prevented. Dur- 
ing the year, 311 children ceased to be public charges and 
left the institutions in which they had been cared for. A few 
of these were transferred to state institutions, some were 
placed in foster homes, several of them died, three became self- 
supporting, and two ran away. By far the greater number, 
239, were returned to their own relatives. In all of this the 
work of the agents played a considerable part. One boy, for 
example, would probably have stayed in an institution as long 
as he legally could if an agent had not found an aunt living 
in Connecticut who was willing to care for him. Two others, 
whose father had died and whose mother had married again 
were returned to her and her new husband, who were glad 
to receive them. The mother had simply not known how to 
secure their release. 

Westchester county was unused to such conservation of 
child life. At first it could not see the purpose of so many 




THE NEW ALMSHOUSE 

Note the many cor- 
ridors looking out on 
courts. This arrange- 
ment is said to secure 
most of the advan- 
tages of the cottage 
type of institution 



commit a child without first notifying the office of the super- 
intendent. The latter is then given five days to investigate the 
circumstances and report his findings, with recommendations, 
back to the justice. The use of the law has not been pressed, 
because the authorities, now that they are being watched, are 
either making fewer unnecessary commitments, or are notify- 
ing the superintendent of their own accord. 

Last year, for example, the second of Mr. Macy's term, 
committing authorities referred no fewer than 435 children 
to the superintendent's agents for investigation before com- 
mitment. In ordinary course, under the old regime, most of 
these unfortunates would have been whisked off to an in- 
stitution in short order; both they and the county would have 
been the losers thereby. But under the new procedure the 
agents were able to rescue three-fourths of the number from 
such a fate. In 130 cases the family need was met by an 
appeal to relatives or by other means that made commitment 
unnecessary. Eighty families were found to be in no real 
need. In seventy cases advice or direction was given that in- 
duced withdrawal of the application. Twelve children were 
sent directly to state institutions for defectives and twenty 



individuals busying themselves in other people's affairs. Slow- 
ly the work began to tell. Imagine the county's surprise when 
Mr. Macy showed how much money his apparent "extrava- 
gance" had saved. For two years prior to his coming the 
number of dependent children had increased at the rate of 7.7 
per cent. During the first year of his superintendency the 
increase was cut to 2.9 per cent and during the second year 
to 1.2. If the old rate had continued, seventy-two more de- 
pendent children would have been cared for in institutions at 
public expense than actually were cared for. The average cost 
per child of the care of committed children is $237.60; the 
reduction, therefore, saved the county over $17,000. 

These figures interested the Board of Supervisors. Last 
year it took over the three agents whom Mr. Macy had 
hired with private funds. To-day it is paying the salaries of 
six agents and a stenographer for this work, instead of the 
two agents it was employing three years ago. Private funds 
are still doing a large share ; one stenographer, one clerk, three 
agents, a director and assistant director are being supplied out- 
side the budget. Fourteen persons in all are doing the work 
and a separate department has been organized, with Miss 



106 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 




MORE OF THE OLD 

Ramshackle additions to the Westchester County Almshouse 

Taylor at the head. Child Welfare, not the mere routine 
withdrawal of children from this institution and from that, 
has become the object of the work. 

As a direct outgrowth of this work for children, Mr. Macy 
has taken a step that is revolutionary in public poor relief in 
New York. In that state, as in nearly a third of the other 
states, the county superintendent of the poor has no power 
to grant aid to families in their homes ; all authority to do this, 
so far as public officials are concerned, is centered in the com- 
missioners and overseers of the poor. When Mr. Macy en- 
tered office he found these officials, as already explained, break- 
ing up families and sending children to institutions needlessly. 
He appeared before the Board of Supervisors and said: 

"This arrangement is absurd. I can call upon you to pay 
for maintaining children everywhere but in their own homes. 
I can be a party to breaking up families but I can not keep 
them together. Will you grant me an appropriation to main- 
tain poor families in their homes, if 1 am able to do so at no 
greater cost than it requires to support the children of those 
families in institutions?" 

Revolutionizing Outdoor Relief 

The board listened, and appropriated $6,000 for the pur- 
pose. A check, at Mr. Macy's suggestion, was placed upon 
this power by the provision that the local supervisor may, 
if he desires, object to the granting of this relief to a family in 
his town. As the matter has worked out in practice, if no 
objection is made within five days, an agent of the children's 
department takes the money to the family's home. 

Mr. Macy has justified this action, on the legal side, by 
reference to a provision in the state poor law. Section thirteen 
of Article Two of that law gives to the board of supervisors 
of any county the power to "make such rules and regulations 
as it may deem proper in regard to the manner of furnishing 
temporary or outdoor relief to the poor in the several towns in 
said county." If this provision justifies the action taken, Mr. 
Macy may well claim the credit for discovering that fact. Cer- 
tain it is that no county superintendent hitherto has made 
similar use of it, but has left outdoor relief wholly in the 
hands of the overseers. 

The use of the new power did not end at this point. 
Two years ago New York passed a widow's pension law. 
Under the provisions of this act boards of child welfare 
were to be constituted in every county of the state to grant 
relief to widows with children. The children were to be kept 
in their own homes and only those widows were eligible who 



had resided two years in the county, and whose husbands 
were residents of the state and citizens of the United States 
at the time of their death. The act was restricted, therefore, 
to a definite and relatively small group of persons. 

Mr. Macy saw no reason for this duplication of his ma- 
chinery. He was already granting pensions to families in their 
homes. Why should a special class of such cases be handled 
by a separate board, composed of seven members, which would 
have to establish its own machinery and do its own in- 
vestigating? 




THE NEW PENITENTIARY 

Westchester county is putting this, a new almshouse and a 
general hospital under a single management 

The board, however, had actually been appointed. Por- 
ter R. Lee, an expert in relief and member of the faculty of the 
New York School of Philanthropy, had been made chairman ; 
Mr. Macy was ex-officio member. Mr. Lee, it turned out, 
shared Mr. Macy's views. From the first he had hoped to 
make use of the superintendent's office in carrying out the 
work of the board. 

The amount asked by the board as necessary to provide re- 
lief for the widows who would probably require it in 1916 
was $25,000. When the board appeared before the finance 
committee of the Board of Supervisors to urge this appropria- 
tion, it was at once met with the question: "How does the 
work you are authorized to do differ, in principle, from the 
work Mr. Macy is doing with the $6,000 already given to 
his office?" 

Mr. Lee was obliged to answer that, in his opinion, the 
difference was slight. He pointed out that there was a the- 
oretical advantage in having a board of unpaid, public-spirited 
citizens performing the function of relief agents in the com- 
munity, but that this advantage was small when compared 
with the existing equipment of the superintendent of the 
poor's office for doing exactly the same work. 

The members of the finance committee agreed with him and 
the money was not granted. Mr. Macy is, therefore, now 
performing the work intended by act of legislature to be per- 
formed by the Board of Child Welfare. No one has ques- 
tioned his authority and no one seems likely to do so. The 
Board of Child Welfare has postponed its meetings from 
month to month, though it still exists as a legal and poten- 
tially active body. Its hands are tied, for under the law 
creating it the Board of Supervisors is not required to give 
it any money. In many other counties of the state boards 
of child welfare have received appropriations and arc .it 
work. 



THE SU RV EY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1 9 1 6 



107 






What the Pensions Have Meant 

Thirty-six widows who would have qualified for relief 
under the Board of Child Welfare act have been helped by 
Mr. Macy's office. These, with the mothers being aided from 
the earlier appropriation of $6,000, make fifty-four families 
who were receiving pensions on September 30. The number 
of children under sixteen in these families is 209. It has cost 
$1.46 per child per week to keep these families together. To 
maintain a child in a boarding home the county now pays, un- 
der a regulation of the Board of Supervisors, $2.50 a week, 
though this amount is regarded as inadequate, while for in- 
stitution care the cost is usually $3. Here again, therefore, hu- 
manity and economy have gone hand in hand. 

These are some of the ways in which Mr. Macy has used 
his present opportunities to serve the poor of Westchester 
county. He has not been content to rest here. Buildings 
archaic and inadequate, a farm too small, and a state poor 
law suited possibly to rural districts but unworkable for a 
county of thriving towns and many people, have not seemed to 
him efficient instruments of public service. 

How Mr. Macy secured appropriations for a new site and 
new buildings for the almshouse, a general county hospital 
and a county penitentiary, in a county that three years ago 
regarded its poor-law administration as a matter of small con- 
cern, is one of the promising signs of a new day in local 
government. He did it largely, of course, by the demonstra- 
tion of service that has already been described. Formerly 
when grand juries and investigating bodies visited the alms- 
house they were shown the institution's best side. Mr. Macy 
has shown them all sides and has preached valuable lessons 
on the responsibility of a county to provide suitable surround- 
ings for its helpless and dependent wards. So effective have 
his lessons been that the only opposition to the purchase of the 
new site, which cost $175,000, came from the supervisor in 
whose township the property lay, and who regretted to see it 
stricken from his tax list. When the Board of Supervisors 
agreed to continue the payment of the taxes, however, even 
this opposition ceased. 

A million and three-quarter dollars has already been voted 
for the new buildings. The farm, comprising four hundred 
acres, lies close to the old site and actually adjoins it along a 
strip of two hundred feet. For the almshouse proper $700,000 
has been appropriated, $300,000 for the hospital, $500,000 
for the penitentiary and workhouse, and $250,000 for the 
central heating, lighting and other service plants. A half 
million more will be needed, Mr. Macy thinks, if the hospital 
is to perform its maximum service. 

The penitentiary is a new institution in Westchester county. 
It was made necessary by the inability of New York city 
longer to board county prisoners in its own institutions. It 
will supplant the county jails as a place for confining convicted 
prisoners and so will end for Westchester one of the long- 
continued evils of county jails in this country. Prisoners will 
be paid wages, the amounts thereof not to exceed their actual 
earnings. 

Criticism might reasonably be directed against congregating 
such diverse institutions as an almshouse, a general hospital 
and a penitentiary on one site. This is to be met by a novel 
device. Two railway lines run close to the new property. 
For each of the three institutions a different station will be 
used : for the almshouse, East View ; for the hospital, Kensico ; 
for the penitentiary, White Plains. Different entrances will 
also approach each building. In this way not only will per- 
sons coming to one institution be unlikely to encounter those 
coming to another, but the general public will not associate 



the institutions with the same site. Meanwhile the advan- 
tages of congregation will be gained by the use of central 
heating, lighting and sewerage plants. The children's work, 
comprising a separate department, will be handled from offices 

in White Plains. 

..1 1 

The New Law 

With a new site and new buildings provided for, Mr. 
Macy turned his attention to the organization of new ma- 
chinery to run them. The law embodying his ideas will take 
effect January 1 ; it is limited to Westchester county. Under 
it the office of Superintendent of the Poor passes out of exist- 
ence ; in place is created a county commissionership of charities 
and corrections. This officer, who for the next three years 
will be Mr. Macy, will have, in addition to all the powers 
now possessed by the Superintendent of the Poor, power to 
appoint the heads of six separate departments. The need for 
some of these has already been foreshadowed. They are a 
superintendent of the almshouse, a superintendent of the gen- 
eral county hospital, a superintendent of the county farm, a 
director of child welfare, a steward of county institutions, and 
a warden of the county penitentiary and workhouse. 

The new law makes several changes in procedure. It cen- 
ters the commitment of children in the hands of the commis- 
sioner; overseers of the poor and city commissioners may no 
longer commit except into his custody. The commissioner 
himself may commit as he sees fit, subject only to the general 
law of the state. This eliminates at a single stroke the whole 
range of evils growing out of the scattered power to commit 
already described. The law furthermore removes all question 
of illegality from the payment of pensions to families by giv- 
ing the commissioner power "to make such arrangements for 
the care of needy children as may be authorized by the Board 
of Supervisors." 

Under the operation of this law the hospital, which hereto- 
fore has been only an adjunct of the almshouse and limited 
for the most part to almshouse patients, will become a general 
county institution. It will have a capacity of 600 beds and 
will perform for Westchester county a function similar to 
that performed for New York city by Bellevue. Patients 
will be received as sick persons, not as paupers. 

Mr. Macy's Study of Causes 

When Mr. Macy accepted the nomination for Superin- 
tendent of the Poor one of the services he hoped to render 
was to study the causes of dependency. He lost no time in 
getting started. With the aid of his assistant superintendent, 
Herbert A. Brown, he has begun inquiries in several direc- 
tions. One of these deals with all inmates admitted to the 
almshouse in 1914; when completed this study will include 
nearly six hundred persons. Two investigators, employed 
with private funds, have spent two years gathering all avail- 
able information concerning the habits, work, associations and 
family connections of these subjects, together with all other 
matters that might throw light on their ability to be self- 
supporting. The heredity of one hundred and sixty families 
has been charted. While the inquiry has not yet reached a 
final or publishable stage, it is interesting even now as in- 
dicating what the office of county superintendent of the poor 
can be made to do in the way of contributing to an intensive 
study of social and individual distress. 

One conclusion already drawn by Mr. Brown concerns the 
importance of drink as a cause of pauperism. "It is a con- 
servative estimate," says Edward T. Devine in his Principles 
of Relief, "that one-fourth of all the cases of destitution with 



108 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



which private relief agencies have to deal are fairly attribut- 
able to intemperance." Mr. Brown interprets his own study 
to mean that among the more sodden and hopeless classes 
found in a county almshouse this percentage is at least above 
sixty. As a result of his inquiry a bill has been drafted that 
will, if enacted, provide in Westchester county a method for 
the treatment of inebriety similar to the one already in opera- 
tion in New York city. Courts will be given power to com- 
mit inebriates to the custody of the county commissioner and 
a board of inebriety will advise in the care of these inebriates. 
In addition to this study of almshouse inmates Mr. Macy 
has begun studies of the families of dependent children and 
those receiving pensions. Prof. Edward L. Thorndike, pro- 
fessor of educational psychology at Teachers' College, New 
York City, has applied mental tests to great numbers of these 
children and has already published some of his results in the 
Archives of Psychology. 1 

The Heart of Mr. Macy's Conception 

I have thus tried to suggest the more important ways in 
which Mr. Macy has altered 
poor law administration in one 
county. What he has done 
others may do. By paying an 
adequate salary any county 
with large problems and mod- 
erate means can attract a 
trained man to its chief poor 
law office. Such a man need 
not be personally rich to ac- 
complish wonders. The heart 
of Mr. Macy's conception of 
his office is that it should be 
the center of social service de- 
velopment in the county at 
large. Occupying a pivotal 
relationship to other offices, 
exercising or coming into con- 




1 See Archives of Psychology, 
33, Sept. 1915. 



No. 



HOSPITAL STAFF AND NURSES UNDER MR. MACY S K 



tact with nearly every function of public and private 
charity, and possessing innumerable sources of information, an 
office of this sort can, he believes, take the lead in social 
welfare. 

Who, for example, is so privileged as the superintendent of 
the poor to look into hundreds of homes where children are 
poorly supported, ill-treated and given every encouragement to 
lives of crime ? Who, then, should be in a better position than 
he to arouse a demand for juvenile courts, where special atten- 
tion can be paid to the causes of youthful waywardness? A 
superintendent also comes into daily touch, as head of the 
almshouse, with men and women whose chief misery is that 
they have lost the capacity to work. Why should not he take 
the lead, then, in establishing public employment bureaus, both 
for such of his own charges as are able-bodied and willing, 
and also for the county as a whole? Through his acquaint- 
ance with the sick and those disabled by disease the superin- 
tendent knows, too, the shortcomings of individual and social 
hygiene. Why should he not lay this experience, also, before 
the county and so contribute to the establishment of public 

health bureaus and the devel- 
opment of improved sanitary 
measures? 

These are, indeed, some of 
the steps that Mr. Macy hopes 
yet to take. He has already 
brought about a new era in 
the administration of poor re- 
lief. Why, he asks, should he 
not be permitted to accom- 
plish a similar service in the 
raising of social service stand- 
ards and the development and 
unification of social service 
agencies? 

By returning him to office 
November 7, that is what the 
people of Westchester county 
will give him an opportunity 
to do. 



WELL, here Oi am 
at the horsh- 
pittle, Finnegan, 
wid an ixcava- 
tion in me shtomach sproutin' 
iodoform gauze loike a yellow 
chrysanthe-mum, and a chist 
protictor, that they call an ab- 
dominal boinder, decorated 
wid diaper pins and floatin' 

around in me arrmpits. Wan av the young docs has just 
tucked a frish loinin' into me an Oi've nathin' to do till to- 
morrow. "Pretty saft an' aisy," I can hear ye sayin'. Whisht 
till ye hear the whoul shtory. 

Whin Oi got to the horshpittle, Finnegan, they took me 
into a rayciption ward, where Oi hild a rayciption wid a big 
bruiser who put me into bed and rran aff wid all me clothes 
an' thin come back an' nearly tuk the hoide aff o' me wid a 
shcrub brush an' sapolio. Afther he shcrubbed me roight leg 
he says, "Now put out yer ither leg;" but Oi fooled him be 
givin' him the roight leg agin, thus praysarvin' the lift wan 
in a natural condition. 

In a few minutes in comes a young feller in a whoite suit — 



IGNATIUS PHELAN AT 
THE HOSPITAL 

A "ROD AND SERPENT" STORY 
By Walter M. Brickner, M. D. 



the chef come to take me 
orrder for dinner, thinks Oi, 
"Phwat do yez complain of?" 
says he. "Oi complain," Oi 
says, "mostly av that big spal- 
peen that shtole me clothes and 
terbacker an' thin shcraped me 
carcass wid the rough soide of 
a currycomb," Oi says. "No." 
says the young whoitewing, 
"Oi mane, phwy did ye come to the horshpittle?" "Me boss 
sent me here," Oi says, "Oi'm his butler," Oi says, "Oi used 
to be his coachman till he — " "Nivver moind about all that." 
says flippy whoitewing, "tell me, phwat's the matter wid ye?" 
"Oi came here to foind out," Oi says. "Whin do ye think 
Oi'll see a docthor ?" Oi could see that riled him, Finnegan. 
Thin he came back at me wid "Have ye anny pain?" Think 
av it, Finnegan, me up foive morrtal noights wid the shcramps 
an' this young ballyhoo askin' me did Oi have anny pain! 
"No, young man," Oi says, "Oi haven't anny pain, at all, 
at all, an' Oi never filt better in me loife. Oi just dhrapped 
in to look the place over and wroite it up in the Ladies' Home 
Jarnal." 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4 , 1 9 1 6 



109 



An thin blisht if he didn't sit down an' ashk me a thousand 
quistions about me anchisters an' me family. "Did me faather 
doie in infancy or in Oireland? How manny childer had me 
mither, an' how manny would she have had — undher other 
carcumstances ?" Oi thought he wouldn't bother much 
about me whin he got so inthristed in me family. But no 
such luck! "How arre ye bowels?" he says^ quoite suddint- 
loike. "Pretty well, Oi thank ye, an' send ye their koind ray- 
gaards." "Do ye dhrink?" he says. "Thank ye virry koindly, 
Oi'll have a little Shcotch." Afther some more irrilivant 
quistions he pulls a tillyphone out av his pocket an' begins to 
thry me on arithmetic. "Count wan, two, three," he says. 
Thin he begins foive-finger ixercoises and punchin'-bag prac- 
tice on me shtomach. "Hould on there," Oi yells, "hould 
on. If Oi can't jine yer saciety widout bein' inishiated that 
. way, Oi'll widdraw me application fer mimbership." An' thin 
he walks aff widout a wurrd av axplanation lavin' me sore an' 
dishgusted an' considerable in doubt whither Oi'd been black- 
balled or axcipted be the rayciption committee. 

The next minute Oi was dumped onto a whoite wheel- 
barrow-loike an' caarted upshtairs to a big ward wid twenty- 
foive ither min, mosht av thim furriners. Oi was just set- 
tlin' down in bed to injye a good cramp whin in walks a 
chisty young feller, also in a whoite suit. Oi'm sure Oi've 
seen him dhrivin' a Tip-Top bread wagon. They call him 
the "house," but be the airrs av him ye'd think he was a house 
an' lot. He walked roight up to me. "Phwat's ailin' ye?" 
he says, an' thin, before Oi had a chance to answer him, he 
began pummelin' me in the shtomach. Prisintly a flock av 
young fellers dayscinded upon me. The "house" musht have 
whispered to thim, "Come on in, the wather's foine," fer aich 
wan av thim took aim at me shtomach. Wan av thim punched 
me so long Oi thought he'd nivver get through. "Which 
soide hurrts whin Oi shquaze?" he says. "The insoide," Oi 
says, "an' furthermore, young man, Oi have a prissin' en- 
gagement wid J. Pierpont Rockefeller fer foive o'clock ; an' 
if ye'll quit fer a whoile Oi'll be willin' to cartify to the 
prisident av the club that yer inishiashun has been ontoirely 
satisfacthry — or Oi'll give ye a rain-chick an' ye can come back 
agin to-morrow." 

There was ounly wan more cirrimony that day, Finnegan ; 
wan av the young fellers shtuck me in the finger till the blood 
rran. Oi guiss they didn't think he'd done it roight, for he 
comes back in an hour an' tuk some more blood from me 
ilbow-jint. 

THE nixt marnin' the "house" comes waltzin' in wid a 
doctor an' throts him up to me bed. "Here's a new num- 
ber," he says, or worrds to that effect; an' he rades him me 
pedigree. Wid that doc makes shtraight fer me shtomach 
wid both fists. Lookin' up from me wid a plased shmoile, 
"Do yez ramimber the lasht case loike this?" he says. "Sure," 
says the "house," " 'twas a virry interesthin' ortopsy." An' 
wid that cheerin' raymark they wint on to the nixt bed, wid- 
out givin' me a wurrd av axplanation. 

From that minute, Finnegan, Oi losht me name an' me in- 
dividjality. Oi became a mere daysease betune bed-sheets, wid 
whoite an' blue paapers, loike Seidlitz powders, at the fut av 
me bed, on which the nurses an' docthors made raymarks 
about me — some av thim thrue. 

In half an hour the "house" comes back agin wid the head 
docthor an' rades him me conthract an' spicifications all over 
agin. Doc had an absent-moinded ixprission an' Oi could 
see he didn't think Oi was iligible. He didn't even same 
inthrested in me complaints. He jist wint through the rigular 



cirimony wid me shtomach an' thin he says, "Sind wurrd to 
the midical man." "Sind wurrd to the midical man," says 
the "house" to the head chambermaid, who shcribbled it down 
in her marketin' book. An' aff they walks. 

Well, in about foive days the midical man rayceived the 
litter an' comes up to wilcome me, bringin' his ouwn sicritry, 
who also tuk a fale av me poor "abdomen," as they calls it. 
An' thin he wroites down the imprissions av the doc. "Afther 
a careful inishiashun we baylieve that the case is one av 
neoplasm av the protoplasm; on the ither hand, it may be 
ounly a spasm av the digistion, or a neurosis av the metabolic 
injuced be daygineration av the corpuscles." That was a 
foine docthor, Finnegan ; he didn't nade to rade about me 
grandmother an' the rist av the family, an' he had two koinds 
av tillyphone. 

BUT don't think that the foive days Oi was waitin' fer him 
Oi was bein' supported in oidleness an' aise. Iviry day 
they gave me some new thrick to tist me thorough acciptibility. 
They didn't bother wid me complaints; indade, Oi'd almost 
forgotten thim meself in the new an' amusin' stunts they put 
me through. The siccond avenin' they gave me a dose av 
castor oil. 'Twas a loively toime Oi had thot noight, Fin- 
negan ; but the noight nurse wanted to give me a good char- 
acter, Finnegan, for she wrote on me application "shlept well." 
Maybe she did ; Oi didn't see much av her. 

In the marnin' they took me to be photographed in a room 
fixed up fer wireless telegraphy. I hadn't had anny brikfist, 
but they poured a quart of milk into me interior in a way 
that Oi nivver would have thought av. Six pictures they 
took, Finnegan, wid a large green loight, an' me in various 
poses. Oi thought they'd give me proofs to saylict the wan 
Oi loiked bist, but all Oi saw were six panes av glass showin' 
a suspicion av me backbone supportin' a quart av milk in 
sivral stages of currdlin'. 

The same day they looked in me oies wid electric loights, 
pumped the blood prissure out av me arrms, hammered me 
knees, and wrote down the impartent observation that me 
roight foot was much paler than me lift. That was the 
noight an' the marnin' av the third day, as it says in the Bible. 

The nixt marnin' Oi was given an elabrate brikfist av tea 
an' toast. It tashted good, but there was somethin' wrong wid 
it, Finnegan, fer in half an hour wan av the young docs rushes 
in an' pumps it all out av me shtomach wid a piece av gaarden 
hose. Thank the saints he saved me from death be poisonin'. 
But wuddent ye think, Finnegan, they'd be more careful- 
loike about the food? I was jist gittin' over that excitement 
an' quietin' down a little, whin along comes the whoite wheel- 
barrow agin, an' they caarts me away to be sisterschooped. 
Finnegan, me lad, there's somethin' in shtore fer ye! 

Whin Oi got back to me bed a doc was writin' in me 
biography. "Phwat is it now?" Oi asked him. " 'Tis yer 
blood rayport. 'Tis four plus," he says. "Will, thank the saints 
fer those pluses !" says Oi, fer up till thin ivrything on me 
shcoreboard seemed to be goin' agin me. Things were comin' 
thick an' fast thin, Finnegan, fer thot very afthernoon, d'ye 
moind, Oi was sint to anither room, where two docs were 
shtrugglin' haard wid a yellow-colored dhrink which they 
were shakin' up an' down loike a cocktail. 'Twas a cross, 
Finnegan, betune a crame de mint an' an orangeade, an' to 
me ouwn way av thinkin' 'twas haardly worth all they were 
sayin'. Oi cuddent fer the loife av me see phwat Oi had to 
do wid it at all till Oi was tould to roll up me shleeve an' loie 
down on the table forninst the bar. An' thin, Finnegan, wad 
ye belave it, they poured that shtuff into a decanter hangin' 



110 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1 9 1 6 



on a pole and dhripped the whoul business into the shkin av 
me arrm. 'Twas a sayvare tist they thought up fer me thot 
toime, Finnegan, runnin' orange-juice into a man from Kil- 
larney; but Oi shtood me ground bravely, fer Oi didn't want 
to be blackballed afther Oi'd gone through all the other 
shtunts. 

ON the sixth day another throop av docthors marched into 
the ward in open formation. They were the nerrve 
docthors, Finnegan, an' they had it wid them all roight. Does 
it hurrt to shtick a pin in yer shkin, Finnegan? Sure it does. 
You know it does, an' Oi know it does an' Oi thought ivry- 
body knew it does. But these here ignoranamuses seemed to be 
in doubt about it an' daycoided to thry it on someone; but 
phwy did they pick on me Oi don't know? Afther they had 
shcratched me wid the pin, an' tickled the soles av me feet, 
aich wan av them made the custhomary salute on me 
shtomach. Thot was noineteen toimes thot cirimony had been 
performed, Finnegan; but Oi didn't moind it anny more. 
In fact, Finnegan, ivry toime a docthor intered the ward me 
shtomach just rose up to rayceive him! 

The nixt day me wake was up, an' Oi knew the house 
committee was gittin' ready to rayport on me. The prosecu- 
tion had finished, there was no dayfinse, an' the jury had 
raytoired to considher the daygree av me guilt. Sure enough 
I overheard the orrder "Praypare Bed 6 fer operation." 
There was no "Wouldn't ye loike to thry a little operation, 
Mr. Phelan?" or "Have ye seen the cuttin' room yet?" 
Nathin' ! But then, Finnegan, in these days av warr 'tis not 
fer anny man to saylict the toime or the manner in which he 
is to doie. Annyhow, thot noight Oi had me second sound 
shlape wid castor oil. In the marnin' they put me in a whoite 
flannel shirt, which is worn be ivry patient on the day av his 
ixecution. Thin the man nurse wint at me shtomach wid 
phwat Oi praysume was the narrow soide av a razor. Whin 
enough blood had been dhrawn, Oi was toid up in cheese- 
cloth. Thin the man nurse brought in a rubber bag wid a 
hose poipe, me brikfist av soapsuds. 

THIN Oi waited an' Oi waited. All marnin' Oi waited. 
All afthernoon Oi waited fer the orrder to get into 
action. Oi saw thim bring the wounded to the rear, wan by 
wan, an' shtill Oi was kipt back wid the raysarves. Finally, 
wurrd came from the front: "Bed 6, advance in single col- 
umn." So up we wint, me an' me biography, in charge av an 
orderly, me shpirits risin' wid the illivator which was managed 
be a gallant young lieutenant in blue uniform. On the top 
flure me command was changed an' Oi rayported in a sicind 
loine trinch where they kape the cans of poisonous gases. 
Here again Oi waited an' Oi waited. "The inimy musht be 
in force," Oi thought, fer blood-shtained skirmishers were 
runnin' back an' forth in gra-ate confusion. "Oi hope Oi'm 
the nixt," says Oi to meself; an' thin, as I see somewan ilse 
wheeled out, "No, thank Hivvin, Oi'm not the nixt." Finally 
wan av the docs in field uniform, wid a gas mask ouver his 
face, busts into me trinch. "Shtaart this dope," he yells. 
'Twas a foine thing to call me! They pinned me arrms up 
in me shirt an' tied up me head. An' thin Oi saw agin me 



young frind av the rayciption ward committee. He hild a big 
black futball loike over me head. "Count wan, two, three," 
he says. "No, you don't," says Oi. "Oi passed yer arithmetic 
examination a wake ago." "Well, take a dape brith," he 
says, an' he jams the futball down over me mouth. I tuk 
a dape brith. " 'Tis no good at all," says Oi, "Oi can fale 
ivrything." "Take anither brith." "Tis no good, Oi'm 
tellin' yez." Thin Oi hearrd a loud "pf-s-s-s-s-s." "The 
domned thing's exshploded, take it aff o' me, take it aff, take 
it a-f-f." Oi thried to axshplain to him, but me lips were gettin' 
thick an' somehow or other me mouth was full av cotton. 
Me ears got shtuffy an' I heard the docthors talkin' further 
an' further off. Samwan three moiles away comes into the 
room an' says: "Is he undher yet?" Oi thried to answer him 
only the futball was fair chokin' me. "Oi'm undher nothin', 
ixcipt the shtrong imprission that ye're turrnin' me head round 
an' round an' round, an' me neck is thwistin' up so Oi can't 
brathe at all. Shtop it," Oi cried, "shtop me head turnin' an' 
turnin' an' shwellin', hould it, Oi tell yez or 'twill twist aff me 
neck ontoirely." An' thin, sure enough, aff wint me head, 
rollin' out av the room an' down the hall. Wid a tirrible 
iffort up Oi jumps afther it an' down the corridor Oi rran 
in me little shirt, chasin' me ouwn head moile afther moile, 
till Oi comes to the ilivator shaft, an' down we go, me an' me 
head, fallin', fallin', fallin', firrst fasht, an' thin shlow, an* 
thin fasht agin, till Oi landed at the bottom wid a tirrible 
thump. "Shtop it, shtop it, me head, me head!" an' the nurse 
said : "Loie down in bed ; ye're makin' too much nise." An' 
wid that she ups an' gives me a sharp jab in the arrm. Thin 
Oi fell ashlape. Oi dramed that Mayor Mitchel an' the 
Boarrd av Aldermin were in me shtomach, raymovin' the 
firrst shovelful fer a new subway. 'Twas a tirrible noight- 
mare! 

Phwat happened the nixt few days Oi don't know at all, 
Finnegan. Oi losht all thrack av toime ontoirely. About 
the fourth day Oi was falin' pretty good again till in comes 
the head docthor an' suddinly shows a gra-ate intherest in 
the bundle av cloth around me belly. Oi had thought a 
grate dale av that docthor, Finnegan, ontil he separated me 
from the shtickin' plasther that held me tegither. But that 
was nathin' to phwat was comin'. The horshpittle, Finnegan, 
has a large supply av linen, undhershtand, an' Oi guess there 
was some complaint that mosht av this had been shtuck insoide 
av me. Three sheets, a dozen towels, foive yaards av un- 
bleached muslin an' six feet av gaarden hose he pulled out, 
Finnegan. Oi'll shware to it ! An' me all the toime schramin' 
an' yellin' loike the banshee was afther me. Oi'm fond av 
praties, Finnegan, an' corrned bafe an' cabbage ; but niver 
did Oi think me shtomach would git so attached to a bunch 
of rags. 

WILL, Oi'm out av bed now, Finnegan, an' goin' home 
soon, glory be. An' whin Oi git home, Finnegan, me 
frind, there's a favor Oi want to ask av ye. Oi want ye to 
fale all over me shtomach, Finnegan, an' tell me is it a golden 
egg or the grate ruby Oi've got in there. An' moind ye, 
Finnegan, Oi want to be put on the intertainment committee 
av the butlers' union. Oi have some grate oideas in me moind 
for some new forrms av initiashun. 




NIRMAN SINGH 

The Story of a Little Lizard Eater, Who 

Stands for the Childhood Needs of the 

Un-numbered Children of British India 

By C. M. Goethe 





WHERE QUEEN AND POPE 
FAILED 

The playground exper- 
iment in the Philip- 
pines which holds out 
hope for Spanish 
America genet ally. 
The Survey, June 3. 

NEW WINE : OLD BOTTLES 

Can the old rest-houses 
of Burmah be trans- 
formed into recreation 
centers for the Jungle ? 
The Survey, July 1. 

CHILDREN OF LONELINESS 

How life among the 
"saeters" of Norway 
might be revolutionized 
by the American recre- 
ation system. 

The Survey, Sept. 



DOLORES, VENDOR OF 
SNAILS 

// Trafalgar and Wa- 
terloo were really won 
on the fields of Eton 
and Rugby, we can as 
reasonably assert that 
Buenos Ayres and 
Lima, Manila and San- 
tiago were lost at the 
bull-ring, at the cock- 
pit, and at the dulce- 
wheels. 
The Survey, October 7. 



A TODDY GATHERER 



NIRMAN SINGH'S caste lived on such pickings 
as lizards. Lizards are not particularly inviting 
food, but Nirman Singh's was a low caste. His 
touch was defilement, his shadow was pollution. 
Nirman Singh was a Sudra, and therefore unclean — not the 
uncleanliness of the leper, but worse. It was the paralyzing 
uncleanliness of low birth. 

Nirman Singh had never heard about its being self-evi- 
dent that all men were created equal. He knew nothing about 
enjoying life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Nirman 
Singh did know that his father tanned the hides of dead 
monkeys for temple drumheads. He did know that, even 
as a baby, he was avoided by other children. He sometimes 
wondered, as he grew a little older, why he might not drink 
from the village well, why they said he was pollution. The 
sacred bull, painted pink and purple, with a garland of yellow 
roses of India around its neck, might drink there, might even 
munch lettuce at the bazaar woman's stand. More than that, 
she would give him rice from her cocoanut-shell, so happy 
was she at a visit from the holy one, she who had black looks 
if Nirman Singh's shadow but fell across her greens. This 
day Nirman Singh was hungry, very hungry. A raw lizard 
would have been a feast. Five days, ten days, his father and 
mother had camped under that neem tree. It was hot, ter- 
ribly hot — hot, as only India knows the heat. The rain had 
not come for a long time ; the roads were very dry, very 
dusty, and the sandstorm, racing down upon them, increased 
their misery. 

A punkah coolie had stopped across the road to rest in the 
shade of another neem tree. He had pulled the punkah rope 
all night long that the white man might sleep. To another 
pausing wayfarer, the punkah coolies complained from beneath 
his turban that even long after midnight it was hot and dry. 
Yet all the misery of heat, sandstorm, famine made no fellow 
ship between the punkah coolie and Nirman Singh's father. 
His father was unclean ; one to be avoided. He tanned mon- 
key hides for drums to call those who worshipped Hanuman, 
the monkey god. 

Nirman Singh, lying limp beneath the neem tree, yearned 
for food, even a single lizard. But they had camped under 
the neem tree more than a week, and one by one the lizards 
had been caught. Nirman Singh was sick; his mother was 
sick; his father was sick. That is why they had tarried so 
long. Today the father stirred. He measured his waning 
strength and spoke: 

"We will all die if we stay here. The lad cannot walk. 
Let us put him in the spreading forks of the tree. Let us pray 
the great Shiv, the creator, that he preserve." 

But the mother cried: "Not Shiv the pitying. Think of 
one-eyed, hating Kali. We have done nothing to appease her. 
We have had nothing we could offer as a sacrifice. Perhaps 
she has brought all the misery." 

To stay, meant that they all must die. So the parents 

111 



112 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4 , 1 9 1 6 



reluctantly placed starving Nirman Singh in the broad forks 
of the tree. Almost staggering, they went down the burning 
road, hoping somehow to find aid. 

After a while Nirman Singh grew faint. His tree, and the 
tree across the road, seemed to swim together in the blue of 
the sky above him. Then the blue sky grew gray, then black. 
Then he forgot everything. 

He awoke in a house. Outside, he could see the yard of 
the compound. A kite had swooped upon a morsel of food. 
It was better food than Nirman Singh dared eat, for he was 
unclean. Across the yard of the compound a water-carrier 
was passing, his pig-skin distended with water. In the room 
was a Sahib, a really pale-faced Sahib. His wife, the Mem- 
sahib, was there too. Nirman Singh knew he had brought 
pollution to this home, for he was of unclean birth ; yet he 
could not remember how he came. He tried to raise himself 
to salaam and leave the room. He shuddered to think what 
his parents would say when they knew he had been actually 
inside a Sahib's bungalow. But he was too weak to rise. 

Just then the Memsahib seemed to notice him. She ex- 
claimed, "Why, at last he is awake!" and brought him milk 
in a queer glassy white cup. It was not at all like the rough 
red pottery of his village where one of the castes broke their 
cups after each meal. This cup was smooth and felt good 
to the lips. Nirman Singh did not know that a French in- 
ventor in the long ago had burned even the furniture of his 



home, learning to make the first porcelain cup. Nirman Singh 
knew only that the Sahib and the Memsahib were in the room. 
Still nobody complained. Nobody made black looks at him. 
They were giving him real food, so much better than half-raw 
lizards. Then they brought him something that did not taste 
quite so good. They called it "medicine." Then he fell 
asleep again. 

No dreams had Nirman Singh of a land where men were 
free and equal. He knew nothing of famine funds, of the 
money collected for stricken boys. He did not know that 
American workers were hunting for just such as be, and 
had found him fainting in the neem tree. Even that he should 
be nursed back to health in the home of a Sahib, was some- 
thing he could not understand. He heard them say that the 
way his ribs showed through his skin made him look like 
the Famine Buddha at Lahore — Lahore, where the many- 
colored turbans are like a field of wild flowers waving in 
the breeze. He knew something about the Buddha. He was 
a god. Folks never bothered much about the Buddha ; it was 
the revengeful gods and goddesses they feared, like one-eyed 
Kali. But perhaps it was the gentle Buddha that had sent 
him this good fortune. 

Before many weeks he was playing like other children. He 
heard no more of his parents. Perhaps they went down in 
the famine that killed, as it always killed, in the old way of 
the unchanging East. That one must accept the famine, even 




REPEATING IN CALCUTTA THE MANILA EXPERIENCE 

This is the second Calcutta playground at Lee Memorial, Wellington Square. A third has been commenced. The Orient has 

learned a lesson that America might heed — that apparatus is, after all, not absolutely necessary; that supervision is the great 

essential. A broomstick with a good imagination has always made a prancing steed 



THE SU RV EY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1 9 1 6 



113 




SWIMMING POOL AT BALLIGHATA 
PLAYGROUND 

The opportunity for a dip is nowhere 

more welcome than in the steaming 

tropics 

he had learned ; for this was before 
the pith-helmeted Saxon engineer had 
built canals and railroads in his part 
of teeming Hindustan. 

Singh's new friends were Ameri- 
cans. They were both teachers at a 
school where all the teachers were 
Americans. He heard them say 
that the money to conduct the 
school came from a land across the 
seas. Out in the school compound 
were continual surprises. One 
teacher was a play 
leader who knew no 
caste, and under 
whose leadership the 
boys in their play 
were learning to for- 
get caste. Only he 
was "low caste" who 
cheated in play. 
This might be a 
Brahmin as well as 
a Sudra. Singh was 
learning the democ- 
racy which is mod- 
eling the New In- 
dia. 

Thus he grew 
much like boys on 
an American play- 
ground. He won 
high honors at this American school. He went to Luck- 
now College and won athletic honors there, and a fellow- 
ship. Then came an examination in which he competed with 
sons of the priests, the intellectual aristocrats. He, a low 
caste, a Sudra, whose very shadow was pollution, won the 
medal and a fellowship in a European University! Here 
again came more honors. 

Thus it came about that one day Nirman Singh, Ph.D., 
was sailing homeward toward Bombay, a serious, thoughtful 
man. He returned to the school, to the home that had re- 
ceived him as a famine outcast. Today he is the head master 
over a large group of boys in the same school to which he 
first came, and from which there goes out each year a grad- 
uating class upon whose impressionable minds are stamped 




high purposes — a class of the lads who are making a New 
India. 

He says the old days, the days when he ate snakes and 
lizards, when he dared not drink from the village well, be- 
long to one life; another life began for him when he awoke 
in the bungalow of the blue-eyed Sahib — a life that he could 
not but give to his own people and to the ideal of a New 
India. 

To this great future, the playground movement is contribu- 
ting its share, and the story of how it all came about must now 
be told. 

The Ballighata playground story begins at a California 
orphanage. Here was story-telling after office-hours on Wed- 
nesdays; playing games on Saturday afternoons and nature- 
study field excursions on Sundays. Conducting these classes 

was like taking a 
course in laboratory 
work — they tested 
out the possibilities 
of education through 
play, but also play 
as one natural way 
of imparting knowl- 
e d g e, particularly 
useful in inculcating 
moral ideas. 

Meantime, the 
work grew. It be- 
came too heavy for 
one person already 
busy with office 
duties, so a univer- 
sity graduate who had studied in simi- 
lar specialized courses was employed. 
Supervision and study of her efforts 
only deepened the conviction as to the 
value of such work. Among the chil- 
dren on the playground were juvenile 
court cases, including abnormal and 
sub-normal children. Thus there was 
a wide variety of material for obser- 
vation. 

When the orphanage work seemed 
running by its own momentum, there 
arose the question of interesting the 
municipality to undertake play- 
grounds, as others elsewhere had 




A FLAY BARN-YARD 



"sacred" SWING 
Its support is of the Bo-tree, made 
sacred by the great Buddha's teach- 
ings beneath its shade 




YOUNG FARMERS UNDER THE TODDY PALMS AT BALLIGHATA 



HARD BY 
A TEMPLE 
OF HATE 



THE AMERICAN PLAYGROUND AND RECRE- 
ATION CENTER MAINTAINED BY MR. AND 
MRS. GOETHE IN A SUBURB OF CALCUTTA 

'T' HE war has extended to the Balli- 

ghala playground. In the picture 
below the two groups of boys represent 
the Allies and the Teutons in a skir- 
mish under two native play leaders. 
Certain castes in India follow war as 
a profession, and the war game is 
very popular. Through Calcutta have 
come the little Gurkas, or knife men 
from the Himalayas, whose peculiar 
warfare has been turned to account 
in the trenches in France. The basket- 
ball game at the right shows war-play 
carried a further remove from em- 
broilment, — in the direction of clean 
competition. 




"ring-aro 
The American women can be distinguished by their pith helmets — the fixed millinery of th< 

workers. Hence the necessity of mt, 




PLAY-WAR ON THE BALLIGHATA PLAYGROUND 



114 




-THE-ROSIE 

ypics. The steaming climate and the Bengali language are two handicaps of our American 
lying them by training native workers 




THE MOTHER OF THE BALLIGHATA 
PLAYGROUND 




BASKET-BALL UNDER AN AMERICAN PLAY LEADER 



115 



116 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 19:6 



done in trying to solve similar problems. Soon it became evi- 
dent that by a persistent educational campaign, a whole mu- 
nicipality might be induced to make recreation a city function. 

In doing this various methods were employed. Usually 
there was a preliminary campaign of publicity, seizing every 
opportunity to obtain short newspaper stories upon playground 
work. There were also talks before all kinds of civic bodies, 
lantern slide lectures. Matters widened into banding to- 
gether these investigators in various California cities into a 
state playground association. Then came the time when this 
California Playground Association was invited to merge itself 
into the national organization. 

Now it happened very fortunately that one of the visitors 
to these playgrounds had been the niece of a Mr. Lee, a 
friend of ours living in Calcutta. So when on our trip we 



mother feared. For a long while it was the headquarters of 
the thugs. These thugs, selected in childhood by the priests 
from the most promising of the young folk, were trained at 
the temple as robbers. Arrived at manhood, they were sent 
forth to rob and slay, a percentage of their booty going to 
the priesthood. It is said that formerly children were sacri- 
ficed at the Kalighat of these thugs; now the sacrifices are 
limited to young goats. 

Such is the background of our word "thug." 
Approaching this temple, we noticed that most of the vis- 
itors were women with children, many of them sick. The 
entrances were through long lines of stalls devoted to the 
sale of various votive offerings which had been blessed by 
the Brahmin priests. In front of the shrine itself was a mob 
of women, each struggling with the others for an opportunity 



' 9t 




HON IN INDIA 



Learning at the Ballif/hata playground to use corrugated iron where palm thatch and mud walls have been the building 

materials since history dawned. Most playground efforts in the Orient include manual training and vocational education. 

Children of artisans who still use the methods of the third century before Christ are being taught t<> adapt themselves to the 

new industrialism that is upon them. Efforts are made to intelligently preserve the beauty of the old handiwork — not to 

„..j;.; ;.. j^»*-„.. .v 



ruthlessly destroy it 



reached Calcutta and visited the Lees, we had a strong sup- 
porter for our plea that Wellington Square in front of the 
memorial will be an excellent location for a public play- 
ground. Mr. Lee became still more interested as we recalled 
the achievements in America and discussed possibilities of 
similar plans for India. 

Finally he said, "Will you go to the Kalighat? Many 
years' experience among the Bengalese has convinced me there 
is no place where the stranger can more quickly obtain an in- 
sight into real conditions among the children of India. When 
pictures of the worship of Kali are stamped on your 
brain, we can then discuss the future." So we went to the 
Kalighat. 

The Kalighat is a temple devoted to the worship of the 
one-eyed goddess of hate, Kali, whom Nirman Singh's 



to raise her child to the view of the dread goddess, for they 
believed the sickness of children was incurred through Kali's 
displeasure at lack of attention and sacrifice. At the en- 
trance to the courtyard across from the shrine, lounged a 
group of loafers. One of these cried to his fellows, "Come ! 
Quick! Sahib and Memsahib want to see Kali, one-eyed 
goddess!" These men formed what might be termed a flying 
wedge to open a way for the white man, they mercilessly 
"bucked" the struggling mob of women in front of the image. 
After each woman of this squirming mass gained a place 
where she might for an instant hold up her child to the 
ga/.e of the hideous one-eyed idol, she turned to pass down a 
double line of almost naked priests who sold holy ashes, 
Rowers or trinkets. At the end of this double line was the 
place of sacrifice. The stone floor was slippery with blood. 



THE SU RV EY FOR NOVEMBER 4 , 1916 



117 




^RJORY DAW 



The old English refrain in girlish trebles sounds just as sweet in this alien environment as with us. And these English words 
mean just as much to our young Bengalis as do "Eney meney miney mo" to our bairns 



Young goats, each with all four feet tied, were stacked in a 
pile like cord-wood. One priest selected a goat and held it 
to the block, a second collected the cost of the goat, a third 
was ax-man. The sick child was held close to the descending 
ax, so that the blood spurting from the decapitated trunk 
might cover its face before reaching the ground. The virtue 
of the sacrifice was lost if the blood should strike the pave- 
ment before the child was baptized in it. In the event of such 
pollution, it was necessary then to purchase another goat. 
Where a farm coolie's wage for a day's labor is not as much 
as a carfare, — the eagerness of these poverty-stricken mothers 
to save a second fee may be imagined. 

The gloomy surroundings, the screams of children at the 
sight of blood, the moanings of the very sick, the distress of 
the mothers, contrasted with the gloating of those almost 
naked priests over their steadily increasing gains, — it was al- 
most too horrible to endure. 

We knew now what Mr. Lee meant when he said, "Go to 
the Kalighat." Lest our conclusions might be hasty, we veri- 
fied them by other investigations. We visited zenanas, made 
studies of child marriages, and — most pathetic of all — of 
child-widows. And our impressions deepened. 

Then came Mr. Lee's offer. He said, "I believe the time 
is ripe for an actual demonstration playground in Calcutta. 
A square in Ballighata will be ready. We will reach the 
children. Perhaps in another generation there will be no 
Kalighat. We will make Ballighata a social center as well 
as a playground, and through recreation reach grown-ups as 
well as children. We will raise part of the salaries for two 
trained American supervisors, one man and one woman, 
providing you furnish the balance." 

And so, eventually, two workers, Massachusetts folk, sailed 
through the Golden Gate for India. In a suburb of Calcutta, 
with a population about one-half of San Francisco, the play- 
ground was planted. 

There is the hope of inducing the government to enter this 
work ultimately. The authorities have showed a deep interest 
in the experiment, though, of course, thus far war has pre- 
vented any new expenditures. Still, a second playground has 
been opened in Calcutta itself; then a third. There have 
been beginnings elsewhere in India and letters of inquiry are 



coming from native leaders in social service asking for litera- 
ture and guidance. 

What then are the opportunities for playground extension? 
Take Bombay as an example. It is a great center of Parsees, 
sun-worshippers, we call them. They are brainy folk; keen 
in their grasp of our methods, wise in the use of their own. 
They control many lines of Hindustani commerce. Certain 
Bombay suburbs, under their keen management, might be 
taken for English factory towns. They have applied Saxon 
industrialism where many coolies earn but four cents, gold, 
daily. 

Where life is cheap and a downtrodden crushed people 
dare not complain, exploiters are not always careful of their 
fellowmen. Yet the Parsee is quick to grasp Western ideas. 
This is proved by his assimilation of one kind of constructive 
recreation,- — the children's nature field excursion. He has by 
far the lowest per cent of illiteracy of any class in India. He 
is benevolent at heart, even though perhaps not always in 
ways that we should consider most wise. Some of his gen- 
erosity could be undoubtedly guided into recreation channels 
by a demonstration American playground and social cen- 
ter. With Bombay influence, under shrewd Parsee guidance, 
spreading to meet Calcutta influence, radiating from Bal- 
lighata, much time would be gained — an important considera- 
tion, for no one knows how long India will continue to offer 
her present welcome. 

Broad Hindustan contains many races, as widely different 
as the Finlander is from the half-Moorish Spaniard of south- 
ern Andalusia. In the hill-country are blue-eyed men, and 
women as fair as any from the Caucasus, whom wealthy Turks 
claim for their harems. In the south are sooty Tamil folk. 
In all Hind, live four hundred million people, speaking as 
many tongues as Europe does. About eighty million speak 
Bengali, the language of Nirman Singh. 

As any Indian playground must, Ballighata draws children 
who are outwardly very different from American wee folk, 
and the situation presents many delicate problems. The 
fathers of some children look like the man in the picture, 
who is harvesting palm juice to be fermented for "toddy" — 
another word we have inherited from the Hindustani. Some 
of the girls, "black-eyed pansies," they have been called, are 



118 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



widows at six or seven, bearing all the disgrace of the Indian 
idea of the widowed state. 

The mingling of the castes has brought yet other difficulties. 
Food, for example, or native sweetmeats, cooked by another 
caste, is always refused. Curiously enough, American candy 



is permissible, for no one has yet 
berless caste rules, any saying of 
cerning the sticks of barber-pole 
beyond the seas. 

Such problems, together 
the supervisors to learn Ben- 
some of the first year's obsta- 




found, in the num- 
ancient wisdom con- 
colored sweets from 



the need of 
have been 
Much could 



be written of similar incidents, — amusing, were they not so 
serious; but not, after all, insurmountable. 

Although social conditions are so different from those in 
America ; although in place of democracy there has ruled for 
centuries a system of caste, iron-clad, crushing, — yet even 
caste has recently begun to bend before better things. The 
missionary movement, the introduction of English and Ameri- 
can schools, Red Cross work in famine times in the Orient, 
the return of native students from foreign universities and 
medical schools, and latest of all, the playground movement, 
all these are influences tending to dissolve that because of 
which Nirman Singh perforce became an eater of lizards. 



THE ELEPHANT, MOLE AND GOAT 

A Bengali game. No apparatus, but "lots of fun" nevertheless 



Red Gross and Red Crescent 



By Ernest P. Bicknell 



DIRECTOR OF CIVILIAN RELIEF, AMERICAN RED CROSS 



WHERE East meets West fundamental differences 
in religion, philosophy, and appraisal of spiritual, 
human, and material values come into the 
sharpest contrast. It is the firing-line of differ- 
ing systems of civilization engaged in endless contest for 
supremacy. At such a point of contact, lack of mutual under- 
standing always threatens the peace and prosperity of the 
people. 

At the Dardanelles, the East thrusts forward her western- 
most frontier. When Turkey entered the war a myriad of 
racial, religious, and political doubts and suspicions flamed 
into convictions and stimulated hostile action. The lives and 
property of foreign residents in the empire were endangered, 
and as many as possible fled. Some were arrested and im- 
prisoned ; and for a time there existed a degree of panic. The 
Turks did not always clearly distinguish between the English 
and American residents. There was fear that Americans 
might be attacked and that American property might be 
destroyed. Robert College and The Woman's College, with 
their splendid buildings and equipment, were believed to be 
in hourly danger of injury or destruction. Many American 
residents of Constantinople, some of whom were connected 
with the schools, lived within the precincts of these institu- 
tions, and it was feared that their lives would also be endan- 
gered ? 

How could this danger be averted? An official proclama- 
tion calling upon the people to respect the rights of Americans 
would be ineffective, because the danger lay not in enmity to 



Americans, but in the inability of the people to distinguish 
between the status of Americans and English. The problem 
was solved by a bit of typical oriental diplomacy. The 
American Ambassador, Henry Morgenthau, left the Embassy 
and went to live for a time on the premises of one of the 
colleges mentioned. While there he was called upon in a 
friendly way by Enver Bey, the most powerful personality in 
the Turkish government. This call, the news of which was 
widely circulated among the people, was all that was necessary 
to settle the status of the American colony and educational 
institutions. It proved that the Turkish government had 
those institutions and their inhabitants under its protection 
and held them in friendly regard. 

To the Westerner the Turkish character is a mystery. The 
average Turk is said to be kindly, hospitable, peaceful, tol- 
erant, and industrious. From the days of the Crusades stories 
have been prevalent of Turkish chivalry and courage. Re- 
ligious freedom has long characterized the Turkish govern- 
ment. Turkey has been a haven for Jews fleeing from perse- 
cution at the hands of the Christian nations of Europe. 

If this picture of the Turk be accepted, how explain the 
frightful persecutions of the Armenians, the Xestorians, and 
others. A wholly satisfactory answer has never been found. 
Just as the problem is complex, the answer must include many 
elements. For one thing, the population of the Turkish 
Empire is composed of a great many nationalities and tribes, 
ranging from high civilization, in the cities, to lawless and 
savage nomads in the mountains and deserts of the remote 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



119 



provinces. The hold of the government upon the nomadic 
tribes has never been sufficient to prevent outbreaks of violence. 
Another element of the answer is to be found in the 
natural business capacity of the Armenians, which, guided by 
an aggressive intelligence, has tended in many communities to 
concentrate wealth and commercial control in Armenian 
hands. For analogy, turn to Russia and other countries in 
which the Jewish population is hated because of its com- 
mercial superiority. The ignorant and simple-minded peas- 
antry, observing the steadily increasing wealth of the thrifty 
Armenians as compared with their own penury, long ago 
became possessed of a vague but deep-seated sense of injury 
and injustice, and are ready, on slight provocation or under 
cunning leadership, to burst into a fury of destruction. 

The Armenians 

The Historic Massacres and persecutions of the Armenians 
have been more than paralleled since the great war began. 
Yet they are scarcely less comprehensible than the amazing 
persistence with which that race has clung to the country 
which it occupies. The West can scarcely understand the 
strength of the bond which holds ancient peoples to the lands 
of their forefathers. It does not seem even to occur to the 
Armenians that they might migrate to other countries where 
opportunities would be greater and where life and property 
would be safe. 

Even now reports are coming through reliable channels 
from the remote desert wilderness to which many thousand 
Armenians have been deported, after indescribable sufferings 
en route, showing that the exiles are looking forward with 
eager impatience to the time when they can start back to the 
homes and communities from which they were driven forth. 
This, notwithstanding the fact that it must be plain to them 
that they were exiled for the purpose of permanently dis- 
rupting and partially annihilating their race, and that in re- 
turning they will place themselves again in the power of the 
old forces which are bent upon their destruction. 

Readers of war news will recall the story of five thousand 
Armenians, threatened with massacre and deportation, who 
fled into a mountain and there, suffering terrible hardship, 
defended themselves successfully against the attacks of the 
enemy until a French warship, cruising off the shore, saw the 
Red Cross flag which the starving refugees had hoisted upon 
the mountain top, and sent a force of sailors to the rescue. It 
will be remembered that the French ship carried these five 
thousand Armenian refugees in safety to Egypt. In a large 
camp of huts and tents on the plain near Alexandria they are 
living in comfort, supported chiefly by the British government, 
while an American Red Cross committee provides special 
diet for the children and the sick. Already this group is 
becoming restive, and has sent word to the Red Cross that 
before long it will wish to have help from America to enable 
it to meet the cost of returning to its own land and to the 
community which a few months ago was barely prevented 
from massacring its entire number. 

It is no wonder that with so many strange and contra- 
dictory elements, the situation is hopelessly perplexing to the 
American people who are trying to help the war sufferers in 
Turkey. To attempt to analyze this situation and to shape 
our policy and conduct in exact accordance with the rights 
and wrongs involved, would result only in inaction and defeat. 
It has, therefore, seemed to those organizations and individuals 
most actively and closely interested that their wisest course of 
action lies in the direction of doing what is possible for the 
relief of the victims, without waiting to ascertain motives, to 
determine where the fault lies, or to fix the logical respon- 
sibility for providing the help required. 



In pursuance of this policy, no opportunity has been omitted 
by American agencies to extend relief to the sufferers in Tur- 
key, although the obstacles have been very great, and at times 
insurmountable. The Turkish government has not permitted 
foreigners to travel in Asia Minor for the investigation of 
conditions or the distribution of relief supplies. Turkish rail- 
ways are few, in poor condition, and their facilities are con- 
stantly overtaxed by the transportation of troops and military 
supplies. The blockade maintained by the Entente Allies has 
prevented the importation of relief supplies. Scarcity of food 
in Turkey, together with the inadequate means of transporta- 
tion, have greatly diminished the value of cash relief sent into 
the country. Money cannot bring succor unless supplies of 
food and clothing are available for purchase. 

Relief work has gone steadily forward, nevertheless, with 
as much efficiency as the conditions have permitted. It is 
estimated that over 150,000 Armenians fled from Turkey into 
northern Persia, and are now living in territory under Russian 
control. It is possible to purchase certain kinds of food sup- 
plies and clothing in Russia and Persia for the help of these 
Armenian refugees, and several hundred thousand dollars 
have been expended for this purpose within the past year. 
The purchase and distribution of relief in this section is in the 
hands of a group of American missionaries and physicians, 
who have been organized into a committee of the American 
Red Cross. Money has been sent to this group chiefly 
through the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian 
Relief, which has concentrated the energies of a wide circle 
of generous people upon the single purpose of providing help 
for Armenians and Syrians. The committee in Persia has 
recently estimated that its work of relief will require approxi- 
mately three hundred thousand dollars during the coming 
winter months. 

Money has also been sent through missionaries and Ameri- 
can diplomatic and consular agents into the interior of Asia 
Minor, and by them has been distributed among the destitute 
civilian population. The total expenditures for relief in Tur- 
key to date have been approximately one and one-half million 
dollars, of which, roughly, three-fourths have been contributed 
through the Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief and 
one-fourth through the American Red Cross. Yet these enor- 
mous expenditures can never meet the need, while hundreds of 
thousands of Armenians are starving or dying from disease 
in the remote desert places to which they have been driven. 

While the people of certain parts of Syria have not been 
subjected to the persecutions from which the Armenians have 
suffered, they are in a condition of starvation, in part because 
of the removal of food supplies from that country by the 
Turkish military authorities, in part because of inability to 
import food supplies, and in part because of a plague of locusts 
which last summer swept the country, destroying every green 
thing within its path. The stories of the clouds of locusts 
which darkened the sky for days at a time, of the great area 
of territory covered, and of the absolute completeness of the 
work of destruction, are reminders of the ancient stories of 
plagues of locusts in the same region, known then, as now, as 
the country of Mt. Lebanon. 

Destitution Among the Turks 

Turkey is an agricultural country ; at least 80 per cent of its 
population cultivates the soil. Constantinople, Smyrna, 
Damascus, Bagdad, Beirut, and Aleppo are the only cities of 
any considerable size in the empire. Of the total population 
of about twenty-eight million, approximately seven million 
are non-Moslems. The business in the cities is largely in the 
hands of Armenians, Greeks, and Jews, while the Turks con- 
stitute most of the agricultural element. 



120 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4 , 1 9 1 6 



As a rule the farms are small, are not efficiently cultivated, 
and produce scarcely more than is necessary to support the 
families which occupy them. The agricultural class lives 
very simply, its diet consisting chiefly of bread, with dried 
vegetables, olives, beans, and rice. The cost of living is low; 
so low, in fact, that it is said that a family of five may be sup- 
ported at an expense of from three to four piasters (twelve to 
sixteen cents) a day. The people have little opportunity to 
accumulate property, and a bad season or any other interrup- 
tion of their usual routine plunges them at once into destitu- 
tion. Taxes exacted from the farmers are extremely high, 
and are said to have a direct relation to the lack of ambition 
on the part of the people to accumulate wealth. The tax- 
gatherer has the reputation of always being on the alert for 
evidences of prosperity. 

The present war has had a serious effect upon the civil 
population in the country. It has been estimated that about 
one million men have been called into military service, these 
being taken chiefly from among the farmers. Furthermore, a 
large number of farm animals has been taken for the army, 
as well as much of the harvests. Because of the narrow mar- 
gin between the normal production of foodstuffs and a con- 
dition of want, the war has made the economic condition of 
great numbers of people precarious. 

Agriculture has this last year been largely carried on by 
old men, women, and children. The continued demands of 
the military forces for both men and supplies press the burden 
ever more heavily upon the common people. Adding to the 
difficulties of the situation is the Allies' blockade, which pre- 
cludes the importation of supplies of food, and by stopping im- 
ports and exports has caused stagnation in business and 
brought about considerable unemployment. Small shop- 
keepers are in distress, as well as the poorer classes in the 
cities. 

In the past, many women in cities and villages have made 
rugs, carpets, lace and embroidery, and a cheap sort of cotton 
cloth. The missionaries have encouraged this work in the 
homes, and have utilized their funds in purchasing looms and 
material, getting the work started, assisting in the sale of 
products, and in other ways putting the industry upon a per- 
manent and self-supporting basis. All of this work has been 
stopped by the war, partly because the women are obliged to 
work in the fields and partly because the blockade again, has 
prevented the export of manufactured goods. 

A New Stage in War Relief 

It will be seen, therefore, that while the suffering is 
greatest on the part of the Armenians, who have been driven 
from their homes and left in remote places without resources 
or opportunity for self-support, and among the Syrians, who 
have suffered from famine brought on by a combination of 
causes, of which the culmination was a plague of locusts, a 
general condition of want exists in all parts of the Turkish 
Empire. The government and certain private philanthropic 
agencies have attempted to make some provision for the fami- 
lies of soldiers, but this work has been confined chiefly to the 
cities, and is, at best, inadequate. 

In the latter part of the summer (1916) President Wilson 
communicated to the Turkish government the desire of the 
American people to be of assistance to the Armenian and 
Syrian populations of Turkey. In reply to this request the 
Turkish government granted the President's request in part, 
agreeing to allow the distribution of relief supplies among the 
starving population of Syria, but did not concede the privi- 
lege of sending relief supplies to the Armenians. It is, in 
fact, a question whether it would have been possible to carry 
relief supplies to the scattered Armenian groups in their dis- 



tant and almost inaccessible locations, even had the govern- 
ment given its consent. 

In yielding to the President's request in so far as Syria is 
concerned, the Turkish government made it a condition that 
the administration of relief should be in charge jointly of 
the American Red Cross and the Turkish Red Crescent. For- 
tunately, the American Red Cross has two active chapters in 
Turkey, one situated at Constantinople, the other at Beirut. 
These chapters, consisting entirely of Americans, will repre- 
sent the Red Cross in the joint arrangement. 

The cross, as an emblem of Christianity, is obnoxious to 
those of the Moslem faith. This fact for many years pre- 
vented the Turkish Empire from becoming an adherent of the 
Treaty of Geneva and establishing a society of the Red Cross. 
When the International Conference of the Red Cross was 
held in London in 1907, a petition was presented from the 
Turkish government requesting that a special concession be 
made to that government which would enable it to substitute 
the emblem of the crescent for that of the cross, while other- 
wise accepting the principles and meeting the requirements 
necessary to compliance with the Treaty of Geneva and the 
establishment of a society of the Red Cross. This petition 
was granted, and the Turkish government thereupon created 
the Red Crescent Society, which, with the exception of its 
name, is identical with the societies of the Red Cross. 

Immediately upon receipt of Turkey's consent for America 
to send relief into Syria, President Wilson proclaimed October 
21 and 22 as Armenian and Syrian days, and called upon the 
people of the United States to take advantage of the oppor- 
tunity now given, to show American sympathy for the 
Armenians and Syrians in a substantial manner. Assurance 
was obtained that the Allies will permit the shipment of 
relief supplies through the blockade, and thus every obstacle in 
the way of the plan was removed. 

The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief 
at once set about arousing interest and creating an organiza- 
tion of national scope for the purpose of taking the largest 
possible advantage of the Armenian and Syrian days. The 
American Red Cross, which will have charge, for America, 
of the distribution of the supplies, also participated actively 
through its two hundred and thirty chapters throughout the 
country, in the collection of the relief fund. 

Because of the extremely heavy charges for ocean transpor- 
tation and the high cost of insurance, it was feared for a time 
that the enterprise would be seriously handicapped by the 
almost prohibitive cost of sending the supplies to their destina- 
tion. This question was taken up with the President and the 
Secretary of the Navy, with the very gratifying result that the 
latter placed at the disposal of the Armenian and Syrian Relief 
Committee and the Red Cross the use of a large part of the 
cargo capacity of a naval collier which is soon to sail for the 
Mediterranean earning a supply of fuel to the battleship 
Des Moines, which is in eastern Mediterranean waters. 

This generous act of cooperation on the part of our gov- 
ernment immediately assured the success of the undertaking. 
It is hoped to send into the harbor at Beirut a cargo of approx- 
imately four thousand tons of flour, rice, sugar, and other 
articles of food, as well as a large quantity of clothing. From 
Beirut as a center, the Red Cross and Red Crescent societies 
will make the distribution according to the greatest needs of 
the people. It is stated in reliable reports that the most wide- 
spread and acute suffering is in the Mt. Lebanon district, 
where three hundred thousand persons or more are reported to 
be suffering actual starvation. Many thousands are said 
already to have died from lack of food. 

Here, it seems, as in the case of Belgium, 1 is to be formed 

1 See A Nation on Strike, by Mr. Bieknell, The Survey for September -. 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



121 



a cooperative triangle, in which enemy countries will step 
aside and open the way through their hostile lines for the pur- 
pose of permitting a neutral nation to perform an important 
work of humanity. 

It remains to describe the situation in still another area, 
historically within the sphere of Turkish dominion. 

Bulgaria, Turkey's Enemy and Ally 
Of all the puzzling twists and turns and involutions of 
Balkan politics, no manifestation within recent historical 
times has been more surprising than the spectacle of Turkey 
and Bulgaria fighting side by side as allies. For four hundred 
years Bulgaria, as a down-trodden and oppressed vassal of 
Turkey, strove for liberty. Repeatedly crushed in her strug- 
gles, her aspirations were never abandoned. In 1878 free- 
dom came as a result of the war between Russia and Turkey, 
in which the Bulgarian army fought with the Russians. Even 
then the Turks did not yield entirely, but retained an 
ostensible suzerainty over the Bulgarians; a weak bond, which 
later was thrown off without serious opposition from Turkey. 

During all the four centuries of subjection the Bulgarians 
looked upon Turkey as their arch-enemy. Their aspirations 
for an expansion of commerce, for education, for just and rea- 
sonable taxation, for political freedom during this period were 
ruthlessly suppressed. After freedom was obtained Bulgaria 
was not satisfied, but sought additional territory, still held by 
Turkey, but largely peopled by a Bulgar population. Finally, 
in 1911, came the Balkan War, in which, by the combination 
of the forces of Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece, the greater part 
of Turkey's remaining dominions in Europe was wrested from 
the Empire and divided among her Balkan enemies. 

Now, within five years of that last great conflict, Bulgaria 
is found fighting sturdily shoulder to shoulder with Turkey 
and providing a broad highway of communication by which 
Turkey may keep in free communication with her Teutonic 
allies. 

It is easy to condemn the Balkan States for their internal 
troubles and their shifting policies. It is common to speak of 
these small countries as moved by sordid ambitions. While 
selfish leaders doubtless have exerted a malign influence in 
many instances, I believe that, on the whole, the Balkan con- 
flicts and realignments have been the result of the aspirations 
of primitive but brave peoples struggling upward toward bet- 
ter things. The machinations and subterranean influences of 
great neighbors, opposed to growing strength and unity in the 
Balkans, have served to obscure and, at times, to divert the 
real purposes and hopes of these small nations. 

An open-minded observer cannot visit Bulgaria, for ex- 
ample, without being favorably impressed by her people and 
her institutions. When Bulgaria obtained her freedom from 
Turkey, less than forty years ago, her people were poor, 
ignorant, and unfamiliar with self-government. Her progress 
since that time has been amazing. She is a true constitutional 
monarchy. All her male inhabitants who have reached the 
age of twenty-one have the right of suffrage, without property, 
educational, or religious limitations. The country is gov- 
erned by an elective Sobranie, or Congress. 

Soon after her acquirement of freedom, Bulgaria established 
a system of peasant-land proprietorship which has given a basic 
equality to the entire population, such as few European nations 
possess. She has few large land-owners, most of her lands 
being divided into small peasant holdings. The government 
has established a Rural Credit Bank, which will lend to a 
peasant, without delay or irksome conditions, as much as one 
thousand dollars, which may be repaid on easy terms extend- 
ing through a long series of years. If the borrower is not 
able to repay his debt to the bank, the government will take 



possession of the land and cultivate it properly until the 
profits from the operation have repaid the debt. The prop- 
erty is then returned to the peasant. The chief requirement 
for the safeguarding of these loans is that the money must be 
used by the borrower for stocking or improving his land. 

Possession of full political rights, the protection afforded 
every citizen by the laws of the country, and the almost uni- 
versal ownership of land, have given the average Bulgarian a 
sense of security and independence which is manifested in a 
spirit of democracy almost, or quite, equal to that observed 
in the United States. 

In Bulgaria I heard numerous anecdotes illustrative of this 
democratic spirit. For example, the story is told that the 
Bulgarian king, Ferdinand, whose tastes are said to be un- 
democratic, was urged by his advisers to cultivate closer and 
less formal relations with his people. As a means of exhibiting 
his sympathy with his subjects, so the story goes, it was sug- 
gested that he visit the great public market in Sofia on the 
day when the place was thronged with people from the coun- 
try. This he consented to do, and at the appointed time ap- 
peared with a small retinue in the market place. Instead of 
standing back respectfully and deferentially, the sturdy 
farmers, in their sheepskin jackets, crowded forward cor- 
dially to shake the King's hand. His Majesty is said to have 
endured this ordeal with the best grace possible, but never to 
have repeated the experiment. Can anyone imagine the com- 
mon people of any other European country participating in 
such a reception to their monarch? 

In a small mountain town near the Serbian border, where 
we were compelled to wait for some time for our train, we 
fell in with a regiment of Bulgarian reservists who had just 
completed their annual encampment of fifteen days and were 
ready to entrain for home. The men were gay and happy, 
and spent their waiting-time in singing and dancing. The 
movements of some of their national dances were of par- 
ticular interest. I specially remember one in which about a 
hundred soldiers participated. They formed a circle, grasped 
hands, and to the time of a song which they roared forth 
with great gusto the circle slowly revolved. The men would 
move several steps to the right and one step back ; several 
steps to the right and one back, and so on. At certain points 
in the dance the circle would break and the line of men, still 
grasping hands, would perform various complex evolutions. 
Other dances were lively and marked by vigorous and varied 
movements and genuflections. It was noticeable that the 
officers participated with the men on terms of equality and 
entire good fellowship. 

Educational Progress in Forty Years 

It is highly noteworthy that no sooner had Bulgaria achieved 
her independence than she turned her attention vigorously 
toward education. The result is seen in the fact that Bul- 
garia has today, as the foundation of her democracy, a free 
public school system and a compulsory education law. In 
1912, her population was four and a half millions. At that 
time the country possessed 5,400 educational establishments, 
including national schools, intermediate schools, high schools 
and private schools. In these schools were 13,500 teachers 
and 520,000 pupils. Of the pupils, over two-fifths were girls, 
a remarkable fact when one considers the usual attitude 
toward the education of women in southeastern Europe. The 
fact is the more astonishing when it is recalled that Bulgaria 
has had less than forty years of freedom, after four hundred 
years of Turkish rule. The schools are supported by the 
government, which in 1911 expended more than five million 
dollars for their maintenance. 

The results of this education policy are shown by the statis- 



122 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



tics relating to the literacy of recruits. Universal compulsory 
military service is required. In 1898, 48.7 per cent, of all 
recruits were illiterate; in 1909, only 20.6 per cent. In 1915, 
when I spent a short time in Bulgaria, I was assured that 
illiteracy had been reduced to less than 10 per cent. 

It was my privilege to be accorded two audiences with 
Queen Eleanore, whose active and sympathetic efforts toward 
improving conditions of life in the kingdom have endeared her 
to the people. Herself a nurse, she participated in the care of 
sick and wounded Russian soldiers in the Manchurian cam- 
paign during the Russian-Japanese War. She feels keenly the 
lack of skilled nurses in Bulgaria. For several years she has 
cherished a project for establishing a training school for nurses 
in Sofia, patterned after similar schools in the United 
States. 

Perhaps three years ago she wrote to the American Red 
Cross of this plan, with the result that an arrangement was 
made by which the Red Cross agreed to send two American 
nurses to Sofia to take charge of a training school which the 
Queen proposed to establish in the great Alexandria Hospital 
in Sofia. At the same time it was arranged that the Queen 
should send a number of young Bulgarian women to the 
United States to take a course in nursing in one of the great 
schools of this country. Unfortunately, the outbreak of the 
war prevented the execution of this project. Helen Scott 
Hay, a well-known American nurse, who had been selected 
to go to Bulgaria to take charge of the Queen's school, was 
sent instead by the Red Cross to Russia, where she took 
charge of the nurses in the American Red Cross hospital at 
Kiev. 

In my interviews, the Queen spoke of her great disappoint- 
ment at the temporary failure of her plan, but expressed the 
hope that it might be successfully revived at the close of the 
war. I suggested that if Miss Hay were on the ground she 



might be of material help in hastening the opening of the 
school. The upshot was that Miss Hay was released by the 
Red Cross from her hospital work in Russia, and proceeded to 
Sofia, where she still remains. However, since Bulgaria, which 
had not entered the war at the time of my visit, came in a few 
months afterward, this compelled a still further postponement 
of the establishment of the school. 

Why Bulgarians Admire America 

With great enthusiasm the Queen spoke of the admira- 
tion everywhere felt in Bulgaria for America and our Amer- 
ican institutions. She assured me that in the development of 
the Bulgarian political and educational systems the effort had 
been always to follow as closely as possible the American 
model. Explaining this universal feeling toward the United 
States, the Queen said that it grew chiefly out of the fact 
that a great many young Bulgarian men and women had 
attended the American schools in Turkey and Bulgaria. The 
chief credit, she gave to the influence of Robert College in 
Constantinople. She made the astonishing statement that 
there are today in Bulgaria no fewer than one thousand grad- 
uates and former students of these great American schools. 
All the students learn the English language and study Amer- 
ican history and American institutions in American text- 
books. On returning to Bulgaria they have become leaders 
in the professions and in business, many of them attaining 
high places in the government service. 

So it is that the war has come to choke and stamp down 
the slow processes of self-realization which were making head- 
way among the peoples of the Near East. But beneath the 
travail and misery, we get glimpses in our work of relief in 
Serbia and Bulgaria, in Armenia and Syria and Turkey of 
reserves of strength and purpose which will count in the 
period of reconstruction. 



The Mind of a Boy 

The Future of Experimental Psychology in Vocational Guidance 

By Helen Thompson JVoolley 



EXPERIMENTAL psychology, if you believe its 
critics, pretends to be able by means of laboratory 
tests alone to decide minutely just what occupation 
each child should follow — to select with a high de- 
gree of infallibility "the butcher, the baker and the candlestick 
maker." 

It is no great tax on the intellectual powers to demolish 
this "man of straw" set up by the critics. But meanwhile 
the process of presenting him to the public and destroying 
him for its delectation throws a stumbling-block in the way 
of psychologists who are performing a much more modest and 
plodding, but very real, service to society. 

Since the Psychological Laboratory of the Vocational Bu- 
reau in Cincinnati is the only one at present which is an 
integral part of a vocation bureau in a public-school system, 
the task of justifying the existence of such an institution seems 
to fall very heavily upon it. Even here, however, it is dis- 
tinctly recognized that the application of experimental psy- 
chology to vocational guidance is in a research phase. 

When the Cincinnati bureau was organized, over five years 
ago, the problem uppermost in planning the work was that 
of child labor, rather than that of vocational guidance, but 



it soon became evident that the two were in many phases one. 

The humanitarian wishes to know what scientific proof can 
be brought forward to show that child labor is injurious, 
mentally or physically. The educator is interested to know 
in scientific terms just how the children who drop out of 
school as early as they are allowed differ from those who 
remain in school. Some of the most radical critics of modern 
public-school education are inclined to believe that many of 
those who drop out early are superior children who are intel- 
ligent enough to be thoroughly dissatisfied with the sort of 
education the school offers, and independent enough to refuse 
to submit to it. Others of the school men believe that those 
who leave early are almost exclusively the inferior children, 
while many think that elimination is based not on ability, 
but on the economic status of the family. Business men, 
particularly the self-made ones, are inclined to think that boys 
who leave early are just as able as those who remain in 
school, and that experience at work has as much educational 
value of a vital kind as experience in school — a point of view 
which may be merely a generalization of their own very 
exceptional careers. 

During the last few years careful statistics of the school 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



123 



grade of children who drop out early have been kept in many 
cities. They all demonstrate that the children who leave as 
soon as they are allowed constitute a very retarded group. 
In Cincinnati, when the age for leaving school was fourteen 
years, only from 15 to 22 per cent of those who left school 
under sixteen years during the years 1910-1913 had com- 
pleted the eighth grade. The percentage of retardation was 
66 among those who left school under sixteen years, but only 
30 per cent for those who remained in school. Under the law 
of 1913, whereby boys are required to be fifteen years and 
girls sixteen before they leave school, the proportion of those 
who have completed the eighth grade is still only 40 per cent, 
and the percentage of retardation has risen to over 80 per 
cent. However, not everyone is ready to accept the evidence 
of retardation in school as a proof of inferior mental ability. 
Retardation in school, it is argued, may be due to poor health, 
to bad home conditions, or to a kind of teaching which is 
not suited to certain types of mind. Those who drop out 
early may be not the inferior ones, but the unfortunates, or 
the misfits. 

Laboratory tests, everyone agrees, measure native ability to 
a greater extent than they do school training. The specific 
problem before the Cincinnati bureau was to determine 
whether the difference in mental calibre between children who 
left school and those who remained persisted year after year. 
Accordingly, two groups of about 800 children each were 
tested in the psychological laboratory in the years 1911-1912. 
Both groups were native-born white children fourteen years of 
age. One was composed of children who were just taking 
out employment certificates, and the other of children who 
were intending to remain in school. To make the two groups 
as comparable as possible, the school children were taken from 
the schools in industrial districts which were furnishing the 
greatest number of working children. Each of these groups is 
being retested from year to year up to nineteen years of age. 

Although the laboratory is now finishing the fifth annual 
test of the working group and the third and fourth of the 
school group, only the tests for the first two years (at four- 
teen and at fifteen years) are all evaluated and summed up 
so that a comparison of the groups can be made. The differ- 
ences are very striking, and very uniform. The school group 
is superior to the working group in every mental and physical 
capacity measured. This is true at fourteen years, when both 
groups are really school children. The difference holds for 
both sexes, though it is more striking for the boys than for the 
girls. The superiority of the school group is greater at fifteen 
years than it was at fourteen. 

In addition to the marked differences in grade of mental 
ability between working children and school children, we are 
demonstrating that there are measurable differences within the 
group of working children between those entering different 
types of occupations. Between department-store workers and 
factory workers, for example, there is a measurable difference 
in mental ability even among these beginners, and under the 
present haphazard methods of choosing employment. The 
former group is superior, and the difference becomes more 
marked with the successive years out of school. 

We have used one other method of measuring the intelli- 
gence of our working children — the form of the Binet test 
known as the Yerkes-Bridges point scale. When our own 
series of tests was begun, we thought there would be no point 
in giving Binet tests, since they were supposed to be useful 
above the age of twelve years only in measuring degrees of 
mental deficiency. Since our fourteen-year-old children had 
completed at least the fifth grade in school, it seemed safe to 
assume that they were not feebleminded. However, in con- 



tinuing the tests, we became convinced that some, at least, of 
the children with whom we were dealing were limited enough 
in intelligence to rank as feebleminded on the Binet system. 
We collected, therefore, 237 records of our group of eighteen- 
year-old industrial workers who had left school at fourteen 
years, distributed in such a way as to be representative of the 
original group of 800 working children. 

We adopted the Yerkes-Bridges point scale because it is 
so much better standardized than any of the previous forms 
of the Binet test. The point scale record is stated first in 
terms of the number of points of credit received out of a 
possible 100. The score can then be interpreted in terms of 
years by reference to a table of the average scores made by 
children of each age. One who ranks twelve years in the 
older form of Binet scale ranks about thirteen and one-half 
on the point scale. Accordingly, to find the percentage of 
our series who would rank as feebleminded in the older 
standard, the one which is still most widely used, one must 
find how many of our group fell below thirteen and one-half 
years (or 80 points) on the Yerkes-Bridges point scale. That 
percentage is 40.5 for boys and 42.5 per cent for girls. None 
of these cases rank as imbeciles (below eight years), but about 
10 per cent are low-grade morons (eight to ten years Binet) 
and the remaining 30 per cent high-grade morons. 

If one adopts the tentative limit for feeblemindedness 
among adults suggested by Professor Yerkes (those who fall 
below 75 points, which is about twelve years in the Yerkes- 
Bridges point scale), the percentage of the feebleminded in 
our group is more conservative, but still startlingly high. It is 
25.5 per cent. 

This body of facts which has cost so much labor has a 
decided bearing from the educational standpoint, from the 
vocational standpoint, and from the point of view of legal 
procedure and legislation. 

Types of Ability 

We doubtless all agree that if a child is to be helped to 
make the most of himself, he should be helped to discover 
for what type of occupation he ought to prepare himself while 
there is yet time to prepare. Since so large a proportion of 
children leave school as early as they are allowed, fourteen 
to sixteen years in various states, such advice should be given 
not later than twelve years and, whenever it proves possible, 
earlier. The facts which we have presented show that in- 
ferior mental ability is one cause, and probably the most im- 
portant cause, for early elimination from school. A difference 
so marked at fourteen years could certainly be demonstrated 
earlier. The experimental method promises to furnish us 
with a more accurate and a more objective method than we 
have ever had before for selecting two or more years ahead of 
time the children who are quite certain to drop out of school 
early because of inferior mental ability. 

It is evident that these children who lack the ability for 
the very skilled trades, for office work, or for salesmanship 
are destined to perform some sort of simple, mechanical work. 
For them the school could certainly do something better than 
to let them struggle unsuccessfully year after year with aca- 
demic subjects beyond their capacity. Their presence in the 
same classes with children who are bright tends to lower the 
standards and lessen the amount of training that brilliant 
children receive. Some school systems in despair have made 
a rule that a child who has failed twice in a grade shall be 
promoted to the next one. The result is the presence in the 
fifth to the seventh grades of well-behaved and docile feeble- 
minded or backward individuals who tend to vitiate the teach- 
er's judgment as to what can fairly be required of the children 



124 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1 9 1 6 



in the grade. The procedure is no more fair to the deficient 
child than it is to the brilliant one. 

While the tests at present are better able to select those of 
inferior ability than those of exceptionally good ability, we 
are rapidly developing a technique for the latter purpose also. 
Indeed, Professor Whipple, of the University of Illinois, has 
for the coming year a special grant for developing tests for 
very superior children. It is even more important for society 
to educate the promising children to the limit of their capacity 
than it is to keep from wasting time in making the deficients 
still more worthless. When it can be demonstrated that we 
have an objective means of selecting early those individuals 
who have a good chance of success in the higher professions 
and business careers, then it will be possible to secure the 
necessary funds for providing scholarships for brilliant chil- 
dren who would otherwise be forced to leave school early. 

The task of sorting children into large groups with refer- 
ence to general ability, finding out approximately what degrees 
of ability are required for success in various grades of occu- 
pation — unskilled labor, skilled labor, salesmanship, office 
work, business management, and the various professions — and 
basing advice upon such findings, may seem a very modest one. 
It certainly falls far short of the requirement that vocational 
advice shall state just what phase of any occupation a given 
individual shall enter. 

The psychologist is as ready as the proverbial man of 
common sense to admit that mental ability is only one element 
to be considered in giving vocational advice, but he insists that 
it is a very important one; that within certain limits it is 
decisive, and that it is the only one at present open to scien- 
tific measurement. There is no use in advising a child of 
inferior mental ability to take the academic training leading 
to one of the higher professions. He will not be able to 
succeed, no matter how good his disposition, how great his 
ambition, nor how much money and influence his father may 
possess. 

It may seem that sorting children with regard to general 
levels of ability is a task for which the school is already 
equipped, and in a general way it is. But it is not so well 
equipped that it needs no assistance. Oftentimes failure due 
to lack of ability is confused with failure due to physical, 
social and economic factors. 

Among a group of failures in first-year high school we 
found by laboratory examination variations in mental ability 
from the upper to the lower end of the scale. At the upper 
end was a brilliant boy whose family atmosphere and influence 
was all opposed to high school. His family actively contrib- 
uted to his failure in school as much as possible, in order to 
persuade him to leave and go to work. At the lower end 
was a girl not far above the border-line of feeblemindedness, 
whose family were determined to keep her in school and were 
spending hours every day helping her with her lessons. 

By the school these children were all grouped together as 
failures, but the correct diagnosis of the cause of failure would 
evidently be a decisive factor in the vocational advice offered 
by the school. Such advice would help to avoid many of the 
misfits in business and industry. Cases like the following, 
for instance, could be duplicated in many an establishment. 
An unusually intelligent and kindly employer sent us a boy 
of eighteen who had been for two years a regular apprentice 
in a high-grade machine-shop. The boy was good-natured 
and willing. He had been tried in every department of the 
shop, and had succeeded in none, though the foremen all liked 
him and had done their best to help him. He had spoiled 
several hundred dollars' worth of material in the course of 
his various failures. The boy proved to be very close to the 



border-line of feeblemindedness. He could never have made 
a skilled mechanic if he had been trained for the rest of his 
days, and the employer might just as well have known it 
several years earlier. When his apprenticeship was prema- 
turely ended and he was given employment as a day laborer in 
the same establishment, he gave good satisfaction and seemed 
much happier. 

Levels of Ability 

The applications of experimental psychology thus far dis- 
cussed all have reference to the problems of childhood and 
early adolescence. How useful the method will be when 
applied to older individuals, who have already gone through 
the sifting process of school and society up to the age of 
seventeen or more, remains to be seen. Dean Schneider [see 
the Survey for June 24] has decided that experimental psy- 
chology can be of no assistance to vocational guidance because 
our present supply of tests, when applied to students in engi- 
neering in the university, prove to be of little or no help in 
deciding just what kind of an engineer each student should 
become and which of the group will be the most successful 
engineers. 

The conclusion is scarcely justified. Students in engineer- 
ing are already a highly selected class in the community. They 
have been selected first by the elementary school as capable of 
finishing the eighth grade ; second, by the high school as capa- 
ble of finishing the high school. This process locates them 
roughly as belonging to the best 5 to 10 per cent of the popu- 
lation. In the third place the class in question has been 
selected by Dean Schneider himself from a far larger number 
of applicants. If Dean Schneider were displaying his cus- 
tomary scientific caution in drawing conclusions his verdict 
would read not that experimental psychology can make no 
contribution to vocational guidance, but that the present 
technique of experimental psychology can be of little or no 
assistance in sorting into finer subdivisions a group of students 
already carefully selected for engineering. 

That even our present technique might have been of a little 
assistance, however, in selecting the original group of engi- 
neers, we have some proof. One of the staff of the laboratory 
of the Vocation Bureau happened to be acquainted with a 
number of the students of engineering. He told me of one 
of them who was, he felt sure, failing, and said he thought it 
very probable that our series of tests for adolescents would 
show him to be a person of inferior ability, even as compared 
with boys who usually leave school early to go to work. He 
succeeded in persuading the student to come to the laboratory 
to be tested, and found his suspicion correct. The laboratory 
could have prophesied with a high degree of certainty before 
he entered the College of Engineering that he would not suc- 
ceed. The boy was dropped at the end of the first semester. 
Doubtless the case is exceptional, but experimental psychology 
could have demonstrated in less than five hours what it took 
the faculty of the College of Engineering four months to 
decide. 

Experimental psychology has as yet been of much less serv- 
ice in distinguishing types of ability than it has in distin- 
guishing levels of ability. In fact, it is still an open question 
to what extent ability is general and to what extent it is 
specific. 

What experimental evidence there is at present tends 
to show that it is general rather than specific. 1 One of the 
supposed differences in types of mind which has recently been 
much emphasized is that between the so-called mental and 



] Sec Webb — Character and Intelligence, Rritish Journal of Psychology, 
Monograph Supplement, Vol. I. No. . ; . 1915. 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4 , 1 9 1 6 



125 



manual types, between the type of mind whose thinking is 
carried out chiefly in terms of abstract symbols and the kind 
whose thinking is carried out in terms of manipulations. 

The present investigation of the psychological laboratory 
throws some light on this distinction. The tests of manual 
ability and the tests of mental ability have been estimated 
separately and the relations between the two worked out. 
There is a small positive correlation. That is to say, as a 
class those who stand high in the mental tests are also those 
who stand high in the manual tests, but there are many 
exceptions— individuals who rank high in mental tests and 
low in manual tests, and vice versa. It seems probable, 
therefore, that experimental psychology can furnish a method 
of picking out those individuals who have a decided bent in 
one or the other of these directions, and also those who fail 
or excel in both of them. In studying the extreme cases of 
one series, highest and lowest, we find a number of individuals 
who excel in both manual and mental tests, and a number 
who fail in both. We find a few who rank very low men- 
tally, but excel in manual tests, but none who rank very high 
mentally but are among the worst failures manually. Appar- 
ently the possession of exceptionally good mental ability im- 
plies a manual ability which is at least not of the poorest 
grade. 

Evidently these distinctions are of importance in vocational 
guidance. There are certain professions, such as the very 
skilled trades, engineering, and medicine, which demand a 
high degree of manual ability as well as a given level of 
mental ability while others, such as salesmanship, the purely 
academic subjects, and many branches of business and finance, 
make almost no demand upon manual ability, but require 
given levels of mental ability. 

As an illustration of the use of this distinction, let me cite 
the case of a high-school boy who came to the laboratory to 
be tested last year. He ranked exceptionally high in the 
mental tests, but rather poorly in the manual tests. He was 
particularly defective in the steadiness of his hand. The boy 
was taking the cooperative course in machine-shop work. 
When questioned about it, he said that he did not like the 
work and had no intention whatever of becoming a skilled 
mechanic, though he was keeping up with his classes. Liter- 
ary and academic subjects appealed to him far more. A note 
to the high school procured a change of course for the boy. 

In addition to these contributions, experimental psychology 
can furnish special sets of tests for types of artistic ability, 
such as singing, painting or modeling. Professor Seashore, 
of the University of Iowa, has already developed a set of tests 
for musical ability which are of great service in deciding the 
degree of talent a child possesses. 

The Limits of Feeblemindedness 

Let me turn now to the question of the limits of feeble- 
mindedness and its bearing on court procedure and legislation. 
I have stated that the application of the Yerkes-Bridges point 
scale to an unselected group of native-born industrial workers, 
eighteen years of age, shows that by the most widely used 
standard 40 per cent of them rank as feebleminded, and by 
a newer and more conservative standard, 25 per cent. These 
results are not alone in showing that the standards now in 
use to detect feeblemindedness among delinquents would 
gather in a large number of supposedly normal individuals if 
generally applied. 2 

It may be argued from one point of view that it is imma- 
terial just what percentage of the most poorly endowed mem- 

2 See Rudolf Pintner and Donald G. Paterson— Journal of Criminal Law 
and Criminology, May, 1916. 



bers of the community shall be included under the term 
"feebleminded." There are all gradations, from the wise 
man to the fool. But when one considers that the usual 
connotation of the term "feeble-minded" is a person who is 
of so low a grade mentally that he is a menace to society and 
needs institutional care, and that the term is often made the 
basis of legal decisions, the fixing of the percentage of the 
population to be included under it ceases to be a mere matter 
of convention. 

The average judge does not know enough psychology to 
interpret findings stated merely in terms of psychological tests. 
A very public-spirited and conscientious judge of a juvenile 
court once showed me a report of a psychological examination 
which read as follows: "Age 16 years, Binet age 10 years, 
diagnosis, low-grade imbecile." When I told him that no 
psychologist would regard the final diagnosis of low-grade 
imbecile as possible in the case of an individual who could 
pass a ten-year Binet test, he said that was a fine point for 
the psychologists to decide. Meanwhile his procedure was 
being determined by the idea that he was dealing with a low- 
grade imbecile. A diagnosis of "feebleminded" in the case 
of an adult who had passed a twelve-year Binet test was 
also allowed to pass unchallenged. If the judge could be told 
not that a person is feebleminded or not feebleminded, but 
that he is as low-grade mentally as the poorest 3 or 5 or 25 
per cent of persons of his age in the community, he would 
have a safer though less dramatic basis of action. 

The extent to which legal procedure should be modified 
according to the mental status of the criminal is by no means 
a simple question. Suppose, for instance, a youth of eighteen, 
whose Binet age is eleven, commits a murder. On the ground 
that he is "feebleminded" the judge might decide that he 
should not pay the usual penalty for his crime. But if the 
judge knew that a large percentage of the rank and file of 
the laboring population showed the same degree of feeble- 
mindedness, he might feel far less certain that the case 
should receive treatment different from that given to other 
criminals. 

Perhaps what most needs to be modified is not so much the 
disposition of a limited number of criminals who are feeble- 
minded as the whole theory and method of dealing with 
criminals. When we know more accurately the proportion 
of criminals who are as low grade mentally as the poorest 3, 
5, 10 and 25 per cents of the population at large, we shall 
have a far more rational basis for readjusting legal procedure 
with reference to mental status than we now have. The 
laboratory of the Vocation Bureau is making a very real and 
definite contribution toward a percentile scale of experimental 
results which will make such a formulation possible. 

There is one other point of view from which it becomes 
important to fix more closely and accurately the limits of the 
term "feebleminded." That is with reference to securing 
legislation. There is no question but that one of the most 
urgently needed reforms in social legislation is provision for 
the permanent and compulsory segregation of all the feeble- 
minded who are either dependent or delinquent. It has been 
abundantly demonstrated both that the percentage of feeble- 
mindedness is higher among criminals than among the popu- 
lation at large, and that feeblemindedness is a very serious 
menace from the point of view of heredity. But if we go 
before a legislature to secure such laws with a definition of 
feeblemindedness which would, if generally applied, include 
25 or even 10 per cent of our industrial population, there 
would be slight hope of success. We must begin with a per- 
centage low enough so that the individuals so selected might 
conceivably be provided for in institutions. 



The Face of the Nation 

By Edward A. Steiner 

AUTHOR OF "ON THE TRAIL OF THE IMMIGRANT," "NATIONALIZING AMERICA," ETC. 



MANY of us who have looked into the face of Amer- 
ica are wondering how the future will shape it. 
We are listening to the confusing sounds that 
strike our ears, anxious as to which shall pre- 
dominate. Still more are we perplexed when we look be- 
neath the surface, and see and hear that which escapes the 
superficial observer. Then we are anxious because those 
who come to us bring not only racial inheritance and the 
language their mothers taught them, but tradition-laden 
memories, standards of living and conduct, hopes and ideals. 
Upon our ability to blend their historic inheritance with 
ours depends our success or failure in the task of unifying, 
solidifying and enriching our national life. 

American history is, after all, a chapter in the history of 
the whole human race and you can not dig into America's 
immediate past without striking roots branching in all direc- 
tions. Neither can you think of her future, without finding 
her profoundly affecting the people of the world. 

We are sovereign over this land of ours, we are being 
moulded into something which will have physical kinship or 
likeness; but have we a common history, that powerful ele- 
ment in the welding of a nation, and indispensable to it? Our 
splendid isolation, which, in the past, has done so much to 
keep us from entangling alliances and has kept us from becom- 
ing the inheritor of Europe's political ills, has also made it 
possible for us to develop our own history and to teach it as 
if it were another Genesis. 

Of our British past we are now being reminded more and 
more emphatically: what we owe to Spain, France, Holland 
and Sweden we are beginning to learn ; the contribution of 
the German people we shall not be permitted to forget, and 
what the latter day immigrant has thus far given and what 
he may give must, of course, be appraised in the future. 

It was, after all, a good thing that American history so soon 
became the history of one people, that the colonies so quickly 
forgot their historic background, and that the states, carved 
out of these vast territories, came in one by one, or two by two, 
as the animals went into the ark. The historic deluge fol- 
lowed, all but blotting out the past On the extreme edges of 
what was once the domain of France the French speech still 
lingers; of Spain and Spanish, less is left. From ocean to 
ocean and from the lakes to the gulf it is all America, with its 
history written upon a new page. 

It is really not difficult for the immigrant to accept this 
new history as his own ; it is easy because it is so new, and be- 
cause its beginning is marked by a great discovery rather than 
by a great conquest. The story of the discovery of America 
is known to every European child who goes to school. It 
belongs to its earliest impressions and frequently antedates the 
fairy tale. 

The winning of the land from the British and the estab- 
lishment of a republic were events which made their impres- 
sion everywhere and found an echo in the hearts of all those 
who, feeling themselves oppressed, yearned for freedom. 
While we may say that freedom was established here as a 
political principle, it is an idle conceit in which we indulge 
ourselves if we believe that there was no striving for it and 
no understanding of it elsewhere. 

German, French and Polish generals played not an incon- 

126 



siderable part in the Revolutionary War, whereas common sol- 
diers who were not of native or of English blood were so nu- 
merous as to make it impossible to maintain the idea that none 
but Anglo-Saxons can love freedom. That passion is, after all, 
a very common, human quality among people everywhere, and 
there is a response to those who struggle for it which is 
limited only by the endeavor of rulers to suppress it. 

We are fortunate in having written upon that first page 
of our history the name of George Washington, who is no 
stranger to freedom-loving people anywhere. His monu- 
ment is found in many foreign capitals, and he may be, so 
far as I know, the only foreign ruler thus honored. The Hun- 
garian child before it is old enough to have read the historic 
page has seen his monument in Budapest, close to those of 
Kossuth, of Deak and Petoefy, his own national heroes. Even 
if he comes into the consciousness of the immigrant long after 
he has left the school of his native country, or even if he has 
never gone to school, the character of Washington makes its 
immediate appeal unlike any whom he knows. Of royal 
nature, though not of royal blood, this hero accepted no 
recompense for serving his country, making service itself 
the only reward he asked, so that republican principles might 
be firmly established in this land. 

THE period between the War of the Revolution and the 
Civil War is the history of the migration of a people ; it 
marks the winning of the West and the making of great com- 
monwealths upon those far-stretching prairies, a task, too, in 
which the immigrant had an honorable part. The border 
struggle was never under the leadership of one man or one 
people, and while the Scotch-Irish predominated, the Ger- 
mans, Scandinavians, Poles and Bohemians made up a fair 
share of that ever-moving frontier line. 

The racial strains which went into the making of the 
frontiersman are hard to trace, for it is an elemental person- 
ality which emerged out of that early melting pot — coarse, 
but strong, keen and inquisitive, powerful and materialistic, 
restless and individualistic, buoyant and exuberant, shrewd as 
Jacob and hardy as Esau. 

The immigrant readily enters into the highly accentuated 
record of conflict with the Indians, even though his particular 
race had no share in the winning of the West. Long before 
I read Cooper's Indian tales I played Indian in a village 
among the Carpathians and scalped the luckless palefaces 
whom I had captured. The names of Sitting Bull and Buffalo 
Bill have been carried through the capitals of Europe, and 
from towns and villages many a lad's eyes were turned west- 
ward, yearning to have a share in fighting the Indians. 

The year 1848 marks an epoch in the history of the Euro- 
pean peoples, and the immigrants who at that time came to 
the United States, driven by their despots, repaid this country 
richly for the asylum they found. They made valuable con- 
tributions to our culture and our politics, refining our social 
life and purifying our ideals of liberty and democracy. 
Eighteen hundred and forty-eight is a date which serves to 
accentuate the common passion for liberty and the common 
traits which mark all noble men, of whatever race they be. 

The Civil War, in spite of the fact that it was an inter- 
necine conflict, found a universal echo. It seemed of little 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



127 



concern to the people of Europe whether the Union was pre- 
served or not, and England's commercial policy dictated her 
sympathy with the South ; but upon the question of slavery 
there was no division. 

Just as the escape of the children of Israel out of Egypt 
has become sacred history, the story of the black man's gain 
of freedom has entered the universal consciousness. It marks 
the death of slavery, and in that, all human beings have cause 
to rejoice. It is not difficult to arouse enthusiasm for the sol- 
dier heroes who died in that conflict. Many were men of all 
the racial strains which had drifted into the United States. 
The outstanding figures of U. S. Grant, of Sherman and 
Sheridan make their heart-stirring and picturesque appeal, 
while Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee are gradually 
becoming sympathetic figures to all American people, native 
and foreign born. 

There is, however, no person in American history, if in any 
history, who like Abraham Lincoln instantly captures the 
imagination of every normal human being. 

I doubt that the saints and martyrs upon the church's 
calendar or many sacred names in Holy Writ are so vitally 
compelling as the name of this man, born in a log cabin, 
reared amidst poverty and ignorance, who made his way from 
the backwoods to the White House and into the immortality 
of history. 

The sadly solemn face portrayed upon our commonest coin, 
the penny, received its smile from the skilled fingers of an 
immigrant sculptor, who modeled it "so that he may smile 
upon every immigrant's child, his first welcome." That was 
the stroke of a genius who understood Lincoln and knew the 
common people's appreciation of the great martyr President. 
I wish there might be erected in every industrial center a 
statue of Abraham Lincoln for masters and men to see and 
reverence, thus being reminded of their duty toward each 
other and toward their common country. What a people we 
could become if the immortal words he spoke were graven 
upon the pedestal of such a statue, to greet our eyes and chal- 
lenge our conduct daily: "With malice toward none, with 
charity toward all." 

THE history of the United States since the war has not yet 
been written, for it is the story of an epoch just closing. 
It marks the sudden leaping of a people into wealth, if not into 
power, the fabulous growth of cities, the end of the pioneer 
stage, the beginning of an industrial period, and the pressure 
of social and economic problems toward their solution. 

At least twenty million people have come full grown into 
our national life from the steerage, the womb out of which 
so many of us were born into this new world. Most of us 
came to build and not to destroy; we came as helpers and 
not as exploiters; we brought virtues and vices, much good 
and ill, not because we belonged to this or the other national 
or racial group, but because we were human. It is as easy 
to prove that our coming meant the ill of the nation as that 
it meant its well-being. To make full appraisal it is much too 
early; it is a task which must be left to our children's children, 
who will be as far removed from today's scant sympathies 
as from its overwhelming prejudices. 

The great war has swung us into the current of world 
events, and it ought to bring us a larger vision of the forces 
and processes which shape the destinies of nations and their 
peoples. But as yet we are thinking hysterically rather than 
historically. The indications are that we may not learn any- 
thing, nor yet unlearn, of which we have perchance the 
greater need. Thus far we have become narrower rather 
than broader, for the feeling toward our alien population is 



growing daily less generous and our treatment of it less wise. 

Nor am I sure in what wisdom consists, the situation is so 
complex. For we are the Balkans, with its national, religious 
and racial contentions; we are Russia, with its Polish and 
Finnish problem ; we are Austria and Hungary, with their 
linguistic and dynastic difficulties; we are Africa and Asia; 
we are Jew and Gentile; we are Protestant and Greek and 
Roman Catholic — we are everything out of which to shape 
the one thing, the one nation, the one people. 

Yet I am sure that we cannot teach these strangers the 
history of their adopted country unless we teach them that 
our history is theirs as well; that, on the other hand, their 
traditions are ours, at least so far as they touch humanity 
generally and convey to all men the blessings which come 
from the struggle against oppression and superstition. It is 
in their inherited national prejudices, in their racial hates, in 
their tribal quarrels that we wish to have no share, except as 
we want to help them forget the old-world hates in the new 
world's love. 

None of us who have caught a vision of what America may 
mean to the world wish to perpetuate here any one phase of 
Europe's civilization or any one national ideal. 

Although our institutions are rooted in English history, 
though we speak England's language and share her rich heri- 
tage of spiritual and cultural wealth, we do not desire to be 
again a part of England or nourish here her ideals of an 
aristocratic society. 

In spite of the fact that for nearly three hundred years a 
large part of our population has been German and that our 
richest cultural values have come from Germany, in spite of 
her marvelous resources in science, commerce and government, 
we do not care to become German, and I am sure that Amer- 
icans of German blood or birth would be the first to repudiate 
it, should Germany's civilization threaten to fasten itself 
upon us. 

We do not wish to be Russian, in spite of certain values 
inherent in the Slavic character, nor do we desire to be French. 

We do crave to be an American people, to cultivate here 
an American civilization, and if we are true to the manifold 
genius of our varied peoples we may develop here a civiliza- 
tion richer and freer than any one of these, because it will 
be based upon all of them, truly international. 

HISTORIANS tell us that the history of the United 
States illumines and illustrates the historic processes of 
all ages and all peoples. To this they add the disconcerting 
prophecy that we are drifting toward the common goal of 
destruction, and that our doleful future can be readily fore- 
told. We have had our hopeful morning, our swift and bril- 
liant noon, and now the dark and gruesome end threatens us. 

I will not believe this till I must. 

I will not, dare not, lose the hope that we can make this 
country to endure firmly, to weather the storm, or at least 
put off the senility of old age to the last inevitable moment. 

When, however, the end comes, as perchance it must, I 
pray that we may project our hopes and ideals upon the last 
page of our history, so that it may read thus: 

"This was a state, the first to grow by the conquest of na- 
ture and not of nations. Here was developed a commerce 
based upon service and not upon selfishness, a religion cen- 
tering in humanity and not in a church. 

"Here was maintained sovereignty without a sovereign and 
here the people of all nations grew into one nation, held to- 
gether by mutual regard, not by the force of law. Here the 
state was not maintained by battleships and armaments, but 
by the justice, confidence and loyalty of its people." 



C092020 




THE MONTH 

NEXT Tuesday, being the famous 
Tuesday following the first 
Monday in November, will be 
widely marked by the legal "X," which 
is the outward and visible sign of hav- 
ing made a citizen's choice. But in few 
states will the voter get off so easily 
as to mark only one ballot. In nearly 
all he will be faced with the demand for 
"yes" or "no" on a number of consti- 
tutional amendments, many of them of 
prime social significance. 

In Massachusetts, New Hampshire 
and New York he must decide whether 
or not the fundamental law itself shall 
be overhauled through proposals for con- 
stitutional conventions. In South Da- 
kota and West Virginia he will have 
the opportunity of giving votes to 
women. This is in striking contrast to 
a district in Washington, where Anna 
Louise Strong, secretary of the Seattle 
Central Council of Social Agencies and 
known in the East through her work 
for the federal Children's Bureau and 
in child-welfare exhibits, is running for 
the legislature. A contrast, also, to Den- 
ver, where Judge Ben B. Lindsey is ap- 
pealing to the women voters to re-elect 
him judge of the Juvenile Court. This 
is Judge Lindsey 's twelfth campaign in 
sixteen years, due to conflicting judicial 
decisions as to whether his is a state, 
county or city office. Some years he has 
run both spring and fall. 

By all odds the greatest number of 
measures have to do with one form or 
another of prohibition. The liquor ques- 
tion is never settled. Defeat of a pro- 
hibition measure is sure to be followed 
by its resubmission ; and enactment, par- 
ticularly in a state possessed of the initia- 
tive, sprouts a hardy perennial of pro- 
posed repeal. 

There are six states in which the pro- 
hibition issue has been raised this fall by 
the dry forces. One of these, Idaho, is 
already dry by statute and the present 
vote is on the question of putting pro- 
hibition into the state constitution. The 
five states which are now wet and in 
which prohibition is an issue are Cali- 

128 



fornia, Montana, South Dakota, Ne- 
braska and Michigan. 

In California the voters are facing 
two prohibitory propositions, one for the 
closing of saloons and prohibiting the 
sale of liquor in clubs, cafes and restau- 
rants to take effect in 1918; the other 
prohibiting, also, the manufacture of al- 
coholic liquors. The latter would go 
into effect in 1920, giving time for the 
grape-growing interests of the state to 
adjust themselves to a change. The 
friends of the latter measure hold that 
the fears of the grape-growers — a large 
class in California — are unfounded, as 
it is in table grapes and raisins, rather 
than in wine grapes, that the state's 
profits lie. The other amendment, the 
chief effect of which would be to close 
the saloons, is said to have a much wider 
following than the more drastic measure. 

Montana is voting on a referendum 
which, if adopted, is to become effective 
December 31, 1918. South Dakota, 
which has 400 dry towns to 92 wet 
ones, is voting on statewide prohibition. 

Donahey in Cleveland Plain Dealer 




And Nebraska, also under local option, 
is voting on a statewide measure. 

Michigan, which is being watched 
with much interest because of its auto- 
mobile and other large manufacturing 
interests, is facing two constitutional 
amendments. One, designed to prohibit 
the manufacture and sale of liquor, 
makes no reference to importations from 
other states and is being attacked by the 
wets as a measure not intended to pre- 
vent the well-to-do from importing 
liquor, while it would deprive the poor 
man of his glass of beer. The second, 
initiated by the wets as a backfire, 
would change the basis of the present 
local-option law, under which 44 out of 
the 83 counties of the state are dry, 
from county to township. 

Perhaps the liveliest campaign of all 
is on in the dry state of Washington, 
where two initiative measures, one 
known as the hotel-men's bill, the other 
as the brewers' bill, are up. The first 
provides that any hotel with more than 
fifty rooms may get liquor in any quan- 
tities and supply it to its guests, and to 
their guests, with meals or in their 
rooms. The second bill allows the man- 
ufacture of beer and the conduct of a 
mail-order business and house-to-house 
deliver}'. Under it Washington would 
be a state without a saloon, yet without 
a legally dry spot from end to end. 

In Alabama widespread efforts are be- 
ing made to secure the adoption of a 
constitutional amendment permitting 
counties to levy upon themselves an ad- 
ditional tax for school purposes. The 
city of Birmingham, in particular, is in 
grievous need of larger school funds, not 
only to supplement present inadequate 
amounts but to make possible the real en- 
forcement of the state compulsory edu- 
cation law. Another amendment has for 
its purpose the establishment of bien- 
nial sessions of the legislature in place 
of the present quadrennial sessions. 

Arizona voters, besides an amendment 
dratted to restore the state prohibition 
law to the intent of its drafters, now 
partially defeated by judicial decisions, 
will act on an elaborate workmen's com- 
pensation measure. It is modeled on the 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



129 



Montana law, establishing an industrial 
accident board and a state insurance 
fund, but the payments proposed are 
about 10 per cent higher. Initiative 
measures propose to abolish capital pun- 
ishment, substituting life imprisonment ; 
to add to the grounds on which divorces 
may be granted, and to establish a state 
department of labor in charge of a com- 
missioner at $3,000 a year, to be elected 
for a two-year term. 

Arkansas must vote on an amendment 
which proposes to substitute county op- 
tion for the present statewide prohibi- 
tion. Should it pass, it is expected to 
lead to the legal reopening of saloons 
in the cities. Another local-option 
amendment would permit counties to 
increase their present tax rate of five 
mills to any amount up to twelve mills, 
the increase to be used only for schools. 
The success of the measure would, it 
is said, greatly improve the schools, es- 
pecially in country districts where the 
school year is short, in some cases being 
only two or three months out of the 
twelve. A third amendment is designed 
to stiffen a weak spot in the initiative 
and referendum — the emergency clause 
— through which the state child-labor 
law was all but lost last year. 

In California, whose liquor proposals 
have been mentioned above, a drastic 
single-tax amendment will come up by 
initiative. The measure provides for a 
complete revolution in taxation in less 
than two months, as, if adopted, it will 
become operative January 1. Its inten- 
tion is said to be the breaking up of the 
big land holdings, but among those op- 
posing it are representatives of some 
small land-holders who believe that the 
sudden shifting of the burden of taxa- 
tion would lead to confiscation of prop- 
erty, especially of those small parcels of 
land which many Californians have 
made practically their savings banks. 

ALL Illinois will vote on a constitu- 
tional amendment authorizing the 
legislature to equalize taxes, now said to 
be scandalously unjust under a law nearly 
a century old. In Chicago a referendum 
consolidating the many city park boards 
is being opposed by friends of the meas- 
ure on the ground that the city admin- 
istration is pushing for a decision at the 
national instead of the city election in 
order that it may add thousands of ap- 
pointments to Mayor Thompson's pat- 
ronage. 

The City Council is submitting a 
bond issue of $2,450,000 for the pur- 
chase and development of bathing 
beaches and pools, playgrounds, indoor 
gymnasiums, assembly halls, reading- 
rooms and small parks. The passage of 
the issue, which is widely hoped for, 
recognizes the needs of the great groups 
which surged to the shores of Lake 
Michigan all through the hot summer 
just past, and even fought for a place 



in the line of bathers. And it makes 
definite the long struggle of Chicago 
civic agencies and the Chicago Plan 
Commission to reclaim the lake front for 
the healthful and recreative use of the 
people. 

Louisiana voters must pass on nine- 
teen proposed amendments to the state 
constitution, the most important, per- 
haps, being the one permitting women 
to serve on educational and charitable 
boards, submitted for the third time. 
Now a woman may be appointed only 
to the office of state factory inspector, 
an exception secured through a special 
vote at the time, several years ago, when 
Jean M. Gordon offered her services to 
the city of New Orleans as factory in- 
spector. The entire state had to vote 
on the matter, at a cost of $3,000, before 
Miss Gordon's offer could be accepted. 
In the vote of New Orleans property 
owners on the measure authorizing a 
refunding of the municipal debt depends 
a bond issue of $9,000,000, and on that, 
in turn, hangs the continuing of the city 
school system on its present basis. 

IN Maryland there is a lively educa- 
tional campaign on to secure the 
adoption of an amendment, approved by 
both political parties, for the creation of 
a state budget system. Increased assess- 
ments and high tax rates have failed to 
check the state's mounting deficit, due 
to appropriations made with little regard 
to sources of income. Finally, two years 
ago, the whole thing "blew up," as a 
writer in the Baltimore Sun puts it, and 
$2,000,000 worth of bonds had to be 
issued to pay current expenses, a part 
of them being the generous subsidies to 
state-aided institutions for which Mary- 
land is widely known. 

The proposed budget system was 
drawn by the so-called Goodnow Com- 
mission, appointed for the purpose, and 
has been widely approved by budget ex- 
perts. 

In Massachusetts fourteen cities and 
towns will have to decide local questions, 
such as charter revision, preferential 
voting in municipal elections and pen- 
sioning certain classes of officials. In 
three of these cities simplified charters 
are proposed. In Lynn there is the 
question of establishing a public indus- 
trial shoemaking school to supply a need 
which several private schools are now 
attempting to meet in an unsatisfactory 
way. 

The initiative and referendum will be 
placed in issue in thirty-seven of the 224 
districts of the state. This question, 
whether the representative shall be in- 
structed to support the initiative and ref- 
erendum, is placed on the ballot under 
the provisions of the limited initiative 
law of 1913, which provides for the 
initiation of questions which the secre- 
tary of the commonwealth shall deter- 
mine to be questions of public policy. 



Under this limited initiative, also, the 
question of non-contributory old-age 
pensions will be submitted to the voters 
of four districts: "Shall the representa- 
tive from this district be instructed to 
advocate legislation for non-contributory 
old-age pensions?" 

Four general referendums will be 
submitted to the voters of all cities and 
towns. One is the acceptance of an act 
to make January 1 a legal holiday. An- 
other is the question of holding a con- 
stitutional convention. Another is the 
acceptance of an act in regard to party 
enrollment at primary elections. 

The fourth general referendum is 
upon an act to authorize cities to main- 
tain schools of agriculture and horticul- 
ture. Each city in the state may choose 
whether or not it will adopt the pro- 
posal put forward by the Massachusetts 
Homestead Commission as a back-to-the- 
land measure. This provides for the 
teaching of families in horticulture and 
agriculture and the temporary housing 
of those attending the school who have 
not access to the land. In its campaign 
for the measure, the Homestead Com- 
mission has put forward the plan to 
relieve unemployment and congestion of 
population in the cities, to check the flow 
of people from country to city against 
which there is no counterbalancing 
stream of people returning to the land. 
It is cheap and easy to move to the city 
and get work; it is difficult and expen- 
sive for a family to establish itself out- 
side of the city. 

Missouri voters will be called to vote 
upon prohibition, state pensions for the 
blind and the establishment of the so- 
called "farmers' land bank," a form of 
rural credits. All three are constitu- 
tional amendments. Prohibition and the 
land-bank bill were submitted by initia- 
tive petition ; the amendment for pen- 
sions for the blind by the legislature. 

This is the first time since the initia- 
tive and referendum was adopted, in 
1908, that it has been so little used. 
This is due, perhaps, largely to the fact 
that there is a strong movement on in 
Missouri at the present time for com- 
plete constitutional revision, and advo- 
cates of changes are putting all their 
energy into getting the legislature to 
submit the question of calling a consti- 
tutional convention. The farmers' land 
bank is a political issue, being the chief 
plank in the platform of the Democratic 
candidate for governor. Both political 
parties have pledged themselves to the 
amendment for the blind, as well as to 
the calling of the constitutional conven- 
tion. 

IN St. Louis the voters will be called 
upon to vote on a sweeping amend- 
ment to the city charter, providing for 
an entirely new system of nominating 
and electing city officers. With the usual 
ballot reform, cutting party labels off 



130 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1 9 1 6 



the ballots and nominating only by peti- 
tion, go proposals to elect the legislative 
body by proportional representation, so 
that every big group in the city, instead 
of one political party, will be repre- 
sented in the board of aldermen ; and 
also to elect the three administrative 
officers of the city by a majority instead 
of a minority choice, through preferen- 
tial voting. 

New Yorkers are asked to authorize 
a bond issue of $10,000,000 for Bear 
Mountain Park, a notable playground 
near city-dwellers, which combines the 
unusual features of primeval forest and 
the Palisades of the Hudson River. Pri- 
vate gifts of $2,500,000 depend upon 
the appropriation, which, moreover, will 
obligate the state of New Jersey to co- 
operate in the project. Three counties, 
Rensselaer, Warren and Livingston, are 
asked to vote the money for county tu- 
berculosis sanatoria. 

In North Dakota, while no specific 
social measures are before the people, in- 
tense interest attaches to the election as 
marking what is described as nothing 
less than an industrial revolution. The 
farmers of the state have organized po- 
litically, have captured the organization 
of the Republican party, and it is said 
they will undoubtedly elect their entire 
state ticket. 

In Oregon the secretary of state's list 
of proposed amendments and measures 
is largely taken up with the text and 
arguments over a single-tax bill. This 
has been defeated several times in differ- 
ent forms, and comes up this year by 
initiative under the name of "full rental 
value land tax and homemakers' loan 
fund amendment." There is consider- 
able interest in the proposal to repeal 
a provision of the constitution which pro- 
vides that "no Negro, Chinaman or mu- 
latto shall have the right of suffrage." 
The article applies now only to the 
native-born, and is said to be a dead 
letter. Another initiative petition 
would prohibit compulsory vaccination. 
Still another repeals an unenforced Sun- 
day closing law for stores and other 
business places. 

An interesting initiative is that pro- 
posing a state rural-credits act, to be 
based on a state bond issue of not more 
than 2 per cent of the total assessed 
valuation of all property in the state. 
It resembles the recent federal act. The 
farmers' organizations, which support 
the measure, point out the interest rate 
on farm mortgages in Oregon is 8.25 
per cent, which, with renewal costs and 
commissions, brings the rural interest 
rate up to a little less than 9.25 per 
cent. The rate proposed under the bill 
is 5 per cent. 

In Washington, state issues have a 
social significance which to some minds 
quite dwarfs the national election. As 
one social worker puts it, the initiative, 
referendum and recall, the prohibition 



laws, the municipal utilities, the port 
commission and even the right of the 
average citizen to vote are all at stake 
in two initiatives, seven referendums 
and one constitutional amendment. The 
prohibition measures have been men- 
tioned above. 

The franchise measure proposes to 
limit all voting on matters pertaining 
to finance and allied subjects to persons 
whose names are on the tax roll. This, 
it is believed, would disfranchise 75 per 
cent of the women and half of the men 
when it comes to voting on municipal 
utilities and school bonds. The port 
commission bill proposes to add to the 
three members now elected on a non- 
partisan ticket four county and city offi- 
cials elected on party tickets for other 
jobs, a measure which is said to have 
for its prime object the partisan con- 
trol of the port and its patronage. 

The anti-picketing bill is so sweeping 
that it is believed its enactment would 
make it unlawful to carry a newspaper 
in which is printed a statement of the 
cause of any strike. The budget bill is 
said to be not a bill which would pro- 
hibit each city department from increas- 
ing its prearranged budget — that would 
still be allowed in emergency — but a 
measure which would require that such 
money be borrowed from the banks and 
not temporarily transferred from other 
city funds; a bill, in other words, which 
would keep city moneys on deposit in 
the banks at 2 per cent, while the city 
borrowed from the same banks at 6 per 
cent. 

Certain interests in the state are said 
to be working for the enactment of these 
and other measures on the ground that 
Washington has been injured by "freak 
laws" and that this year's proposals are 
in line with a general tendency in the 
last legislature to return to a different 
sort of law-making. The charges made 
on the other side are that the last legis- 
lature, although thoroughly reactionary, 
lacked the courage to enact the program 
which it really desired, and put the mat- 
ter up to the people in a series of cun- 
ningly devised initiative measures. 

MR. STRONG'S REPORT ON 
STATE CHARITIES 

ON Friday of last week Governor 
Whitman made public the report 
of Charles H. Strong, his special com- 
missioner appointed a year ago to ex- 
amine into the management and affairs 
of the New York State Board of Chari- 
ties, of several related boards and com- 
missions, and also into the charges 
brought by the city Department of 
Public Charities against the inspections 
by the state board of private institutions 
receiving money from New York city. 
Mr. Strong upholds the charges of 
the city and recommends a thorough re- 
organization of the State Board of 
Charities, as well as the abolition of 



several boards and commissions. A crit- 
ical estimate of his conclusions will ap- 
pear later in the Survey. Only a sum- 
mary of his major findings will be given 
here. 

The city proved its case, Mr. Strong 
finds, "out of the pages of the state 
board's own inspection reports." Pri- 
vate institutions receiving money from 
New York city and subject to the in- 
spection of the state board care for more 
than 25,000 dependent children. ' The 
charge that many of these institutions 
were "unfit for human habitation" Mr. 
Strong declares untrue. This was made 
in the testimony before him of John A. 
Kingsbury, city commissioner of public 
charities. On the other hand, the charge 
that conditions in many of these insti- 
tutions bearing the certificate of approval 
of the state board were "such as to be 
little less than public scandal and dis- 
grace," Mr. Strong finds to be true. 
This was made in Mr. Kingsbury's re- 
port to Mayor Mitchel, which was for- 
warded to the governor and formed the 
basis for including this phase of the in- 
quiry in Mr. Strong's commission. 
Seven, at least, of the twenty-four insti- 
tutions on the city's controverted list 
must be thus described, says Mr. Strong. 

For permitting such conditions to 
grow up and to continue Mr. Strong 
finds the state board responsible. He 
refers with appreciation to the "devoted, 
unselfish and uncompensated service of 
many of its members over long periods 
of years," and declares that he has not 
regarded his own commission as "an en- 
gagement to enter into a man-hunt" for 
the removal of any individual or board. 
He finds, however, that "at the time of 
appointment only a minor fraction of the 
state board had special qualifications for 
the post" and that "very few of the 
members possess what would seem to be 
reasonable familiarity with the state 
charities law, even in respect of the 
powers and duties of the board itself." 

He finds, furthermore, many illus- 
trations in the board's conduct of a 
"policy of aloofness," a "failure to drive 
hard enough." Sufficient power to en- 
force its own rules and standards with 
respect to private institutions exists, he 
believes, in the board's power to with- 
hold its certificate of compliance, to is- 
sue a certificate of non-compliance, and 
to apply for a court order directing an 
institution to correct specified abuses in 
its care of inmates. Yet he finds that 
the board has all too infrequently with- 
held the first certificate, only once in 
twenty years issued the second certifi- 
cate, and never applied for a court order. 
Its aversion to publicity as a means of 
enforcing its recommendations is an- 
other weakness in its policy, he declares. 
"Publicity," he says, "in the relation be- 
tween a state department and a private 
institution holding any religious faith is 
essential." 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



131 



"The State Board of Charities lacks 
power," he declares; "it lacks vision; it 
lacks drive. It does not know its real 
job. It is not doing its real job. It is 
ailing and it shows no sign that it knows 
what is the matter with it." 

To the animosities that grew out of 
the city's investigation of private insti- 
tutions and out of his own inquiry, Mr. 
Strong refers only incidentally. "I do 
desire to say," he declares, "that some 
widespread public animosities might have 
been avoided if the so-called 'Farrell- 
Potter pamphlets,' on the one hand, and 
the so-called 'Moree anonymous pam- 
phlets,' on the other, had never been is- 
sued. All these were deplorable from 
every point of view." 

The city's inspection, he finds, "gal- 
vanized the institutions into doing some 
things recommended and urged by the 
state board for years." "The objects 
of the city's investigation have been va- 
riously stated — to destroy the institu- 
tions; to convert the private institutions 
into public institutions; to place out all 
the children in private families; to secu- 
larize the institutions; to take God out 
of the hearts of the children; to found 
charity upon morals and not upon re- 
ligion; to attack particularly the institu- 
tions of one religious faith ; to destroy 
the State Board of Charities. There is 
no evidence before me that would re- 
motely justify any such conclusion." 

In the section dealing with infant 
mortality in private foundling asylums, 
Mr. Strong declares that the city De- 
partment of Public Charities "has a 
great duty to perform in this field." 
Complete utilization of the resources of 
the city, he says, would lead to a reduc- 
tion in the number of commitments of 
children, and much can be done, he be- 
lieves, that is not being done to keep 
mothers and infants together. 

In urging his recommendations for 
a reorganization of the state supervisory 
system, Mr. Strong makes it clear that 
the State Board of Charities is guaran- 
teed by the constitution and that he 
would not abolish it if he could. His 
desire is "to convert a weak board into 
a strong board, a board with inadequate 
power into a board with real power." 
"I do not mean," he says, "a board of 
control such as exists in many states, 
and usually not with advantage, but a 
strong, authoritative advisory and su- 
pervisory board, with sufficient adminis- 
trative power to carry it through, and 
at the same time to cut out the vicious 
circle of interference by other adminis- 
trators." Local institutional boards of 
managers must remain, he says, and must 
continue to exercise the "primary and 
fundamental administrative control." 

The state board that he recommends 
would comprise, instead of twelve un- 
paid members appointed by the gover- 
nor from districts, nine members ap- 
pointed from the state at large, of whom 



three would be paid and six not paid. 
At least one member would be a woman. 
Individual members, instead of serving 
eight years, would serve during good 
behavior and be removable by the gov- 
ernor for cause. At present the law spec- 
ifies no qualifications for membership 
on the board ; Mr. Strong would have 
special qualifications described in the 
law, "to the end that all the functional 
activities of the board should be dis- 
charged by persons with special training 
therefor." 

Many of the new administrative and 
executive functions that he recommends 
should, he says, "be imposed upon the 
president of the board in the belief that 
efficiency in matters administrative calls 
for a one-man service." 

Two new bureaus within the board 
are recommended; namely, a bureau for 
dependent children and a bureau for 
mental deficiency. The first of these 
would, among other things, develop new 
and reasonable standards of child care 
in the institutions, promote the placing 
out of certain classes of children in fam- 
ily homes, and stimulate an increase in 
financial support for the institutions, 
both from public and private sources. 
The second would address itself to the 
great problem of the care of the feeble- 
minded and might, when the constitu- 
tion is suitably amended, be superseded 
by an independent state department cov- 
ering this field. 

Other recommendations call for an 
express grant of power to the state 
board to adopt rules and regulations for 
the reception and retention of inmates in 
state charitable institutions, such exten- 
sion as there may be under the existing 
constitution of the visitational power of 
the board over private charitable institu- 
tions, and careful revision of the state 
charities law and the poor law. A state 
institution for defective delinquents is 
urged, as is also the care of adult fe- 
male delinquents in public institutions 
exclusively. 

The abolition of five offices and com- 
missions is recommended. These are the 
fiscal supervisor of state charities, the 
Salary Classification Commission, the 
Building Improvement Commission, the 
Commission on Sites, Grounds and 
Buildings, and the Board of Examiners 
of Feebleminded, Criminals and Other 
Defectives. 

SHALL STEEL-MAKERS WORK 
SEVEN DAYS? 

THE Lackawanna Steel Company, of 
Buffalo, has been for several months 
violating the New York state law pro- 
viding that each of its employes shall 
have one day of rest in seven. That 
was admitted by the counsel for the 
company and by the superintendent of 
the plant at the hearing in Buffalo, last 
Saturday, before the New York State 
Industrial Commission, on the com- 



pany's application for relief from the 
requirements of the law. Only second 
in interest was the fact, as developed at 
the hearing, that the company has not 
definitely formulated what sort of relief 
it wants. 

Nevertheless, the whole burden of the 
argument in the brief submitted by the 
company and in the argument of its 
counsel was for total exemption from 
the provisions of the law. The chief 
grounds given were the difficulty of com- 
petition with steel companies in other 
states which do not come under the New 
York law, the prevailing scarcity of la- 
bor and the poor financial condition of 
the company. 

It was contended that none of the 
leading steel companies of the United 
States, not even the United States Steel 
Corporation, now observes the principle 
of one day of rest in seven. Mr. Bab- 
cock, attorney for the Lackawanna com- 
pany, stated that, with one or two ex- 
ceptions, none of the competitors of the 
Lackawanna Steel Company are giving 
their men one day of rest in seven. He 
argued that on account of the scarcity 
of labor the men have become very in- 
dependent and do not take the day of 
rest assigned to them, but take a day 
off whenever they feel like it. It was 
urged, further, that on account of great 
present activity in the steel business it 
is impossible to get men enough to pro- 
vide the day of rest for all. The finan- 
cial condition of the company was dis- 
cussed in order to show that up to Sep- 
tember only one dividend, which 
amounted to 1 per cent on the common 
stock, had been paid within the last 
ten years. It was stated that the men 
themselves prefer to work the seventh 
day in order to make seven days' pay 
every week. 

In opposition to the application there 
appeared representatives of the Buffalo 
Central Labor Council, social workers 
and ministers' associations of Buffalo and 
of the state, the state and city Consu- 
mers' Leagues, and the American Asso- 
ciation for Labor Legislation. 

In a brief submitted by the last, it 
was pointed out that the steel com- 
pany's arguments were inconsistent, in 
that they had shown no burden due to 
competition. The steel company's brief 
declared, on the contrary, that its prac- 
tice and that of its competitors are sub- 
stantially the same; thereby undermin- 
ing its own arguments of discriminatory 
conditions. At the same time the com- 
pany, in declaring that the men pre- 
ferred to work seven days, proved that 
no expense whatever is attached to grant- 
ing one day of rest in seven — the men 
and not the company pay the bill. 

In the third place, it was pointed out 
that the company's weakened financial 
condition in the past was due to early 
mismanagement, and ought not to be 
charged against the employes. Further- 



132 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



Longer Hours 

— for Watches! 

A watch has been invented that tells time twenty- 
four hours a day — tells time at night — in the dark — 
as well as in the noonday sunshine. 

And the secret of it is — radium. 

On the hands and figures of this watch is a new 
substance called "RADIOLITE," whose light-giving 
property comes from radium in minute quantities. It 
shines brightly in the dark, and retains 
its brilliancy for six to eight years. 

Genuine "RADIOLITE' \ is found only 
on Ingersoll "RADIOLITE" watches. 

cmeM,OM Qefovnd 

There are four models of Ingersoll "RADIOLITES" — $2.00 to 
$4.00. For the pocket, for the wrist, and to stand on the desk or 
dresser. The one here shown is the "RADIOLITE" Strap Watch. 

And I still carry the famous Triumph, $1.25, the Midget, for 
women, $2.50, and the Eclipse, for men, $2.00. Also the Ingersoll 
Waterbury and the Ingersoll Reliance, the handsomest watches 
ever sold for $3.00, and the first jeweled ones to sell for anything 
like that price. 




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more, it was shown that, although only 
1 per cent had been paid prior to Sep- 
tember 1, the earnings for the first six 
months of 1916 amounted to over 15 
per cent, and a 6 per cent dividend was 
declared in September. It is currently 
stated in financial circles that the com- 
pany now, in the second six months of 
the year, is earning at the rate of more 
than 30 per cent on its stock. 

It was pointed out, further, that the 
company has never applied to the Public 
Employment office in Buffalo for aid in 
securing labor, and that its application 
is made just at a time when workmen 
engaged in seasonal occupations, which 
close down at the beginning of cold 
weather, will very soon make their pres- 
ence felt in the cities, especially in Buf- 
falo, where several thousand men will 
be released about December 1 by the 
closing of lake navigation. 

Clear-cut and vigorous was the oppo- 
sition from the Buffalo citizens. Adel- 
bert Moot, a prominent attorney and 
formerly president of the New York 
Bar Association, told the commission 
that it had no power to grant such re- 
lief as the company evidently desires. 
The law gives the commission power to 
make such variations as will not violate 
the spirit of the law in the case of "prac- 
tical difficulties" or "unnecessary hard- 
ships." Mr. Moot said that the com- 
pany's brief failed to give any adequate 
statement of the existence of either prac- 
tical difficulties or unnecessary hardships. 
The matters complained of, he said, were 
matters with which the legislature was 
cognizant when it passed the law, and 
it could not have intended that the com- 
mission should grant a variation upon 
such grounds. He said that either the 
company has been obeying the law in 
the past, and thus given proof that no 
serious obstacle stands in the way, or 
it appears before the commission as a 
violator of the law. 

William E. McLennan, of Welcome 
Hall, Buffalo, said that it is of no mo- 
ment in this case whether the company 
has made 10 per cent, 2 per cent or 
nothing. Doubtless it went into busi- 
ness in order to make money, but it has 
no business to do so at the expense of 
other people. "It is a species of wage- 
slavery," said Mr. McLennan, "to work 
men eighty-four hours a week.' Men are 
more important than steel. It is the 
business of society to make men healthy 
and happy; no man can be either and 
work twelve hours a day — seven days 

. 

The Rev. Charles Stelzle, represent- 
ing the Federal Council of Churches of 
Christ in America, with a million and 
a half members in New York, told of 
having spent a day in Lackawanna last 
week in talking with business men, 
householders and many steel workers. 
The testimony of workingmen was that, 
although there has been no modifica- 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER 4, 1916 



133 



tion in the law, the hands in every de- 
partment are required to work seven 
days a week. As a machinist of eight 
years' practical experience and as a min- 
ister dealing with labor men and labor 
problems for a number of years, Mr. 
Stelzle denounced the seven-day week. 

Perhaps the most striking testimony 
of all was that of the Rev. James J. 
Coale, pastor of the Presbyterian Church 
of Lackawanna — the only English-speak- 
ing clergyman in the city. Mr. Coale 
stated that he was reluctant to appear 
against the officials of the company, be- 
cause "in spite of what has just been 
said, and what they are asking for, they 
have often lent their influence in the 
direction of better conditions." He said 
that these officials were asking for some- 
thing they did not believe in, because 
they had frequently told him of their 
desire to see not only a six-day week, 
but an eight-hour day for the steel 
workers. He said that he could only 
conclude that they were making their 
present application as representatives of 
the stockholders, and felt obliged by 
reason of their position to do it. 

Mr. Coale said that he did not know 
anything about steel-making, but that 
he did know something about men, 
women and children — he lived among 
them, worked with them, they are mem- 
bers of his parish, and he knew the so- 
cial significance of the seven-day week, 
and that the consequences are unquali- 
fiedly evil. The effect of such continu- 
ous labor can only be degrading. He 
stated that with a population of 16,000, 
Lackawanna has anywhere from 138 to 
162 saloons. Nineteen of them stand 
opposite the gate where the men come 
from the mill. After weeks of over- 
strain without a day of rest, it is a nat- 
ural tendency, he said, for men to get 
beastly drunk, and sometimes they go 
straight from the pay-window to the 
saloon and spend their entire wages be- 
fore leaving. 

Mr. Coale ridiculed the statement of 
the company regarding the desire of the 
men to work seven days a week . He 
showed that a great many men are fe- 
verishly working and hoarding their 
money in order that they may go back 
to Europe when the war is over and 
buy little farms or take charge of the 
farms on which they were born and live 
in comfort for the rest of their lives. 
"These men will go back," said Mr. 
Coale, "and spread abroad the tale of 
their twelve-hour day and their seven- 
day week in America. I am enough of 
a patriot to rebel against that being the 
reputation that America is to build for 
herself among the people of Europe." 

The hearing ended with a dispassion- 
ate criticism of the steel company's brief 
by H. E. Hoagland, statistician to the 
commission. After pointing out several 
errors in statistical tables, Mr. Hoagland 
told the attorney for the company that 



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his figures showing "average" time taken 
off by the men as evidence that they 
take off one day in seven were worth- 
less. He pointed out that if some of 
the men lost more than one day in a 
week, other men could work the full 
seven days and still the average would 
indicate a day of rest for all. 

THE PLANS FOR A PEACE 
LEAGUE 

CONSERVATIVE but none the 
less hopeful evidence that nations 
are seeking out a substitute for war is 
found in the gradual acceptance of the 
idea of a league to enforce peace [see 
the Survey, November 20, 1915] by 
prominent men in England and the 
United States. 

Thus Lord Grey, British secretary 
for foreign affairs, in a speech be- 
fore the Foreign Press Association on 
October 23, held that the best thing 
neutrals can do for civilization at the 
present time is to work up sentiment 
for a mutual agreement to prevent wars 
in the future. He added that such a 
league must be prepared to uphold its 
decisions by force, if necessary, when a 
critical time came. 

During the present presidential cam- 
paign both Mr. Wilson and Mr. Hughes 
have stated that America can no longer 
maintain her old policy of isolation. 
Both have described in clear and strong 
terms the interest the American people 
have in the prevention of war and the 
duty which lies upon them, as a peace- 
loving nation, to do their utmost for 
securing the safety of the world by a 
permanent combination for the re- 
straint of aggression and the preserva- 
tion of a general peace. 

Both Lord Grey and Viscount Bryce, 
who comments on Lord Grey's speech in 
a letter to the London Times, welcome 
the fact that distinguished statesmen in 
America are considering how a league 
of peace should be formed and what its 
functions should be. 

"If the risks of war," declared Vis- 
count Bryce, "and the preparations for 
war are to be in Europe for the next 
thirty years what they have been for the 
last thirty — dark, indeed, is the pros- 
pect for mankind. In the establishment 
of such a peace league as Lord Grey 
agrees with Mr. Wilson and Mr. 
Hughes in desiring, lies the best hope 
that some permanent good for the fu- 
ture may come out of the suffering and 
horrors of the present." 

On the other hand, Louis P. Loch- 
ner, American delegate to the Ford Neu- 
tral Conference who has been in the 
United States on a brief business trip, 
finds a possible danger in the plan of a 
league to enforce peace. Mr. I.ochner 
believes that European diplomats refer 
to such a league when what they really 
contemplate is an alliance from which 
their present enemies are c eluded. 



/ 

Volume XXXVII, No. 6 



November 11, 1916 








semvey* 



S. A. 



This issue consists of 56 pages. 
Regular section 24 pages: Annual report section 32 pages 



U. S. A. 





SPREAD OF SURVEY ASSOCIATED 

AS A MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATION 

1,000 COOPERATING SUBSCRIBERS 

IN FORTY -TWO STATES 

Perhaps you will recall that last year we began our 
•*- annual report with a paragraph about Job and his 
ash heap — as the shrine of too many cooperative enter- 
prises. There was a reason. IVe had had tribulations 
and were in for more — unpremeditated and bigger than 
ever in the months ahead. 

But this year! — we should like to begin straight off with 
a private chant to the prophet in his deliverance, if you 
will; or better, to Father Abraham. For Survey Associ- 
ates are coming into it a thousand strong! 

[See Annual Report Section.] 



^R€ SQTVKW 



CONTENTS for NOVEMBER 11, 1916 

Volume XXXVII, No. 6 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

Health and Labor - alice Hamilton, m.d. 135 

"Publicans and Sinners" edith s. reider 138 

Garment Town: A City Within a City - 140 

The Houses of Providence ------- john ihlder 143 

THE COMMON WELFARE 

"Punch in the Presence of the Passengare" 145 

The Future of St. Louis Schools at Stake 145 

Miners' Cooperative Stores in Illinois 145 

Labor Again Testing the Clayton Act 146 

The Way of a Girl at $5 a Day 146 

A Preacher's Vacation in a Steel Mill - 146 

Some Children Still in the Poorhouse - 147 

Putting a Quietus Upon "C Parties" 147 

A Cooperative Census of Sickness - - - - - - - - -147 

A Neighborhood Gift from Settlement Boys 148 

The Lighthouse, a Poem anne p. l. field 148 

CONVENTIONS 

Joint Peace Effort 149 

Seven in One - - - - - - -- - - - - -149 

Abnormal and Normal 150 

To Abolish Jails 150 

When Cities Grow - - - - -151 

For the Oppressed - - - -151 

BOOK REVIEWS ----- 152 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., Publishers 

ROBERT W. de FOREST, President 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Secretary FRANK TUCKER, Treasurer 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICE 

112 East 19 street, New York 2559 Michigan ave., Chicago 

PRICE 

Single copies of this issue, 10 cents. Cooperating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular subscriptions 
weekly edition $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.50 extra. Canadian 75 cents. Regular subscription once- 
a-month edition $2 a year. Foreign postage 60 cents extra. Canadian 35 cents. Changes of address 
should be mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing practice, when payment 
is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. Copyright, 1916, by Survey Associates, Inc. 
Entered as second-class matter March 25, 1909, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the act 
of March 3, 1879. 



HEALTH 

/^\NE germ after another has been tracked to his lair by the laboratory 
^-^ men. One health campaign after another has aroused popular 
understanding of the sources and spread of disease. The two in com- 
bination, guided by the men in the youngest of professions — doctors of 
public health — are conspiring to produce The New Public Health. An 
important series of articles on it by Alice Hamilton. M.D., and Gertrude 
Seymour, begins in 

The Survey Next Wee\ 



The GIST of IT 

DOCTORS in the United States are not 
holding back from the health insurance 
movement as they did in England. Indeed, 
they are helping measurably toward the day 
when agitation shall give way to legislation. 
But the discussions at the national public 
health conference brought out some lively 
differences among physicians, insurance men 
and laymen who are interested in labor leg- 
islation. Page 135. 

THE author of "Publicans and Sinners" 
chides the pride of jobs among some 
social workers and makes confession of her 
experience as government investigator, 
charity visitor and welfare secretary for a 
large corporation. Page 138. 
1W[R. PORTER would gather the work- 
•L'-l shops, homes, stores, schools, recrea- 
tion places, union and employers' headquar- 
ters of the garment workers all in one part 
of New York city. And similarly with the 
millinery, fur and other trades — industrial 
units making up the industrial city of this 
machinery century as the old geographical 
units of Chelsea, Harlem, Greenwich and 
New York made up the leisurely town of 
yesteryear. Page 140. 

AND overcrowding, the curse of mod- 
-*— ' ern cities, may be caught at its begin- 
ning in Providence, if this old American 
city acts on the findings of its housing sur- 
vey. Page 143. 

ST. LOUIS must vote a big bond issue 
this week or risk all the newer develop- 
ments of its schools. Page 145. 
COME light on nickel, nickel, who's got 
^ the nickel, when a strike-breaking agency 
mans the trolleys. Page 145. 

THE five-dollar minimum wage has quite 
changed the relative importance of pay- 
day and wedding-day for Henry Ford's 
stenographers. Page 146. 

THE principle involved in the Danbury 
hatters' case is being tried out on a 
million-dollar scale in a suit against the 
United Mine Workers. Page 146. 

LOOKING into the use of drugs and the 
effectiveness of drug legislation, a com- 
mittee of Philadelphians has discovered 
some astonishing social habits among vic- 
tims. Page 147. 

U* NTIRE staffs of the social agencies of 
-" Milwaukee joined in making a day's 
sickness census under the auspices of the 
City Club. Page 147. 

BOYS of an East Side neighborhood in 
New York have financed a new settle- 
ment house, thus passing on to a younger 
generation the settlement leadership which 
came to them at Madison House. Page 148. 

CONVENTIONS galore. All of the lead- 
ing peace societies got together to begin 
drafting an American peace plan. The sub- 
merged nations of Europe gathered to put 
forward their common plea. California city 
planners reported on the working out of 
zoning systems. Illinois charity workers are 
writing an epitaph for their county jails. 
Public health workers discussed long hours, 
alcohol and other factors in efficiency. Page 
149. 

SHELF of books in the field of civic 
principles and practice. Page 152. 



A 



VOLUME XXXVII, No. 6 




r* 1 

NOVEMBER 11, 1916 



Health and Labor 

Fatigue, Efficiency and Insurance Discussed by the American 

Public Health Association 

By Alice Hamilton, M. D. 



TWO subjects that always claim the interest of Survey 
readers were considered from many angles at the 
convention of the American Public Health Associa- 
tion just closed in Cincinnati. These were the physi- 
ological basis for the present move for a shorter work-day, and 
the effect of modern efficiency methods in industrial life on the 
health of the workers. 

The speakers on the program representing the scientific 
point of view were C-E. A. Winslow, now of Yale, and F. S. 
Lee, of Columbia. Representing the practical men were 
John P. Frey, of the International Molders' Union, and Rich- 
ard A. Feiss, owner of the Clothcraft Shops in Cleveland. 

The scientists had their innings first. Dr. Winslow out- 
lined concisely the conclusions of the Commission on Ventila- 
tion whose work is now known all over the scientific world. 
Fatigue, he said, was largely dependent on certain conditions 
of the air and, therefore, efficiency was dependent on air con- 
ditions. He quoted the studies of Prof. Ellsworth S. Hunt- 
ington, of Yale, which have shown that the high points in the 
curve of output, both among piece-workers and students, 
come during spring and fall, for excessive heat and cold are 
both inhibiting to effort. A temperature of about 60° to 65° 
F. seems to be best. 

In examining the factors which make air bad, Dr. Winslow 
dismissed the old superstitions about "lack of oxygen," "ac- 
cumulation of carbon dioxide," "pollution by animal emana- 
tions," and laid the blame upon heat, humidity and stagnation. 

The experiments of the commission had shown that actual 
physical changes of an abnormal character occurred when the 
temperature rose from 68° to 86° F. The effect oil efficiency 
showed itself not in a diminished power but in a loss of desire 
to perform work, and if the inducement to overcome this dis- 
inclination were strong enough^as in the case of an exciting 
game or a piece of absorbing work — the will could bring about 
sufficient concentration. But under the slighter inducement, 
such as is furnished by ordinary school or factory work, the 
falling off in production at the higher temperature was 



marked. Fully 37 per cent more work was done at 68° F. 
than at 86° F. 

Dr. Lee chose for the title of his paper, Is the Eight-hour 
Day Rational? This, he said, was not really an economic or 
a political problem, but one of physiology, and all arguments 
based on social or other grounds were of slight importance 
compared to this; for if the physiological effects of any sort 
of work are bad, it should be changed on that ground alone. 
Fatigue is really a condition in which the stored-up substances 
of the body have been exhausted and in their place are waste 
products. If after this point has been reached, work continues 
to be performed, it is done only at the expense of an excessive 
nervous effort, with the result of chronic fatigue, physical and 
sometimes moral breakdown. 

Now if the work demanded of a man is beyond his physio- 
logical powers, in Dr. Lee's opinion, it should be shortened, 
for a man has a right to demand that his physiological equi- 
librium be preserved. But this equilibrium is difficult to de- 
termine. The feeling of fatigue is notoriously a poor guide, 
for it may come on prematurely or it may fail to appear as 
soon as it should. We all know the sudden feeling of utter 
exhaustion which may come over us at the completion of an 
absorbing piece of work. 

In industry, continued Dr. Lee, some occupations are 
fatiguing; others, much less so. How are we to determine 
that eight hours is the proper length for a working day? Cer- 
tainly we have as yet no scientific basis for it. Yet probably, 
as was decided by that very careful observer, Professor Abbe, 
of Jena, it is the best rule we can follow in our present state 
of knowledge. We must have far more observation on work- 
ers themselves, workers of both sexes, of different ages, and in 
different occupations, before we can pronounce on the question. 
Certainly the length of the working day should not be the same 
for all. It seems difficult but it is not impossible to regulate 
work according to the industry and even to the capacity of the 
individual. 

In the discussion, Dr. Hayhurst, who has had a wide ex- 

135 



136 



THE SURVEY FOR NOVEMBER i i , i o i 6 



perience in factor}' investigation, said he believed that in occu- 
pations involving much hazard, such as the very dusty trades, 
six hours should be the maximum. Dr. J. W. Schereschewsky, 
of the federal Public Health Service, had found that in the 
case of women, the eight-hour day was economically advisable. 
Piece work records showed that if the day were one of nine 
hours, one hour would be practically lost and if it were of ten 
hours, two would be. 

Mr. Richard O. Feiss, who is reputed to have a model fac- 
tory, described the welfare work carried on in it and spoke 
also of the introduction of an efficiency system, which he char- 
acterized as a conservation measure and, therefore, also a 
measure for conserving human effort. In his shop it had re- 
sulted in a great reduction of the labor turnover, so that what 
was once a department for hiring and firing was now one for 
hiring and keeping. 

Speed is not injurious if properly controlled, Mr. Feiss 
held. Scientific management and motion studies lead to the 
formation of habit with all its saving of fatigue, and results, 
too, in the saving of time — and time is life. Another great 
advantage is the elimination of the boss with his nagging, 
and the introduction of the functional foreman with his close, 
intimate cooperation. There is an increase under scientific 
management of health, happiness, good spirits. His labor 
turnover now is only 48 per cent and over one-third of his 
force has been with him for five years or more. 

John P. Frey was supposed to take up the question from 
the wage-earner's point of view, but throughout his short 
address there was no touch of a partisan bias. He discussed 
the actual application of efficiency in American industry with 
a detachment and impartiality worthy of a scientific assemblage 
and not by any means always attained in such an assemblage. 
He began by saying that wages determine life itself; on wages 
depend housing, food, recreation, every detail of daily living; 
and also the value which a man is to the community and even 
the length of time he will live. 

This last assertion Mr. Frey backed up by figures from the 
records of the cigarmakers' union and the typographical 
union, showing the lengthening of the expectation of life in 
these trades since wages have been increased and hours short- 
ened. He spoke of the need of knowing the point where 
work becomes excessive. In the case of steel, we can cal- 
culate the breaking-point, but much more important is the 
point, about half way to breaking, when the limit of elasticity 
is passed. This, not the breaking-point, is what we need 
to determine for man as well as for steel, and it is a very 
difficult matter. The experiments will have to be continued 
over long periods of time, for the effects of over-strain show 
themselves slowly. 

Scientific Efficiency in Theory and Practice 

The subject of scientific efficiency Mr. Frey refused to dis- 
cuss in theory. As well expect the practice of Christianity to 
conform to the theory expounded by its Founder as expect effi- 
ciency as practiced in our factories to be what the theoretical 
devotees of scientific management have claimed it would be. 
All reports from establishments using this system must be 
rigidly examined, for in actual practice some element will 
be found which does not appear on the surface. For instance, 
one such plant which reported remarkable results was found 
to have a system of physical examination for new employes 
so strict that 75 per cent of all applicants were rejected. This 
meant a picked force of athletes, who could not in any fair- 
ness be made a standard for an average group of men. 

In other cases the apparent rise of wages following the in- 



stitution of efficiency systems was found to be due to the sub- 
stitution of low-grade labor on machines for high-grade labor. 
The unskilled probably did make more wages than under the 
old system, but it would be unfair to call this a general rise 
in wages. 

The serious evils of modern industry, when the human 
element is considered, are the increasing intensity of speed 
and the increasing monotony. Both of these are fostered by 
the efficiency system. Though theoretically it may prevent 
fatigue, actually as now carried on, it increases fatigue. The 
"task and bonus" method is not the only one. In all sorts 
of ways psychological stimuli to increased and constantly in- 
creasing effort are devised by foremen who are themselves 
pushed on in the same way. The workers are divided into 
groups and raced against each other all day long, by foremen 
who also race with each other. The system advocated by 
Taylor has developed into an elaborately planned speeding-up 
system with all its consequent fatigue. 

Dr. Lee closed the meeting by confirming Mr. Frey's state- 
ment. Scientific management was supposed to be based on 
physiological principles, but it bade fair to be pathological in 
practice. 

The Doctors on Health Insurance 
Another i